The innovation development I will be covering will be digital techbooks. Current research and development of techbooks is supportive of the topic and shows the innovation process has begun.
The significance of digital media in the K-12 area is that it gives the students a chance to interact with technology, engage them on familiar ground and make learning relevant for them in the 21st century (William, 2001). Digital Techbooks have their foundations in digital textbooks. The difference in the two is that techbooks are interactive multi media forms of digital textbooks. They are the next generation for educational use.
Increasing technology is creating opportunities to leave print material behind. The implementation of one to one programs and hand held devices in the classroom creates an opportunity to have online textbooks and course materials. A digital textbook, or techbook, can be created and customized by class and teacher preference (William, 2011). The need for this is demonstrated by the following:Schools and students are increasingly using technology more and more.Print material is often viewed by students as unpopular and old (William, 2001).Digital materials gives student greater opportunity to interact with the materials and make a connection to the real world. The cost of print materials continues to soar while school budgets are decreasing.Digital media is becoming cheaper and smaller which makes it easier for schools to purchase.
Publishers have been responding to the increased demand for online resources by developing interactive digital techbooks. McGraw Hill, Pearson Global, WileyPlus, and Discovery Education are names of a few pursuing this innovation. Discovery Education is the leading techbook resource available for science. I will be using it in the classroom this school year. http://www.discoveryeducation.com/administrators/instructional-services/curriculum-and-people-behind-it/index.cfm?campaign=flyout_admin_is_peopleProduction of techbooks has been ongoing for a decade. The transition from a digital text to an interactive one has been facilitated by the internet. The purchase of techbooks occurs with contracts between the provider and the school district. Once the contract is in place teachers are given access to the online techbook with user names and the ability to create log ins for each student. The material is stored on the provider’s server and accessible from any computer or mobile device with the internet.
According to Discovery Education their curriculum team is built around a unique combination of years of experience, and a passion to improve teaching and learning through the compelling use of digital media in the classroom.They have implemented successful programs throughout their careers, they merge an inspirational drive towards meeting the needs of today's students with practical, real-world best practices that lead to success in all educational environments. Research has indicated a strong desire for students to link the real world to the classroom through technology. Students want to construct knowledge using interactive methods and Web 2.0 tools. Problems include availability of the internet and computers to access digital textbooks. The target audience is k-12 educators and students. Problems in development consisted of software compatibility and the computing requirements for the program to play multi media materials. Also each school would need the technology to access the resources online. An initiative to adopt digital text across the us is presented by the FCC in the provided hyperlink. The video is 21 minutes so please view it at your leasure.
Pearson global implemented MyMathLab in 2005 at Lone Star College and saw an increase of 20% in the passing rate of College Algebra Students. Over the next three years they continued to see increases in student achievement (Pearson Global, 2010).
The findings from research studies done by these institutions shows an increase in student acheivement and instructor efficacy. At Hinds Community College an Anatomy course used Connect by McGraw Hill and saw anincrease in the number of students who pass with a grade of a C or higher by 75% (McGraw Hill 2010).
WileyPlus partnered with the University of Tennessee for a study in the 2009-2010 academic year. Pre and post test scores were used to determine the effectiveness of the techbook. Post test scores showed a 7% improvement using WileyPlus over students not using the program (Broadview Analytics, 2010).
Ebooks have been rising in popularity over the years as shown in this timeline. The do have an influence on digital text and digital techbooks.
Digital textbook came into the spotlight with the rise of the ereader. Online multi-media content has been shown to have a positive effect on student learning.
Over the last two years digital textbooks have transitioned to techbook by incorporating the multi media content.
This research was done by Rob Reynolds, Ph.D. Director of Product Design and Research, XplanaTextbook sales are worth 7 billion dollars in the us ever year (Nagel, 2012). The FCC is calling for all schools to adopt a version of digital text in the next five years (Nagel, 2012). The adoption so far of digital text is not widespread but this evidence shows that the market is growing.
Update, currently discovery techbook has been implemented for 287,000 students over the last year. It has only been available for one year and the US has 77 million students. That is less than one percent currently using this techbook. digital textbooks only represent 3% of the Higher Education market today. research shows sales and trending patterns that support a conservative growth rate of digital textbooks at 80%-100% overthe next 4-5 years. XplanaThis research confirms the chairman of the FCC in calling for adoption within the next five years. We are already trailing Korea, who has already started to implement a total transition, with an expected completion year of 2015 (E-Pub 3 Reader, 2012).
