General Purpose Packages


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General Purpose Packages

  1. 1. General Purpose Packages Revision
  2. 2. Why Use Them <ul><li>GPP’s let the user carry out a wide range of tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Packages include: Word Processing, Graphics, Spreadsheets, Databases, Presentations and Multimedia. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why Use Them <ul><li>They save time </li></ul><ul><li>Help ensure data is not lost </li></ul><ul><li>Help keep info accurate and up-to-date </li></ul><ul><li>Use them to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Help reduce costs long term </li></ul><ul><li>Allows you to be flexible in layout of documents </li></ul>
  4. 4. Word Processing <ul><li>Used for Producing text documents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Database <ul><ul><li>Storing data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sorting data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Names </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Addresses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bank accounts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Spreadsheet <ul><ul><li>Storing numbers and performing calculations using formulae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance details, Household budgets, league tables. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Graphics <ul><ul><li>Producing graphics: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drawings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cartoons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diagrams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processing digital photographs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Web Page Creation <ul><ul><li>Producing web pages and web sites </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Multimedia and Presentation <ul><ul><li>Produce multimedia presentations </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Desktop Publishing <ul><ul><li>Producing documents that combine text and graphics with a high degree of control and precision </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Expert Systems <ul><ul><li>Stores and processes the knowledge of an expert. Used to help people make complex decisions. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Combining Functions <ul><li>In some packages, you can use functions from other packages: </li></ul><ul><li>Word processing packages have drawing tools </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet allows you to sort data </li></ul><ul><li>Database packages allow you to use formulae (like spreadsheet) </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics packages have text </li></ul>
  13. 13. Storing Data in GPP’s <ul><li>A Spreadsheet is designed to handle numbers. It lets you store them and carry out complicated formulas. </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers can be stored in other packages e.g. page numbers of documents, label drawings in graphics and also in databases. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Storing Data in GPP’s <ul><li>Text can be stored in a Word Processor. </li></ul><ul><li>Other packages use text e.g. database for fields such as address, name, etc., and spreadsheets and graphics packages as labels. </li></ul>Text is stored here
  15. 15. Storing Data in GPP’s <ul><li>A graphics package is designed to handle pictures. But they can be found in other packages as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics and Audio (sound files) are included in multimedia packages such as web creation. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Storing Data in GPP’s <ul><li>Audio Data </li></ul><ul><li>Audio data can be stored as MIDI or digital. </li></ul><ul><li>Audio files can be very large. WAV format would let you store 70 mins but using compressed MP3 would give 700 mins on a CD. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Digital Audio
  18. 18. MIDI
  19. 19. Storing Data in GPP’s <ul><li>Photographic Data </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics files (e.g. from a digital camera) can be very large especially if saved as bitmap (BMP). Compressed file types include JPEG </li></ul><ul><li>Animations </li></ul><ul><li>GIF animation is a common way of creating moving graphics. The animation is made up of a series of images. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Storing Data in GPP’s <ul><li>Video Images </li></ul><ul><li>These can require vast amounts of storage space. Most images are now compressed into MPEG-2 files to save memory – this reduces them to 1/50 th of the size. </li></ul>
  21. 21. File Formats <ul><li>Text can be saved in various formats </li></ul><ul><li>ASCII – this just contains details about the words and spacing not about the formatting such as font, size, line length, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Plain text – virtually the same as ASCII but includes code to divide text into paragraphs </li></ul><ul><li>RTF (Rich Text Format) – this contains all the formatting info as well as the text. </li></ul>
  22. 22. HCI (Human Computer Interface) <ul><li>WIMP – Windows, Icons, Menu Pointer </li></ul><ul><li>GUI – Graphical User Interface </li></ul><ul><li>Both of these are user friendly as you use toolbars, icons, menus, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>You can customise your HCI to suit by changing background, toolbars, size of icons, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes menus can slow you down so keyboard shortcuts are available (CTRL P to print is an example) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Getting Started <ul><li>Help can also be found with On-line help and on-line tutorials . These are parts of the package which help you to use it – Help if you get stuck and tutorial, when you start, to teach you what the package can do. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Getting Started <ul><li>Templates – these are outline documents with a structure already set up such as font sizes and frames for headings, text and graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Wizards – these are pieces of software which guide you through the setting up such as installing or setting up a template </li></ul>
  25. 25. Integrated Packages <ul><li>An integrated package contains several applications in the one package eg WP, Spreadsheet, Database and Graphics. </li></ul><ul><li>They have a common HCI </li></ul><ul><li>You can transfer data between parts of package easily </li></ul><ul><li>You can set up dynamic (automatic) links between the packages </li></ul>
