Life in the Industrial Age


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Life in the Industrial Age

  1. 2. <ul><li>Preview </li></ul><ul><li>Starting Points Map: Urban Growth in the Industrial Age </li></ul><ul><li>Main Idea / Reading Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Electric Power </li></ul><ul><li>Faces of History: Thomas Edison </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Map: U.S. Railroads </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in Communication </li></ul>Advances in Technology
  2. 3. Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps.
  3. 4. <ul><li>Reading Focus </li></ul><ul><li>How did electric power affect industry and daily life? </li></ul><ul><li>What advances in transportation occurred during the Industrial Age? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the advances in communication, and how were they achieved? </li></ul>Main Idea The technological breakthroughs of the Industrial Age included advances in electric power, transportation, and communication. Advances in Technology
  4. 5. As the Industrial Age progressed in the late 1800s, one technology changed industry and daily life more than any other-electricity. Electric Power <ul><li>Scientists interested in electricity for centuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ben Franklin, 1700s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Michael Faraday discovered magnetism, electricity connection 1831 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamo powered electric motor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Swan developed primitive lightbulb, 1860 </li></ul>Early Attempts <ul><li>First usable, practical lightbulb invented 1879 </li></ul><ul><li>Edison’s lightbulb came through trial and error and many hours of work in lab </li></ul><ul><li>Other inventions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light sockets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric power plant </li></ul></ul>Edison’s Lightbulb
  5. 7. <ul><li>Electric power transformed industry in Europe and the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Improved industry in 3 significant ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factories no longer had to rely on steam engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factories did not have to depend on waterways to power steam engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factories became less dependent on sunlight, increased production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improved daily life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper, more convenient light source than gas, oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other electrical devices soon created </li></ul></ul>Effects on Industry and Daily Life
  6. 8. Analyze How did electricity change industry and daily life? Answer(s): Factories no longer needed steam engines or water sources to power them; production increased; people could light their homes and businesses more safely and effectively with electric lighting.
  7. 9. Advances in Transportation <ul><li>Bessemer process , forcing air through molten metal to burn out impurities, strengthen steel </li></ul><ul><li>Factories increased production of locomotives, tracks </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger steel used to build bridges </li></ul><ul><li>30,000 mile network of railroads linking major American cities, 1860 </li></ul><ul><li>New railroads helped grow cities in American West </li></ul>Improvements in Steel <ul><li>Boats on canals, rivers best for long-distance travel, in early 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>With development of efficient steam engines, trains replace boats </li></ul><ul><li>Trains could carry heavy loads, traveled faster than watercraft </li></ul><ul><li>World’s first rail line, Britain 1830 </li></ul><ul><li>3,000 miles of railroads, Eastern U.S. 1840 </li></ul>Steam Powered Trains
  8. 11. <ul><li>Rail technology around the world </li></ul><ul><li>India’s first train, 1851 </li></ul><ul><li>First African railroad, Egypt 1852 </li></ul><ul><li>Trans-Siberian Railroad in Russia, world’s longest, 1891 </li></ul><ul><li>Food products </li></ul><ul><li>Perishable foods could get to market before spoiling </li></ul><ul><li>Frozen beef shipped by rail from west to east </li></ul><ul><li>Shoppers had more food choices </li></ul><ul><li>Travel and trade </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of railroads increased markets </li></ul><ul><li>Trains moved huge loads efficiently, transportation costs declined </li></ul><ul><li>New products became available </li></ul>Advances in Transportation
  9. 12. <ul><li>Steamships </li></ul><ul><li>Steamships changed ocean travel </li></ul><ul><li>Not dependent on wind, could travel through any weather </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. steamship service began, west around South America to east, 1849 </li></ul><ul><li>Long distance movement of goods economically viable by 1870 </li></ul><ul><li>Passenger travel began shortly thereafter </li></ul>Advances in Transportation <ul><li>First attempts, Europe 1769 </li></ul><ul><li>1885-1886 Daimler and Benz developed practical automobiles </li></ul><ul><li>Early U.S. autos too expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Ford built first affordable cars, mass production, 1908 </li></ul><ul><li>More roads than rail lines, 1915 </li></ul>The Automobile <ul><li>Wilbur and Orville Wright flew first sustained powered flight, 1903 </li></ul><ul><li>Developed airplane over four years </li></ul><ul><li>Glider-powered with internal combustion engine </li></ul><ul><li>Paved the way for commercial, military airplanes </li></ul>The Airplane
  10. 13. Identifying Cause and Effect What effect did advances in transportation have on daily life? Answer(s): better and faster means of transportation; made it possible to get more goods to market at lower costs, increasing consumers' choices
  11. 14. <ul><li>Early 1800s Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Much slower than today </li></ul><ul><li>Boat, messenger on foot, horseback or carriage </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurs, inventors searched for faster ways </li></ul><ul><li>“ What hath God wrought?” </li></ul><ul><li>First telegraph message from Morse, 1844 </li></ul><ul><li>Telegraph wires between Washington D.C., Baltimore </li></ul><ul><li>New era in communication </li></ul><ul><li>The Telegraph </li></ul><ul><li>Telegraph invented, 1837 </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Morse also invented a “language” for those messages </li></ul><ul><li>Messages transmitted as electrical pulses </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of Telegraph </li></ul><ul><li>Much of country linked by 1861 </li></ul><ul><li>Telegraph cable to Europe, 1866; to India, 1870 </li></ul><ul><li>Globalized personal and business communication </li></ul>Advances in Communication
  12. 15. <ul><li>The Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Graham Bell tried to create way to send multiple telegraph messages at same time </li></ul><ul><li>Invented telephone 1876 </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for telephones </li></ul><ul><li>Increased during 1880s </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of miles of phone lines laid across U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost 1.5 million phones installed by 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you.” </li></ul><ul><li>Bell sent message to assistant from one room to another </li></ul><ul><li>Watson heard message through receiver </li></ul>Advances in Communication
  13. 16. <ul><li>The Radio and Phonograph </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone technology limited by length of wires </li></ul><ul><li>New wireless technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guglielmo Marconi built wireless telegraph, 1895 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio first used as communication device for ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later used for entertainment and news </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sound recording technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Edison invented phonograph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music became available to everyone </li></ul></ul>Advances in Communication
  14. 17. Contrast How did the telegraph differ from the telephone? Answer(s): telegraph transmitted coded messages; telephone transmitted voice