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Saundra Yancy McGuire, Ph.D.
Retired Asst. Vice Chancellor & Professor of Chemistry
Director Emerita, Center for Academic ...
Metacognition
The ability to:
 think about one’s own thinking
 be consciously aware of oneself as a
problem solver
 mon...
Why haven’t most students developed
these skills?
It wasn’t necessary in high school
http://www.heri.ucla.edu/
Data from UCLA Higher Education Research Institute (HERI
First Year Student Survey – 2010 - 2014
Help students identify and close “the gap”
current behavior current grades
productive behavior desired grades
Faculty Must...
Reflection Questions
• What’s the difference, if any, between
studying and learning?
• For which task would you work harde...
A Reading Strategy that Works: SQ3R (4R or 5R)
 Survey (look at intro, summary, bold print,
italicized words, etc.)
 Que...
Problem Solving is Essential
to Student Success!
Homework system that can be taught
• Study information before looking at ...
Why the Fast and Dramatic Increase?
It’s all about the strategies, and
getting them to engage their brains!
Counting Vowels in 45 seconds
How accurate are you?
Count all the vowels
in the words on the next slide.
Dollar Bill
Dice
Tricycle
Four-leaf Clover
Hand
Six-Pack
Seven-Up
Octopus
Cat Lives
Bowling Pins
Football Team
Dozen Eggs
...
How many words or phrases
do you remember?
Let’s look at the words again…
What are they arranged
according to?
Dollar Bill
Dice
Tricycle
Four-leaf Clover
Hand
Six-Pack
Seven-Up
Octopus
Cat Lives
Bowling Pins
Football Team
Dozen Eggs
...
NOW, how many words or phrases
do you remember?
2. We knew how the information
was organized
What were two major differences
between the two attempts?
1. We knew what the...
Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., Cocking, R.R. (Eds.), 2000. How
people learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washingto...
What we know about learning
• Active learning is more lasting than passive learning
-- Passive learning is an oxymoron*
• ...
Creating
Evaluating
Analyzing
Applying
Understanding
Remembering
Putting elements together to
form a coherent or functiona...
When we teach students
about Bloom’s Taxonomy…
They GET it!
How do you think students answered?
At what level of Bloom’s did you have to
operate to make A’s or B’s in high school?
1....
How students answered (2008)
At what level of Bloom’s did you have to
operate to make A’s or B’s in high school?
1 2 3 4 5...
At what level of Bloom’s did you have to
operate to make A’s or B’s in high school?
1 2 3 4 5 6
44%
29%
2%
0%
4%
21%
1. Re...
At what level of Bloom’s did you have to operate to
make A’s and B’s in high school?
1 2 3 4 5 6
28%
36%
3%
0%
8%
25%
1. R...
How do you think students answered?
At what level of Bloom’s do you think you’ll
need to operate to make A’s in college co...
How students answered (in 2008)
At what level of Bloom’s do you think you’ll
need to operate to make an A’s in college?
1 ...
How students answered (in 2013)
At what level of Bloom’s do you think you’ll
need to operate to make A’s in college?
1. Re...
At what level of Bloom’s do you think you’ll need
to operate to make A’s in college?
1 2 3 4 5 6
0%
7%
46%
12%
27%
7%
1. R...
How do we teach students to move
higher on Bloom’s Taxonomy?
Teach them the Study Cycle*
*adapted from Frank Christ’s PLRS...
The Study Cycle
Focused Study
Sessions
What happens when we teach
metacognitive learning strategies,
Bloom’s Taxonomy, and the Study Cycle
to an entire class, no...
Performance in Gen Chem I in 2011 Based on
One Learning Strategies Session*
Attended Absent
Exam 1 Avg.: 71.65% 70.45%
Exa...
Performance in Gen Chem 1202 Sp 2013
Based on One Learning Strategies Session
Attended Absent
Exam 1 Avg.: 71.33% 69.27%
H...
