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Design Cities Like You Give a Damn

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Design Cities Like You Give a Damn

  1. The problem<br />Rush hour traffic in Jakarta<br />MEET DHAKA<br />Only 1% of people have cars<br />
  2. What do we predict will happen to Dhaka if nothing is done?<br />
  3. The problem<br />4 pm TRAFFIC JAM IN JAKARTA<br />August 2011<br />Rush hour traffic in Jakarta<br />
  4. DESIGN CITIES LIKE YOU GIVE A DAMN<br />An initiative of the <br />
  5. DESIGN CHALLENGE<br />substantially improve the alternatives to driving in Dhaka<br />in 3 months or less <br />An initiative of the <br />
  6. DESIGN YOUR DHAKA<br />sexy sidewalks<br />
  7. DESIGN YOUR DHAKA<br />critical mass cycling<br />
  8. DESIGN YOUR DHAKA<br />car-free zones / days<br />
  9. DESIGN YOUR DHAKA<br />making the invisible visible<br />
  10. DESIGN YOUR DHAKA<br />the best way to see Dhaka<br />
  11. How?<br />
  12. 3 INSIGHTS<br />1 cities don’t innovate as much as they should and when they do, they don’t share<br />2 we can seamlessly build effective glocal (global + local) teams and share knowledge across space and time<br />3 we can now rapidly prototype physical, digital and mobile designs that address urban scale problems<br />
  13. 5 DESIGNED CITY LEVERAGES NEW IDEAS TO REBRAND ITSELF AS A CITY THAT IS LEAPFROGGING INTO THE FUTURE<br />a) the places that need the help the most at this time – and b) that have a local team that we can work with<br />6 OTHER CITIESADOPT SOME OF THESE NEW EXPERIMENTS<br />1 IDENTIFY THE CITY and the URBAN-SCALE DESIGN CHALLENGE<br />law of unintended consequences<br />crowdsource ideas from local constitutents<br />research, research, research<br />4 BROADCAST EXPERIMENTS TO THE WEB WHERE INVESTORS CAN HELP SCALE THEIR FAVORITE EXPERIMENTS<br />2 BUILD A GLOCAL DESIGN TEAM<br />IDENTIFY and REFINE THE BEST IDEAS that can be RAPIDLY PROTOTYPED<br />1-2 months<br />prototypes, including design files all open-sourced and freely available to any city<br />refine ideas with the help of global experts<br />2-3 weeks<br />3 RAPID PROTOTYPE IN THE CITY<br />some members of global team to assist in the rapid deployment of new ideas<br />local partners to own and document the experiment’s progress<br />
  14. DESIGN YOUR DHAKAJANUARY 2012<br />
  15. THEORY OF CHANGE<br />private Motorization in South and Southeast Asia excluding Singapore<br />requires well-organized, capable resourced gov’t which usually doesn’t happen till later in development stages<br />how this private motorization wave might be avoided<br />how to support and scale this experimentation<br />A<br />B<br />C<br />D<br />[Google CiOdouglasmerrill]<br />make alternatives much more appealing<br />regulate cars(ownership and use)<br />regulate land use (do not build more roads)<br />GOD e.g. natural disasters, apocalypse<br />3 types of innovation<br />transformative<br />incremental with unintended consequences<br />incremental<br />C1<br />C2<br />A1<br />A2<br />enhance existing capacity<br />build more capacity<br />disincentivize<br />limit<br />newINFRASTRUCTURE<br />INFORMATION retrofits<br />done only when congestion is really bad egbeijing, jakarta<br />or with unprecedented control / foresight eg<br />Singapore<br />sidewalks, bicycle paths, brts, metro stations<br />on-demand para-transit, real-time bus and rail info<br />localization<br />scalable<br />INFORMATION retrofits<br />bicycle and car<br />sharing<br />mobile-driven information that can help solve <br />transport user problem<br />in a specific context<br />+<br />mobiles can be a spark!<br />entrepreneur<br />C2<br />B<br />road made car-free<br />rickshaw and service redesigned <br />experiment spread by courts and media<br />mobiles on rickshaws make them new<br />1<br />ideas<br />2<br />incentives<br />C2<br />C2<br />3<br />technical & implementation support<br />C3<br />C4<br />make alternative purchases more appealing<br />make appealing a lifestyle without cars<br />