  26. 26. Integrated Suite <ul><li>MicroSoft Tools in an example of an integrated suite. Here we have separate packages but with common HCI and common data formats. </li></ul><ul><li>These have all the advantages of integrated packages but the added advantage that they may have more features. However they will require more memory on hard disk and in RAM. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Common Features of GPPs <ul><li>Open an application </li></ul><ul><li>Create, Save, Print </li></ul><ul><li>Insert data </li></ul><ul><li>Amend Data </li></ul><ul><li>Change appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Move data </li></ul><ul><li>Headers & Footers </li></ul><ul><li>Print part of document </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Keyboard shortcuts </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. Ctrl C, ctrl P, Ctrl S , Ctrl V, Ctrl Z </li></ul><ul><li>Quicker than using a menu / icon </li></ul><ul><li>Quicker than using a menu / icon </li></ul>
  29. 29. Static & Dynamic Linking <ul><li>Static Data Linkage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data in each part of the package is separate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing it in one part will not affect any other files using that data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Data Linkage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If data is changed in one part it will change all other documents using that data </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Static (change not included) Dynamic (Change included) Dear Mr Tightwad, You will be pleased to note that our sales figures have increased as shown below:- I hope that you will reconsider my request for a pay rise. Your sincerely I.M. Poor
  31. 31. Features of a Word Processor <ul><li>Entering text – usually by keyboard but can scan or ‘talk’ (voice recognition). Spellcheckers and Grammar checkers help ensure accuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Altering line length & alignment </li></ul><ul><li>Altering page length </li></ul><ul><li>Altering page layout </li></ul><ul><li>Using tabs </li></ul><ul><li>Search and replace </li></ul><ul><li>Standard paragraphs text style </li></ul>
  32. 32. Features of a Word Processor <ul><li>Tables – allow you to organise data; highlight comparisons; control position of text and graphics (including in web pages). </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Letters – used repeatedly and sent to different people. They are personalised using mail merging </li></ul><ul><li>Mail Merge – uses word processor in combination with database to add personal details from DB to letter in WP. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Features of a Spreadsheet <ul><li>Cells, row, columns </li></ul><ul><li>Altering width of a column </li></ul><ul><li>Altering cell attributes – e.g. style of dates, currency, number of decimal places </li></ul><ul><li>Entering text </li></ul><ul><li>Formulas – SUM, AVERAGE, MAX, MIN </li></ul><ul><li>Replication </li></ul>
  34. 34. Features of a Spreadsheet <ul><li>Charting </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic and Manual Calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Referencing – Relative and Absolute </li></ul>
  35. 35. Features of a Graphics Package <ul><li>Selecting tool and its attributes (thickness, colour, pattern) </li></ul><ul><li>Scaling and Rotating </li></ul><ul><li>Cropping </li></ul>
  36. 36. Effects on People <ul><li>Jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to working environment </li></ul><ul><li>More or less paper? </li></ul>
  37. 37. Costs <ul><li>Initial Costs – buying hardware and software, furniture, training </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement Costs – improved software, improved hardware, replacing worn out equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Running Costs – wages, maintenance, cost of consumables (paper, ink, toner), telephone connections. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Computer Laws <ul><li>Data Protection Act </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Designs and Patents Act </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Misuse Act </li></ul>
  39. 39. Data Protection Act <ul><li>Data Subject (the people who have data held about them) </li></ul><ul><li>Their rights are: </li></ul><ul><li>To know if data is being held and have a copy if it is; </li></ul><ul><li>To inspect data and have it corrected; </li></ul><ul><li>To ask for compensation if data is inaccurate or given to unauthorised person; </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent processing of data if it will cause distress; </li></ul><ul><li>To make sure decisions made about them are not made on basis of automatic processing. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Data Protection Act <ul><li>Data Protection Register – List of companies etc that hold info. </li></ul><ul><li>Data Protection Commissioner – In charge of administering the law. </li></ul><ul><li>Data Controller – The person, business or organisation keeping the personal data. </li></ul><ul><li>Data User – Worker within business authorised to deal with personal data. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Data Protection Act <ul><li>Principles of the Data Protection Act </li></ul><ul><li>Data should be processed only with the consent of the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Data should be held only for the purposes stated </li></ul><ul><li>Data should be accurate and up-to-date </li></ul><ul><li>Data should be relevant and not excessive </li></ul><ul><li>Data should be adequate for the purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Data should be processed according to the subject’s rights </li></ul><ul><li>Data should have proper security </li></ul><ul><li>Data should only be transferred outside the EU to places with adequate security. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Computer Designs and Patents Act <ul><li>It is illegal to </li></ul><ul><li>Pirate copyrighted software; </li></ul><ul><li>Run pirated software; </li></ul><ul><li>Transmit software over telecommunications links and copy it. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Computer Misuse Act <ul><li>It is illegal to </li></ul><ul><li>Gain unauthorised access to a computer system (hacking); </li></ul><ul><li>Make unauthorised modifications to computer materials (e.g. installing a virus, changing passwords, altering programs, changing contents of data files) </li></ul>