Performance in Gen Chem 1202 Sp 2015
Based on One Learning Strategies Session
Attended Absent
Exam 1, 2, 3 Avg: 68.14% 69....
Professor Ningfeng Zhao’s Exam Averages
Intervention:
One fifty minute learning strategies session after Exam 1
Zhao, N., ...
Metacognition: An Effective Tool to Promote Success
in College Science Learning*
Ningfeng Zhao1, Jeffrey Wardeska1, Saundr...
Teaching and Learning Strategies That
Work
SCIENCE , VOL 325
4 SEPTEMBER 2009
www.sciencemag.org
ROALD HOFFMANN1 AND SAUND...
MARGINALIA
Learning and Teaching Strategies
Roald Hoffmann and Saundra Y. McGuire
September-October 2010
Volume 98, Number...
Gabriel, Kathleen F. (2008)
Teaching Unprepared Students.
Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing
Two Valuable References
Nilson, ...
Dweck, Carol, 2006.
Mindset: The New Psychology
of Success. New York:
Random House Publishing
Help Students Develop the Ri...
Mindset* is Important!
 Fixed Intelligence Mindset
Intelligence is static
You have a certain amount of it
 Growth Intell...
Which mindset about intelligence
do you think most students have?
Fixed
Growth
Responses to Many Situations
are Based on Mindset
Fixed Intelligence
Mindset Response
Growth Intelligence
Mindset Response...
Which mindset about student intelligence
do you think most faculty have?
Fixed
Growth
Which mindset about student intelligence
do you think most STEM faculty have?
Fixed
Growth
Why do students need
to use the textbook?
It provides an overview of the content
It provides additional problems,
question...
Conclusion
We can significantly increase learning by…
• teaching students how to learn
• making learning visible
• making ...
Additional References
• Bruer, John T. , 2000. Schools For Thought: A Science of Learning in
the Classroom. MIT Press.
• B...
McGuire, S.Y. (2015). Teach Students How to Learn: Strategies You Can Incorporate into Any
Course to Improve Student Metac...
Useful Websites
• www.cas.lsu.edu
• www.howtostudy.org
• www.vark-learn.com
• www.drearlbloch.com
• Searches on www.google...
"Metacognition: The Key to Teaching Students Transformative Learning Strategies" (a presentation by Dr. Saundra McGuire at...
"Metacognition: The Key to Teaching Students Transformative Learning Strategies" (a presentation by Dr. Saundra McGuire at...
"Metacognition: The Key to Teaching Students Transformative Learning Strategies" (a presentation by Dr. Saundra McGuire at...
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"Metacognition: The Key to Teaching Students Transformative Learning Strategies" (a presentation by Dr. Saundra McGuire at the University of Kentucky on May 4, 2016)

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On May 4, 2016, Dr. Saundra McGuire conducted a workshop on "Metacognition: The Key to Teaching Students Transformative Learning Strategies" at a University of Kentucky event co-sponsored by the Office of the Provost and the Center for the Enhancement of Learning and Teaching (CELT). Transformative learning has been characterized as learning that produces a change in perspective of the learner. 21st Century students come to college with widely varying academic skills, motivation levels, and approaches to learning. Most do not have effective learning strategies and resort to memorizing information just before tests. This interactive session addressed strategies that significantly improve learning while transforming student attitudes about the meaning of learning

Dr. McGuire is the Director Emerita of the Center for Academic Success and Retired Assistant Vice Chancellor and Professor of Chemistry at Louisiana State University. She is the author of Teach Students How to Learn.

