Unit 6: American Revolution


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Unit 6: American Revolution

  1. 1. Ms. Susan M. PojerMs. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NYHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY Some Edits By Mr. CaseySome Edits By Mr. Casey
  2. 2. RetreatRetreat (verb) to(verb) to stop fighting andstop fighting and move away from themove away from the enemyenemy
  3. 3. siegesiege (noun) the(noun) the surrounding of asurrounding of a place by the enemyplace by the enemy to capture itto capture it
  4. 4. campaigncampaign (noun) a(noun) a series of battles toseries of battles to achieve a specificachieve a specific purposepurpose
  5. 5. turning pointturning point (noun)(noun) a time whena time when important changesimportant changes occuroccur
  6. 6. mercenarymercenary (noun) a(noun) a soldier who fightssoldier who fights for another countryfor another country for moneyfor money
  7. 7. BritainBritain AmericansAmericans Tories or LoyalistsTories or Loyalists Patriots or Whigs orPatriots or Whigs or Colonists or AmericansColonists or Americans British/Hessians/SomeBritish/Hessians/Some Native AmericansNative Americans Americans/French/SpanishAmericans/French/Spanish (some Native Americans)(some Native Americans) On the Eve of theOn the Eve of the Revolution ?Revolution ?
  8. 8. BritainBritain AmericansAmericans AdvantagesAdvantages *Trained Soldiers*Trained Soldiers *Strongest Navy*Strongest Navy *Money to hire*Money to hire mercenariesmercenaries *Defending their own*Defending their own home so time andhome so time and geography are notgeography are not issuesissues DisadvantagesDisadvantages *Long Supply Line*Long Supply Line *British people get*British people get tired of wartired of war *Poorly trained and*Poorly trained and suppliedsupplied *Service is short time*Service is short time On the Eve of theOn the Eve of the Revolution ?Revolution ?
  9. 9. LoyalistLoyalist StrongholdsStrongholds
  10. 10. WashingtonWashington’’s Headachess Headaches Only 1/3 of the colonists were in favor of a war for independence [the other third were Loyalists, and the final third were neutral]. State/colony loyalties. Congress couldn’t tax to raise money for the Continental Army. Poor training and short service time [until the arrival of Baron von Steuben].
  11. 11. Exports & Imports: 1768-1783Exports & Imports: 1768-1783
  12. 12. Military StrategiesMilitary Strategies Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line]. Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war  you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down] Make an alliance with one of Britain’s enemies. The Americans The British Break the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So. Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally. “Divide and Conquer”  use the Loyalists.
  13. 13. ambassadorambassador (noun) a(noun) a representative sentrepresentative sent by one governmentby one government to anotherto another
  14. 14. negotiatenegotiate (verb) to(verb) to talk abouttalk about something in ordersomething in order to reach anto reach an agreementagreement
  15. 15. financefinance (verb) to(verb) to provide money forprovide money for
  16. 16. Phase I:Phase I: The Northern CampaignThe Northern Campaign [1775-1776][1775-1776] - Battle of Lexington and Concord - Battle of Bunker Hill - British are forced out of Boston - Americans defeated at Quebec
  17. 17. Phase I:Phase I: The Northern CampaignThe Northern Campaign [1775-1776][1775-1776] Success in several battles give the Patriots confidence. They try to take Quebec, a British stronghold. They are defeated and have to retreat.
  18. 18. Phase IIPhase II:: NY & PANY & PA [1777-1778][1777-1778]
  19. 19. The Northern CampaignThe Northern Campaign [1775-1776][1775-1776] *General Howe and 32,000 troops defeat Washington in several battles, capturing New York and key positions on the Hudson River (Fort Washington and Battle of Long Island)
  20. 20. New York City in FlamesNew York City in Flames (1776)(1776) *People begin to doubt Washington’s ability
  21. 21. Battle of TrentonBattle of Trenton *The British hunker down for the winter. Washington is determined to have victory. He has lost 90% of his troops to capture, death, or desertion. He has a few thousand men left. He decides to cross the Delaware on Christmas morning and surprise the Hessian army camping at Trenton. It is a quick victory. It is a small victory but important to morale and hope.
  22. 22. Washington Crossing the DelawareWashington Crossing the Delaware Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851
  23. 23. Quebec and BurgoyneQuebec and Burgoyne British forces based in Quebec head south. They defeat the Americans several times, but they make the mistake of stretching their supply line. They run low on supplies and the Americans eventually defeat them at the Battle of Saratoga
  24. 24. Saratoga:Saratoga: ““Turning PointTurning Point”” of the War?of the War? A modern-day re-enactment
  25. 25. N.Y. and General HoweN.Y. and General Howe The Patriots are defeated at the Battle of Germantown and Brandywine. Washington winters at Valley Forge. In 1778, France and Spain join the Patriots. They provide soldiers and a naval fleet. General Howe resigns his post and is replaced by General Henry Clinton
  26. 26. N.Y. and General HoweN.Y. and General Howe General Howe resigns under pressure and criticism. He is replaced by General Henry Clinton who places General Cornwallis in charge of the British army. They switch tactics! Cornwallis Clinton
  27. 27. Phase IIIPhase III:: The SouthernThe Southern StrategyStrategy [1780-1781][1780-1781]
  28. 28. BritainBritain’’ss ““Southern StrategySouthern Strategy”” Britain thought that there were more Loyalists in the South. Take the south and move north Southern resources were more valuable/worth preserving. The British win a number of small victories, but cannot pacify the countryside Good US General: Nathanael Greene frustrates the British
  29. 29. Guerilla WarfareGuerilla Warfare Great Leaders in the south Guerilla warfare frustrates the British. They win the major battles but have a hard time controlling the south because of great leaders like: Nathanael Greene:Splits his force in two and only attacks when he has the advantage Francis Marion “Swamp Fox”
  30. 30. The Battle of Yorktown (1781)The Battle of Yorktown (1781) Count de Rochambeau Admiral De Grasse
  31. 31. The Battle of Yorktown (1781)The Battle of Yorktown (1781) General Cornwallis defeats the Colonial Army at Charlestown and Camden. In 1781, Cornwallis arrives in Yorktown. Washington abandons plans for recapturing New York and decides to head for Yorktown. Washington, Rochambeau, and the French fleet trap Cornwallis at Yorktown and force his surrender.
