Maps & Theories


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Maps & Theories

  1. 1. The role of map projections in perceptions of power and dominance
  2. 2. Mercator’s projection
  3. 3. Peters’ projection
  4. 4. What are the differences between these two maps? Look at the relative sizes of different parts of the world
  5. 5. <ul><li>The Mercator projection was developed in 1569 by Gerardus Mercator as a navigation tool. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mercator map was designed as an aid to navigators since straight lines on the Mercator projection represent lines of constant compass bearing -- perfect for &quot;true&quot; direction. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mercator map has always been a poor projection for a world map yet publishers found it useful for wall maps, atlas maps, and maps in books and newspapers published by non-geographers. </li></ul><ul><li>It became the standard map projection in the mental map of most westerners. </li></ul><ul><li>The argument against the Mercator projection discusses its &quot;advantage for colonial powers&quot; by making Europe look a lot larger than it actually is on the globe. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>As far back as 1902, a cartographer warned, &quot;People's ideas of geography are not founded on actual facts but on Mercator's map.&quot; (Monmonier, 21). </li></ul><ul><li>All maps are distorted because they have been compiled on a flat surface from a globe </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike Mercator’s projection Peters’ (produced in 1973) shows true areas of land masses even though their shapes are distorted. </li></ul><ul><li>This projection has been supported by develoment agencies and NGOs as being fairer because it doesn’t exaggerate the size of white-dominated regions, and therefore does not reflect a racist attitude towards Africa, Latin America and southern Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>See pages 190-191 </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>To what extent has Mercator’s projection led to the development gap? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Map of the World
  9. 10. The role of theory in an understanding of the global development gap
  10. 11. Core-periphery theory <ul><li>Core regions drive the world economy </li></ul><ul><li>These emerged as the first industrial regions </li></ul><ul><li>They include UK, other Western European nations, Japan and the USA </li></ul><ul><li>The periphery lacks the capital to promote its own economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Nations in the periphery are forced to depend on the core for the discovery, exploitation and eventual exportation of their own raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>These raw materials are processed and value is added in the core and such nations profit from it </li></ul><ul><li>Such profit is increased by the use of cheap labour in the mines or on the plantations in the periphery </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>The core’s ownership of the production lines in the periphery means that they hold the control and have the power to make decisions and in this way the development gap is maintained </li></ul><ul><li>Such a theory is based on dependency theory (see earlier work) </li></ul><ul><li>Core-periphery theory can operate at various scales at intra-national and international levels </li></ul><ul><li>Core-periphery theory is more optimistic than dependency theory because a variant of this theory suggests that success and wealth generated in the core will eventually flow as a spread effect to parts of the periphery (perhaps this is part reason for China’s and India’s recent progress and more obviously that of the NICs like Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan) </li></ul><ul><li>However, the Swedish economist Myrdal countered this view by suggesting that a backwash effect occurs whereby capital, resources and skilled labour leaves the periphery for the core. This is likely to make the core even richer and the periphery poorer and so may widen the development gap </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Where there are low levels of governmental intervention - Adam Smith’s ‘invisible hand’ </li></ul><ul><li>In capitalist free markets people are driven by self interest </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to some progressing and gaining wealth whilst others lag behind and stay poor – thus the development gap is maintained </li></ul><ul><li>Counter arguments to Smith’s ideas suggests that in poor parts of the world government involvement is required to reduce poverty - funding in health and education are such cases </li></ul><ul><li>A healthy, educated workforce is an economic asset and a first step out of poverty - see Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC)initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Note even where there is low government involvement people may have altruistic values and are not motivated by self interest – e.g. they may believe in taxing the wealthy to support the poor </li></ul>Theory of ‘economic man’
  13. 14. <ul><li>See pages 192 and 193 for further information on these theories </li></ul><ul><li>Take brief notes </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>UGANDA - see pages 217 - also available photocopy of table </li></ul><ul><li>TASK = From the example of Uganda ... </li></ul><ul><li>How likely is it that the MDGs will be met by 2015? Justify your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>BANGALORE, INDIA - see pages 198-201 </li></ul><ul><li>Independent student research </li></ul><ul><li>This will show how development gaps exist even within one city </li></ul>The intra-national development gap UGANDA
  15. 17. <ul><li>CAMBODIA </li></ul><ul><li>If Cambodia is lifted from poverty the development gap is narrowed. </li></ul><ul><li>Three aid developments are discussed: water; land reform; irrigation systems </li></ul><ul><li>These are bottom-up initiatives funded by the World Bank </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube clip (9.21mins) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>A COUNTRY’S PROGRESS THROUGH THE MDGs INITIATIVE