The key innovators in my organization are members of our technology team. This team meets monthly to develop and implement new technology to benefit the teachers and students. The members of the team are teachers in the district, led by our Assistant Superintendent, and all have an advanced knowledge of technology. The Discovery Education Techbook being adopted is strictly for the subject of Science. All three teachers at the Junior High that will be implementing the techbook are members of the technology team. Other key innovators are teachers with technology experience and a high social prominence in their district. Members of the administration that support technology will also be early innovative leaders.Another key innovator is Korea. As previously mentioned they have already set in place requirements for adoption of this innovation by the year 2015.
Other teachers that are more familiar with technology will be the early adopters of techbooks. Various techbooks are being offered by publishing companies for other subject areas. As the techbook advances in the innovation process more teachers will want to use it. Math would be the early adopters in my organization. The teachers in the Math department already use a math lab program and it would be an easy transition to a Math techbook like the one offered by Pearson Global. Strategies for early adopters to accept the innovation would be to show them the advantage of the techbook after one year of use in the classroom. When test scores and student interaction improve, the advantages will appeal to the early adopters.
The teachers that are less familiar with technology will be late in adopting techbooks. These users will need to be shown not only the advantage but also the compatibility and the complexity of the techbook. They will want to see it in action, have professional development, and meetings to discuss the innovation. It will take some convincing to gain their interest in adopting a new program. The possible laggards in my organization will be those teachers that rely heavily on the printed text. Many teachers that show heavy usage of the printed textbook will have concerns for their students having access and will not want to use digital media exclusively. The solution for this would be for them to use the innovation on a trial basis while maintaining access to their printed materials.
Digital techbooks are being offered by various publishers via the internet on a subscription basis with a cost per student. My school district was able to purchase five years of Discovery science techbook and 90 netbooks using funds we previously used to buy print materials. The subscription service was $18 per student versus the $100 per student we typically set aside for print materials. This savings allowed us to purchased the netbooks for expanded internet usage in the classroom. Print materials, which are typically ten years or older, can still be made available for student use at home or as supplemental material. Our print material is only five years old and we hope, with expanded internet available to students at home, to be able to phase them out over the next five years.
The internet has surpassed critical mass and has been widely adopted for use in the US. Similar results are expected with digital interactive texts over the next five to ten years. This can be accomplished by using a hybrid combination of decentralized and centralized diffusion systems. The FCC is calling for change and is starting the process of a top down method of adoption according to decentralized means. Experts in the fields of technology and education are directing the development of this innovation and conducting research to support it. However at the same time a centralized form of adoption is happening at the local levels by innovators. Schools are searching for solutions to decreasing budgets and are looking for a cheaper means to supply learning materials to students. This centralized method has been undertaken, as previously mentioned, by my district taking the initiative to use curriculum funds for this innovation. Other school districts are doing the same across the country.This hybrid methods solves immediate needs for centralized users while allowing the decentralized method to enhance adoption to critical mass. With a combination of the two methods leaders and local users will have collaborated to bring about the best resource for innovation.
The FCC chariman states "Digital textbooks are one of the cornerstones of digital learning.When we talk about transitioning to digital textbooks, we're not just talking about giving students e-readers so they no longer have to carry around backpacks filled with 50 pounds of often out-of-date textbooks. We're talking about students having interactive learning devices that can offer lessons personalized to their learning style and level, and enable real-time feedback to parents, teachers, or tutors. Imagine a student who has trouble doing his geometry homework; the digital textbook automatically inserts a supplemental lesson. Imagine a teacher who has instant access to the results of a pop quiz; she can immediately see that four of her students didn't understand the concept of photosynthesis and is able to offer an extra lesson” (Nagel, 2012).The fcc chairman is being a change agent as an expert. I am the change agent for my organization and act as the advocate. I have spoken up for this initiative, found support, and implemented adoption for to facilitate student achievement. In order to reach critical mass, which would require 20% of all US schools to use digital techbooks, we can employ four methods. The methods are: target highly respected people for initial adoption, demonstrate the inevitability of the adoption, introduce it to innovators, and provide incentives for early adoption. The method that works best for my organization is to introduce it to innovators. This actually occurred during the adoption phase for my district and the innovators convinced the administration to use the curriculum funds for the techbook. It was a two year process to gain the approval to purchase materials from Discovery, one that the innovators were sure would be a success.