  16. Demand-Side [1]<br />Developing Asia = South and Southeast Asia excluding Singapore<br />2 AGGREGATE DEMAND FOR TRAVEL (USE)<br />Can owning a Mobile phone reduce the desire to use and need an automobile? [user demand]<br />attributes of mobility mode<br />policy measures (fuel taxes, parking fees)<br />upfront cost<br />ongoing cost<br />1 AGGREGATE DEMAND FOR TRAVEL (PURCHASE)<br />perception<br />travel time<br />safety<br />effort<br />payment<br />reliability<br />comfort<br />wait time<br />driving directionsvehicle tracking<br />car-sharing<br />policy measures (car quotas, import taxes)<br />Demand for Auto use<br />increased communications<br />[mokhtarian, saloon]<br />car-sharing [shaheen]<br />Congestion<br />more roads<br />HIGHEST<br />0 MIN<br />BEST<br />MEDIUM<br />unavailable unless situation is extremely dire e.g. jakarta, beijing<br />economic growth<br />Demand for Auto ownership<br />Demand for motorcycle use<br />GREAT IF NO AIR POLLUTION<br />DANGEROUS<br />Demand for travel<br />GREAT<br />FASTEST<br />GOOD<br />0 MIN<br />Jakarta (9 MM for 9.6 MM people)<br />Demand for motorcycle ownership<br />Demand for Bus use<br />WALKING STILL REQUIRED<br />OVERCROWDED<br />BRT with dedicated lanes<br />15-60 MIN<br />SLOWEST<br />substitution effect<br />Bus is an inferior good<br />bus arrival times<br />Demand for paratransituse<br />POTENTIAL FOR SCAMMING<br />on-demand taxis, rickshaws<br />15-60 MIN<br />MEDIUM<br />Congestion / air pollution / co2 emissions<br />bicycle-sharing<br />BECOMES MORE DANGEROUS WITH MORE CARS<br />LOTS OF EFFORT + HEALTH BENEFITS<br />WEATHER DEPENDENT<br />POTENTIALLY THE HIGHEST<br />Demand for Walking / cycling use<br />0 MIN<br />more roads<br />Demand for bicycle ownership<br />substitution effect<br />Social equity<br />bicycle-sharing<br />walking / cycling is an inferior good<br />
  17. Demand-Side [2]<br />Developing Asia = South and Southeast Asia excluding Singapore<br />taxes on cars, petrol, parking fees, subsidies for transit<br />Can owning a Mobile phone reduce the desire to use and need an automobile? [user demand]<br />dedicated bus lanes<br />2 USER-CENTRIC TRAVEL DECISIONS<br />Methods of changing motorization behavior<br />This is our brain (decision-making apparatus)<br />C APPEAL TO HUMAN EMOTION<br />B INCENTIVIZE<br />A REGULATE<br />X<br />car quotas<br />reason is often weak, our sentiments are strong, and our sentiments are trustworthy<br />[brooks in the social animal]<br />-<br />Difficult to do in developing contexts due to lack of enforcement mechanisms<br />also may impinge on freedoms, one of the core benefits of economic development [Sen]<br />Aspiration, Love, <br />sharing, surprise, wonder, sacrifice,<br />delight<br />subconsciousthought<br />conscious thought<br />Money and Time<br />As incomes increase, financial incentives become less effective as transport share of income declines<br />perception<br />which destination?<br />It’s about the complete user experience<br />before transit<br />during transit<br />after transit<br />Especially as congestion makes pushes the limits of commuting time, Time becomes a potentially powerful lever but one that may be difficult to push<br />how long will it take?<br />will I get to my destination in time?<br />am I comfortable?<br />do I feel safe?<br />does something smell?<br />Killer marketing campaigns for walking, biking and transit<br />cool walking paths<br />activity / event based travel search<br />multi-modal, real-time transport planner<br />Managing space-Time<br />Grammy award<br />wedding day<br />trip to nepal<br />Ted Talk<br />X<br />8 am<br />Schooling<br />Retirement<br />0<br />100<br />Time-Based destinations connected to transit<br />Parenthood<br />found a dollar on the ground<br />transport is not about connecting people to places as fast as possible but to the right places at the right time for the right amount of time<br />Work<br />destinations are not just fixed like home and work; or are they commercial like restaurants – they can be public places like parks<br />Family and Friends can be destinations; special events etc<br />chance run-in with stephen<br />50% car-free, development zones<br />car-quotas<br />free bus and train rides<br />fun shared transit<br />it’s about the unexpected journey (and not the destinations)<br />X<br />dinner<br />Midnight<br />