Published in: Education
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"Metacognition: The Key to Teaching Students Transformative Learning Strategies" (a presentation by Dr. Saundra McGuire at the University of Kentucky on May 4, 2016)

  1. 1. Saundra Yancy McGuire, Ph.D. Retired Asst. Vice Chancellor & Professor of Chemistry Director Emerita, Center for Academic Success Louisiana State University Metacognition: The Key to Teaching Students Transformative Learning Strategies
  2. 2. Metacognition The ability to:  think about one’s own thinking  be consciously aware of oneself as a problem solver  monitor, plan, and control one’s mental processing (e.g. “Am I understanding this material, or just memorizing it?”)  accurately judge one’s level of learning Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp.231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
  3. 3. Why haven’t most students developed these skills? It wasn’t necessary in high school
  4. 4. http://www.heri.ucla.edu/ Data from UCLA Higher Education Research Institute (HERI First Year Student Survey – 2010 - 2014
  5. 5. Help students identify and close “the gap” current behavior current grades productive behavior desired grades Faculty Must Help Students Make the Transition to College
  6. 6. Reflection Questions • What’s the difference, if any, between studying and learning? • For which task would you work harder? A. Make an A on the test B. Teach the material to the class
  7. 7. A Reading Strategy that Works: SQ3R (4R or 5R)  Survey (look at intro, summary, bold print, italicized words, etc.)  Question (devise questions survey that you think the reading will answer)  Read (one paragraph at a time)  Recite (summarize in your own words)  Record or wRite (annotate in margins)  Review (summarize the information in your words)  Reflect (other views, remaining questions)
  8. 8. Problem Solving is Essential to Student Success! Homework system that can be taught • Study information before looking at the problems/questions • Work example problems (without looking at the solutions) until you get to the answer • Check to see if answer is correct • If answer is not correct, figure out where mistake was made, without consulting solution • Work homework problems/answer questions as if taking a test
  9. 9. Why the Fast and Dramatic Increase? It’s all about the strategies, and getting them to engage their brains!
  10. 10. Counting Vowels in 45 seconds How accurate are you? Count all the vowels in the words on the next slide.
  11. 11. Dollar Bill Dice Tricycle Four-leaf Clover Hand Six-Pack Seven-Up Octopus Cat Lives Bowling Pins Football Team Dozen Eggs Unlucky Friday Valentine’s Day Quarter Hour
  12. 12. How many words or phrases do you remember?
  13. 13. Let’s look at the words again… What are they arranged according to?
  14. 14. Dollar Bill Dice Tricycle Four-leaf Clover Hand Six-Pack Seven-Up Octopus Cat Lives Bowling Pins Football Team Dozen Eggs Unlucky Friday Valentine’s Day Quarter Hour
  15. 15. NOW, how many words or phrases do you remember?
  16. 16. 2. We knew how the information was organized What were two major differences between the two attempts? 1. We knew what the task was
  17. 17. Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., Cocking, R.R. (Eds.), 2000. How people learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  18. 18. What we know about learning • Active learning is more lasting than passive learning -- Passive learning is an oxymoron* • Thinking about thinking is important – Metacognition** • The level at which learning occurs is important – Bloom’s Taxonomy*** *Cross, Patricia, “Opening Windows on Learning” League for Innovation in the Community College, June 1998, p. 21. ** Flavell, John, “Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive– developmental inquiry.” American Psychologist, Vol 34(10), Oct 1979, 906-911. *** Bloom Benjamin. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc.
  19. 19. Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing. Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing. Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or implementing. Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining. Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant knowledge from long-term memory. Bloom’s Taxonomy http://www.odu.edu/educ/llschult/blooms_taxonomy.htm Breaking material into constituent parts, determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure . This pyramid depicts the different levels of thinking we use when learning. Notice how each level builds on the foundation that precedes it. It is required that we learn the lower levels before we can effectively use the skills above.
  20. 20. When we teach students about Bloom’s Taxonomy… They GET it!