Many classrooms simply teach the material, read the textbook, test the students, and move on to the next unit. Educators are increasingly in demand to meet the needs of the 21st century learner and must find a way to accomplish this with limited means. This teacher, this champion must have the means to actively engage a diverse group of learners using relevant technology to promote and improve learning achievement. The need for an innovation that assists this champion is clear. Society is ever increasing the use of technology and students are being enabled to learn anywhere anytime. As a champion for my students offering them a digital interactive techbook will enable them to explore learning in new ways whenever and wherever they need it. Every teacher is a champion in the eyes of a student As leaders, teachers, and publishers come together to develop this innovation the demand to adopt it will increase. The benefits and strengths demonstrated so far are motivating and provide a positive outlook for future techbook usage.
Designing is basically the practice of combining stuff; ideally in ways that haven't been seen before. So the more stuff you know (about everything), the greater the chance you'll find a relevant and distinctive, and therefore effective and original combination. Techbooks offer teachers an effective combination to continue being the champions children deserve.
Additional References on a separate file.
Diffusion presentation educ 7100 colemanm
THE NEED TO INTRODUCE DIGITALTEXTBOOKS (TECHBOOKS)
TIMELINE OF E-BOOKS1971 Project Gutenberg is the first established digital library http://www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Gutenberg:About1990 The Internet makes digital media widely available1995 Amazon.com is the first online bookstore2001 digital books being sold in spanish2003 ebooks sold globally2005 Google gets into ebooks2007 Kindle is introduced2009 The Nook is introduced and libraries offer digital books for check out2010 Amazon.com is selling digital books on a massive scale
TIMELINE OF DIGITAL TECHBOOKS 2007 Initiation of market penetration for digital textbooks that focus on interactive features. 2011 First introduction to my district of Discovery Science Techbook Data in regards to enhanced ebooks which shows 21% of the market already has some in production. This data persuaded us to adopt the techbook. http://www.teleread.com/paul-biba/ebook-publishing-stats-infographic-by- piotr-kowalczyk/ 2011 Many publishers are creating interactive textbooks (Techbooks) http://www.nature.com/nature_education/interactive_textbooks 2012 Implementation of Discovery Science Techbook The decision to adopt the techbook was completed in May of 2012 and implementation is occurring August of 2012. http://www.discoveryeducation.com/
TIMELINE CONTINUED.2012 and beyond The confirmation stage has not yet been reached. Confirmation has been achieved in other organizations within the last school year and the techbook has been a success. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7J1Nsz1ys0k2013 Mass media and interpersonal means of communication are being used to diffuse the innovation. Cosmopolite channels of communication have been the most effective for Discovery Education and the adoption of their program. http://2013.metcconference.org/index.php
REFERENCESDescy, D. E. (2009). Netbooks: Small but Powerful Friends. Techtrends: Linking Research And Practice To Improve Learning, 53(2), 9-10.Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.William, R. J., Loui Lord, N., Elizabeth, J. A., & George Van, H. (2011). Trading Textbooks for Technology: New Opportunities for Learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 92(7), 46-50 ST - Trading Textbooks for Technology: New. PDK International.Pearson Global. (2010). Raising the bar: The Power of Pearson’s MyLab and mastering programs-case study results. Retrieved from http://www.pearsonhighered.com/resources/Pearson_Global_Whitepaper.pdfPearson Global. (2010). University of Central Florida case study. Retrieved from http://www.mymathlab.com/case- study/1398/university-central-florida-1McGraw Hill (2010). Digital course solution improves student success and increases instructor efficacy. Retrieved from http://create.mcgraw-hill.com/wordpress-mu/connectblog/files/2012/07/Case_AP_Hinds_Feaster.pdfBroadview Analytics (2010). An evaluation of the effectiveness of WileyPLUS in higher education. Retrieved from https://media.wiley.com/assets/2262/54/WP_Impact_Report_final.pdfAdditional references provided on a separate document