  18. Supply-Side<br />Developing Asia = South and Southeast Asia excluding Singapore<br />Can Mobile phone intelligence improve the supply of automobile alternatives?<br />1 SUPPLY FOR TRAVEL <br />2 IMPACT of MOBILE PHONE INTELLIGENCE<br />Rail economics highly dependent on density; Since costs are front-loaded, often build for political reasons<br />[Guerra & Cervero]<br />Routing directions / mapping / local search lift all boats but especially driving<br />Publicly Operated<br />Privatized<br />Publicly Operated<br />Privatized<br />on-demand fleet mgmt improves efficiency<br />real-time tracking maintains / improves ridership but likely just marginally<br />Profit per passenger<br />Profit per passenger<br />bicycles<br />bicycles<br />walking<br />walking<br />paratransit<br />paratransit<br />buses<br />air<br />Autos<br />buses<br />No. of passengers<br />Autos<br />air<br />No. of passengers<br />rail<br />rail<br />motorcycles<br />motorcycles<br />Washington metro has one of the highest farebox recovery rates at 60% of opex [nelson etal]<br />Privatized b/c of high usage & competition in developing countries<br />Cost per ride + taxes + externalities<br />increases prices along with other service improvements<br />Airports as most profitable<br />[Gomez-Ibanez & Meyer]<br />tension btwn lowering price to serve more customers and maintaining operational profitability which ultimately hits taxpayers so is a net transfer<br />bicycles<br />walking<br />Cost per ride + taxes + externalities<br />paratransit<br />buses<br />Autos<br />air<br />rail<br />motorcycles<br />less leverage with rail prices since profitability is low<br />potential to decrease prices for buses but<br />bicycles<br />travel demand elasticity < 0.5 for rail & sometimes negative for bus<br />[parry & small]<br />walking<br />paratransit<br />buses<br />air<br />Autos<br />rail<br />better to improve sidewalks & walking paths rather than subsidize motorized transport <br />motorcycles<br />transport subsidies do not seem to be an effective way of helping the poor<br />better to improve both transit and adjacent services<br />[Serebriskyetal]<br />
  19. Leapfrog Development<br />private Motorization in South and Southeast Asia excluding Singapore<br />Mobiles way ahead of autos<br />Leapfrog City Form<br />India – 860+ m phones vs. 13 m cars<br />information / mixed use city<br />pedestrian city<br />Auto-centric city<br />transit city<br />Transport technologies change city form<br />[inspired by dennisfrenchman]<br />how will ubiquitous mobile technologies change city form?<br />failed history of leapfrog development[tendleretal]<br />
  20. appropriate, scalable technologies<br />private Motorization in South and Southeast Asia excluding Singapore<br />what can you rapidly prototype?<br />Breakthrough technologies<br />Mobile sensors can make the largely invisible much more visible and shared peer to peer <br />Mobile hardware<br />smartphones with 17+ sensors<br />low-cost smart city<br />distributed<br />people-centric<br />mobile phones and networks<br />social / puts people in groups<br />largely invisible<br />poor<br />pedestrians<br />environmental harm<br />things indoors<br />peoples’ thoughts<br />peoples’ movements<br />our own physical capabilities e.g. running speed<br />largely invisible<br />changing physical form<br />changing inhabitants<br />life lessons<br />Location-based (gps, wi-fi)<br />shared back to citizens<br />QR code<br />Data<br />we can locate things on a microscale (3-5 meters) and in micro-time<br />shared commercially<br />visualized digitally<br />SMSs<br />visualized physically<br />what if we knew everything that usually goes on around us? <br />Location-based tracking<br />

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