Design Cities Like You Give a Damn!


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Design Cities Like You Give a Damn!

  1. 1. The problem Rush hour traffic in Jakarta MEET DHAKA Only 1% of people have cars
  2. 2. What do we predict will happento Dhaka if nothing is done?
  3. 3. The problem 4 pm TRAFFIC JAM IN JAKARTA August 2011 Rush hour traffic in Jakarta
  4. 4. DESIGN CITIES LIKE YOU GIVE A DAMN An initiative of the
  5. 5. DESIGN CHALLENGEsubstantially improve the alternatives to driving in Dhakain 3 months or less An initiative of the
  6. 6. DESIGN YOUR DHAKAsexy sidewalks
  7. 7. DESIGN YOUR DHAKAcritical mass cycling
  8. 8. DESIGN YOUR DHAKAcar-free zones / days
  9. 9. DESIGN YOUR DHAKAmaking the invisible visible
  10. 10. DESIGN YOUR DHAKAthe best way to see Dhaka
  11. 11. How?
  12. 12. 3 INSIGHTS1 cities don’t innovate as much as they should and whenthey do, they don’t share2 we can seamlessly build effective glocal (global + local)teams and share knowledge across space and time3 we can now rapidly prototype physical, digital and mobiledesigns that address urban scale problems
  13. 13. a) the places that need 5 DESIGNED CITY the help the most at this time – and b) that LEVERAGES NEW IDEAS have a local team that TO REBRAND ITSELF AS 6 OTHER CITIES ADOPT we can work with A CITY THAT IS SOME OF THESE NEW LEAPFROGGING INTO EXPERIMENTS1 IDENTIFY THE CITY and the THE FUTUREURBAN-SCALE DESIGNCHALLENGE law of unintended consequences research, crowdsource ideas research, from local 4 BROADCAST EXPERIMENTS research constitutents TO THE WEB WHERE INVESTORS CAN HELP SCALE 2 BUILD A GLOCAL DESIGN TEAM 1-2 months THEIR FAVORITE EXPERIMENTS IDENTIFY and REFINE THE BEST IDEAS that can be RAPIDLY prototypes, PROTOTYPED including design files all open- refine ideas sourced and with the help freely available of global to any city experts 2-3 weeks 3 RAPID PROTOTYPE IN THE CITY some members of global team to assist in the local partners to own rapid deployment of and document the new ideas experiment’s progress
  15. 15. South and Southeast Asia private Motorization in excluding Singapore THEOR Y OF CHANGE requires well-organized, capable resourced gov’t which usually doesn’t happen till later in development stages how this private motorization wave might be avoided how to support and scale this A B C D experimentation [Google CiO douglas merrill] regulate regulate make GOD e.g. 3 types of innovation cars land use alternatives natural (ownership and (do not build much more disasters, incremental use) more roads) appealing apocalyps with incremental transformative e unintended C1 C2 consequences A1 A2 build enhance limit disincenti more existing vize capacity capacitydone only new INFORMATIONwhencongestio INFRASTRUCTURE retrofitsn isreally sidewalks, on-bad eg bicycle demandbeijing, paths, para-jakarta transit, brts,or with metro real- time bus localization scalableunpreced stations and railented info INFORMATIONcontrol retrofits/foresigh bicycle transport mobile-drivent egSingapor and car user problem + informatione sharing in a specific that can help context solve mobiles can be a spark! entrepreneur B C2 experiment rickshaw and spread by road made mobiles on service rickshaws courts and car-free ideas media redesigned make them new 1 2 incentives C2 C2 3 technical & C3 implementation support make C4 alternative make purchases appealing a more lifestyle appealing without cars
  16. 16. South and Southeast Developing Asia = Asia excluding Singapore Demand-Side [1] 2 AGGREGATE DEMAND FOR TRAVELCan owning a Mobile phone reduce the desire to (USE) attributes ofuse and need an automobile? [user demand] mobility mode upfront cost policy measures ongoing cost travel time perception (fuel taxes, parking reliability fees) wait time comfort 1 AGGREGATE DEMAND FOR TRAVEL payment effort safety (PURCHASE) driving directions policy Demand for Auto vehicle increased car- measures use Congestion tracking communications sharing (car quotas, car-sharing [mokhtarian, [shaheen] import taxes) saloon] more roads HIGHEST MEDIUM 0 MIN BEST unavailable unless situation is extremely dire e.g. jakarta, beijing Demand for Auto Demand for AIR POLLUTION ownership motorcycle use DANGEROUS GREAT IF NO FASTEST GREAT Demand for travel 0 MIN GOOD Jakarta (9 MM for 9.6 MM people) OVERCROWDED WALKING STILL Demand for motorcycle Demand for Bus REQUIRED 15-60 MIN SLOWEST ownership use BRT with dedicated lanes substitution effect Bus is an inferior good bus arrival times POTENTIAL FOR Demand for SCAMMING 15-60 MIN paratransit on-demand MEDIUM taxis, use rickshawsCongestion / air pollution / WEATHER DEPENDENTco2 emissions HEALTH BENEFITS LOTS OF EFFORT + DANGEROUS WITH POTENTIALLY THE bicycle- BECOMES MORE sharing Demand for MORE CARS Walking / cycling HIGHEST Demand for use more roads 0 MIN bicycle substitution effect ownership Social equity bicycle- walking / cycling sharing is an inferior good