  32. 32. CornwallisCornwallis’’ Surrender at Yorktown:Surrender at Yorktown: Painted by John Trumbull, 1797 ““TheWorldTurnedUpsideDown! TheWorldTurnedUpsideDown!””
  33. 33. North America After theNorth America After the Treaty of Paris, 1783Treaty of Paris, 1783
  34. 34. constitution (noun) a written plan of government
  35. 35. ideal (noun) an important belief or aim
  36. 36. ratify (verb) to approve officially
  37. 37. territory (noun) land owned or controlled by a particular country
  38. 38. policy (noun) a plan for doing or managing something
  39. 39. WholesaleWholesale PricePrice Index:Index: 1770-17891770-1789
  40. 40. Weaknesses of theWeaknesses of the Articles of ConfederationArticles of Confederation Congress: No separation of powers with a judicial and executive branch [9 of 13 votes to pass a law]. 13 out of 13 votes to amend a law. Representatives were frequently absent. Could not tax or raise armies. No Power to regulate commerce
  41. 41. Who was the firstWho was the first president?president?
  42. 42. Who was the firstWho was the first president?president? John Hanson-first president of Congress There were eight presidents of Congress (including John Hancock) We don’t count these men because The Articles of Confederation were replaced by our new system, The Constitution,” which created a new government
  43. 43. State ConstitutionsState Constitutions Republicanism. Most had strong governors with veto power. Property required for voting. Some had universal white male suffrage. Most had bills of rights. Many had a continuation of state- established religions while others disestablished religion.
  44. 44. State Claims to Western LandsState Claims to Western Lands
  45. 45. Strength of theStrength of the Articles of ConfederationArticles of Confederation LAND ORDINANCE OF 1785 NORTHWEST ORDINANCE (1787)
  46. 46. Land Ordinance of 1785Land Ordinance of 1785
  47. 47. Strength of theStrength of the Articles of ConfederationArticles of Confederation NORTHWEST ORDINANCE (1787) Divided open land into smaller areas (for new states) and made it impossible for older states to take the land Habeas Corpus Trial by Jury Religious Freedom New areas could apply for statehood when they reached 60,000 people Outlawed Slavery in new states Required school for all new towns
  48. 48. Strength of theStrength of the Articles of ConfederationArticles of Confederation If a nation expects to be ignorant and free, in a state of civilization, it expects what never was and never will be. -Thomas Jefferson
  49. 49. Northwest Ordinance of 1787Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Statehood achieved in three stages: 1. Congress appointed 3 judges & a governor to govern the territory. 2. When population reached 5,000 adult male landowners  elect territorial legislature. 3. When population reached 60,000  elect delegates to a state constitutional convention.
  50. 50. The United States in 1787The United States in 1787
  51. 51. Annapolis Convention (1786)Annapolis Convention (1786) 12 representatives from 5 states [NY, NJ, PA, DE, VA] GOAL  address barriers that limited trade and commerce between the states. Not enough states were represented to make any real progress. Sent a report to the Congress to call a meeting of all the states to meet in Philadelphia to examine areas broader than just trade and commerce.
  52. 52. ShaysShays’’ Rebellion: 1786-7Rebellion: 1786-7 Daniel Shays Western MA Small farmers angered by crushing debts and taxes.
  53. 53. ShaysShays’’ Rebellion: 1786-7Rebellion: 1786-7
  54. 54. ShaysShays’’ Rebellion: 1786-7Rebellion: 1786-7 There could be no stronger evidence of the want of energy in our governments than these disorders. -- George Washington-- George Washington
  55. 55. Federalist vs. Anti-FederalistFederalist vs. Anti-Federalist Strongholds at the End of the WarStrongholds at the End of the War Federalist - (in favor of the constitution) Wanted a strong central government with checks and balances Antifederalists - (against the constitution) The central government had too much power and there was no Bill of Rights to guarantee people’s rights
  56. 56. Federalist vs. Anti-FederalistFederalist vs. Anti-Federalist Strongholds at the End of the WarStrongholds at the End of the War
  57. 57. The Federalist PapersThe Federalist Papers • Written byWritten by JamesJames MadisonMadison,, AlexanderAlexander HamiltonHamilton, and, and JohnJohn JayJay. They were. They were published in New Yorkpublished in New York papers to try andpapers to try and persuade people topersuade people to agree with their ideasagree with their ideas on central governmenton central government