  21. 21. How do you think students answered? At what level of Bloom’s did you have to operate to make A’s or B’s in high school? 1. Remembering 2. Understanding 3. Applying 4. Analyzing 5. Evaluating 6. Creating
  22. 22. How students answered (2008) At what level of Bloom’s did you have to operate to make A’s or B’s in high school? 1 2 3 4 5 6 21% 35% 3%3% 13% 25% 1. Remembering 2. Understanding 3. Applying 4. Analyzing 5. Evaluating 6. Creating
  23. 23. At what level of Bloom’s did you have to operate to make A’s or B’s in high school? 1 2 3 4 5 6 44% 29% 2% 0% 4% 21% 1. Remembering 2. Understanding 3. Applying 4. Analyzing 5. Evaluating 6. Creating How students answered (2013)
  24. 24. At what level of Bloom’s did you have to operate to make A’s and B’s in high school? 1 2 3 4 5 6 28% 36% 3% 0% 8% 25% 1. Remembering 2. Understanding 3. Applying 4. Analyzing 5. Evaluating 6. Creating How students answered (2014)
  25. 25. How do you think students answered? At what level of Bloom’s do you think you’ll need to operate to make A’s in college courses? 1. Remembering 2. Understanding 3. Applying 4. Analyzing 5. Evaluating 6. Creating
  26. 26. How students answered (in 2008) At what level of Bloom’s do you think you’ll need to operate to make an A’s in college? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7% 6% 15% 23% 35% 14% 1. Remembering 2. Understanding 3. Applying 4. Analyzing 5. Evaluating 6. Creating
  27. 27. How students answered (in 2013) At what level of Bloom’s do you think you’ll need to operate to make A’s in college? 1. Remembering 2. Understanding 3. Applying 4. Analyzing 5. Evaluating 6. Creating 1 2 3 4 5 6 6% 9% 11%11% 40% 23%
  28. 28. At what level of Bloom’s do you think you’ll need to operate to make A’s in college? 1 2 3 4 5 6 0% 7% 46% 12% 27% 7% 1. Remembering 2. Understanding 3. Applying 4. Analyzing 5. Evaluating 6. Creating How students answered (in 2014)
  29. 29. How do we teach students to move higher on Bloom’s Taxonomy? Teach them the Study Cycle* *adapted from Frank Christ’s PLRS system
  30. 30. The Study Cycle
  31. 31. Focused Study Sessions
  32. 32. What happens when we teach metacognitive learning strategies, Bloom’s Taxonomy, and the Study Cycle to an entire class, not just individuals?
  33. 33. Performance in Gen Chem I in 2011 Based on One Learning Strategies Session* Attended Absent Exam 1 Avg.: 71.65% 70.45% Exam 2 Avg.: 77.18% 68.90% Final course Avg*.: 81.60% 70.43% Final Course Grade: B C The one 50-min presentation on study and learning strategies was followed by an improvement of one full letter grade *Cook, E.; Kennedy, E.; McGuire, S. Y. J. Chem. Educ., 2013, 90 (8), 961–967
  34. 34. Performance in Gen Chem 1202 Sp 2013 Based on One Learning Strategies Session Attended Absent Exam 1 Avg.: 71.33% 69.27% Homework Total 169.8 119.1 Final course Avg* 82.36% 67.71% Final Course Grade: B D The 50-min presentation on study and learning strategies was followed by an improvement of two letter grades
  35. 35. Performance in Gen Chem 1202 Sp 2015 Based on One Learning Strategies Session Attended Absent Exam 1, 2, 3 Avg: 68.14% 69.67% Exam 4 Avg: 83.45% 75.91% Final Exam Avg. 80.98% 75.24% Final course Avg*: 84.90% 78.83% Final Course Grade: B C The 50-min presentation on study and learning strategies after exam 3 was followed by an improvement of one letter grade
  36. 36. Professor Ningfeng Zhao’s Exam Averages Intervention: One fifty minute learning strategies session after Exam 1 Zhao, N., Wardeska, J. G., McGuire, S. Y., & Cook, E. (2014). Metacognition: An effective tool to promote success in college science learning. Journal of College Science Teaching, 43(4), 48–54.