  17. 17. South and Southeast Developing Asia = Asia excluding Singapore Demand-Side [2] taxes on cars, petrol, parking fees, subsidiesCan owning a Mobile phone reduce the desire to for transituse and need an automobile? [user demand] dedicated bus lanes 2 USER-CENTRIC TRAVEL DECISIONS Methods of changingThis is our brain (decision- motorization behaviormaking apparatus) A REGULATE B INCENTIVIZE C APPEAL TO car quotas X - reason is often HUMAN EMOTION subconscious weak, our conscious sentiments are Difficult to do in Aspiration, Money and Time thought strong, and our developing contexts due to thought lack of enforcement Love, sentiments are mechanisms As incomes increase, sharing, trustworthy financial incentives become less effective surprise, [brooks in the also may impinge on freedoms, one of the core as transport share wonder, social animal] of income declines perception benefits of economic sacrifice, development [Sen] delight which destination? It’s about the complete Especially as congestion makes user experience how long will it take? pushes the limits of will I get to my destination in time? commuting time, Time before transit becomes a potentially powerful lever but am I comfortable? one that may be difficult to push do I feel safe? during transit does something smell? Killer marketing campaigns for walking, biking and transitManaging space-Time wedding Grammy cool walking paths day award trip to activity / event based travel nepal Ted Talk after transit search Schooling X Retirement multi-modal, real-time 8 am 0 100 Time-Based transport planner Parenthood found a dollar destinations on the ground transport is not about connecting connected to Work people to places as fast as possible but transit to the right places at the right time for destinations are not just fixed like the right amount of time home and work; or are they chance run-in commercial like restaurants – they with stephen can be public places like parks 50% car-free,X it’s about the unexpected journey development zones dinner (and not the destinations) Family and Friends can be destinations; special events etc car-quotas free bus and train rides Midnight fun shared transit
  18. 18. Supply-Side South and Southeast Developing Asia = Asia excluding Singapore Can Mobile phone intelligence improve the supply of automobile alternatives? 1 SUPPLY FOR Rail economics highly 2 IMPACT of MOBILE PHONE TRAVEL dependent on density; Since costs are front- INTELLIGENCE loaded, often build for Routing directions / mapping / local political reasons search lift all boats but especially [Guerra & Cervero] driving Profit per passenger Profit per passenger Privatized Publicly Operated Privatized Publicly Operated on-demand real-time tracking fleet mgmt maintains / improves improves ridership but likely efficiency just marginally bicycles walking bicycles walking para paraair Autos transit buses rail No. of passengers air Autos transit buses rail No. of passengers motorc motorc ycles ycles Washington metro has one of the highest Cost per ride + taxes + externalities farebox recovery rates at 60% of opex [nelson Privatized b/c of high etal] usage & competition in increases Airports as developing countries prices along most with other profitable service [Gomez-Ibanez & Meyer] improvements Cost per ride + taxes + externalities tension btwn lowering price to serve more customers and maintaining operational profitability which ultimately hits taxpayers so is a net transfer bicycles walking para air Autos transit buses rail motorc less leverage ycles potential to with rail decrease prices prices since for buses but profitability is low bicycles walking travel demand elasticity < 0.5 for rail & sometimes negative for para bus air Autos transit buses rail better to improve [parry & small] motorc sidewalks & walking paths ycles transport subsidies do not seem to rather than subsidize be an effective way of helping the better to improve motorized transport both transit and poor adjacent services [Serebrisky etal]
  19. 19. South and Southeast Asiaprivate Motorization inexcluding Singapore Leapfrog Development Mobiles way ahead of autos Private Autos per 100 106 Leapfrog City Form Mobile Phones per 100 81 India – 860+ m phones 75 73 vs. 13 m cars 63 40 information /pedestrian city 27 mixed use city 16 17 transit city Auto-centric city Transport 2 1 0 technologies change [inspired by dennis frenchman] city form Singapore Kuala Bangkok Jakarta Bangalore Dhaka Lumpur how will ubiquitous mobile technologies change city form? failed history of leapfrog development [tendler etal]
  20. 20. South and Southeast Asiaprivate Motorization in appropriate, scalable technologiesexcluding Singapore Breakthrough technologies what can you rapidly prototype?Mobile hardware Mobile sensors can make the largely invisible much more visible smartphones with 17+ sensors and shared peer to peer low-cost smart city Location-based (gps, wi-fi) largely invisible largely invisible poor changing distributed pedestrians physical form people-centric environmental harm changing mobile phones and networks things indoors inhabitants social / puts people in groups peoples’ thoughts life lessons peoples’ movements our own physical capabilities e.g. running speed shared QR code back to Data citizens we can locate things on a shared microscale (3-5 meters) visualized commercially and in micro-time digitally SMSs visualized what if we knew physically everything that usually goes on around us? Location- based tracking