  37. 37. Metacognition: An Effective Tool to Promote Success in College Science Learning* Ningfeng Zhao1, Jeffrey Wardeska1, Saundra McGuire2, Elzbieta Cook2 1Department of Chemistry, East Tennessee State University 2Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University *March/April 2014 issue of JCST, Vol. 43, No. 4, pages 48-54
  38. 38. Teaching and Learning Strategies That Work SCIENCE , VOL 325 4 SEPTEMBER 2009 www.sciencemag.org ROALD HOFFMANN1 AND SAUNDRA Y. MCGUIRE2 1Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Baker Laboratory, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. 2Center for Academic Success and Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.
  39. 39. MARGINALIA Learning and Teaching Strategies Roald Hoffmann and Saundra Y. McGuire September-October 2010 Volume 98, Number 5
  40. 40. Gabriel, Kathleen F. (2008) Teaching Unprepared Students. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing Two Valuable References Nilson, Linda. (2013) Creating Self-regulated Learners Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing
  41. 41. Dweck, Carol, 2006. Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York: Random House Publishing Help Students Develop the Right Mindset Shenk, David, 2010. The Genius in All of Us: Why Everything You've Been Told About Genetics, Talent, and IQ Is Wrong. New York: Doubleday
  42. 42. Mindset* is Important!  Fixed Intelligence Mindset Intelligence is static You have a certain amount of it  Growth Intelligence Mindset Intelligence can be developed You can grow it with actions Dweck, Carol (2006) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York: Random House Publishing
  43. 43. Which mindset about intelligence do you think most students have? Fixed Growth
  44. 44. Responses to Many Situations are Based on Mindset Fixed Intelligence Mindset Response Growth Intelligence Mindset Response Challenges Avoid Embrace Obstacles Give up easily Persist Tasks requiring effort Fruitless to Try Path to mastery Criticism Ignore it Learn from it Success of Others Threatening Inspirational
  45. 45. Which mindset about student intelligence do you think most faculty have? Fixed Growth
  46. 46. Which mindset about student intelligence do you think most STEM faculty have? Fixed Growth
  47. 47. Why do students need to use the textbook? It provides an overview of the content It provides additional problems, questions, examples, charts, etc. Many students need the detailed explanations found in the book
  48. 48. Conclusion We can significantly increase learning by… • teaching students how to learn • making learning visible • making the implicit explicit • not judging student potential on initial performance • encouraging students to persist in the face of initial failure • encouraging the use of metacognitive tools for transformative learning
  49. 49. Additional References • Bruer, John T. , 2000. Schools For Thought: A Science of Learning in the Classroom. MIT Press. • Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., Cocking, R.R. (Eds.), 2000. How people learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. • Christ, F. L., 1997. Seven Steps to Better Management of Your Study Time. Clearwater, FL: H & H Publishing • Cromley, Jennifer, 2000. Learning to Think, Learning to Learn: What the Science of Thinking and Learning Has to Offer Adult Education. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy. • Ellis, David, 2014. Becoming a Master Student*. Boston: Cengage Learning. • Hoffman, Roald and Saundra Y. McGuire. (2010). Learning and Teaching Strategies. American Scientist , vol. 98, pp. 378-382. • Nilson, Linda, 2004. Teaching at Its Best: A Research-Based Resource for College Instructors. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing Company. • Pierce, William, 2004. Metacognition: Study Strategies, Monitoring, and Motivation. http://academic.pg.cc.md.us/~wpeirce/MCCCTR/metacognition.htm *Excellent student reference
  50. 50. McGuire, S.Y. (2015). Teach Students How to Learn: Strategies You Can Incorporate into Any Course to Improve Student Metacognition, Study Skills, and Motivation. Sterling, VA: Stylus A New Reference
  51. 51. Useful Websites • www.cas.lsu.edu • www.howtostudy.org • www.vark-learn.com • www.drearlbloch.com • Searches on www.google.com

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