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Upper Sec EL                          Teacher Slides




Argumentative
Essays
Format & Language
Model essay on Captivity o...
The Question
     The Question
Marine mammals should
not be kept in captivity.
     Do you agree?
Let’s watch a video on dolphins to
better understand the situation…
               https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=p...
Introduction –– 1st para
  Introduction 1st para                       FORMAT




Life for captive whales and dolphins is
...
Body –– 2nd para: Argument 1
                Body 2nd para: Argument 1                           FORMAT


 Argument 1
    ...
Body –– 3rd para: Argument 2
     Body 3rd para: Argument 2                 FORMAT


 Argument 2   Some of these poor inno...
Body –– 4th para: Argument 3
      Body 4th para: Argument 3                     FORMAT



Argument 3
    Topic     Marine...
Body –– 5th para: Counter-Argument
 Body 5th para: Counter-Argument                     FORMAT


           Many people th...
Body –– 5th para: Counter-Argument
Body 5th para: Counter-Argument                       FORMAT


            Many people ...
Conclusion –– Final para
 Conclusion Final para                            FORMAT


Restate     In conclusion, I think mar...
LANGUAGE
What TENSE is used throughout?
What TENSE is used throughout?


    Life for captive whales and dolphins is
    n...
What tense should be used in the
 What tense should be used in the               LANGUAGE
supporting explanations e.g.
 su...
LANGUAGE
The underlined phrases are
The underlined phrases are
known as…
known as…
 In my opinion there is no doubt that m...
What effect do these underlined
What effect do these underlined                   LANGUAGE
words have on you?
words have o...
Highlight examples of emotive words
 Highlight examples of emotive words       LANGUAGE
in Paragraph 3.
 in Paragraph 3.
 ...
Use Rhetorical Questions
Use Rhetorical Questions

 •    A Rhetorical question is a question
   that has an obvious answer...
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Argumentative Essay - format and Language use

  1. 1. Upper Sec EL Teacher Slides Argumentative Essays Format & Language Model essay on Captivity of Marine Mammals
  2. 2. The Question The Question Marine mammals should not be kept in captivity. Do you agree?
  3. 3. Let’s watch a video on dolphins to better understand the situation… https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_de
  4. 4. Introduction –– 1st para Introduction 1st para FORMAT Life for captive whales and dolphins is nothing like a life in the wild sea. Marine mammals are a part of nature and should not be bought, sold or thrown in an aquarium. I believe that they have the right to be kept in their natural environment and not be held in captivity. State your opinion in the introductory paragraph!
  5. 5. Body –– 2nd para: Argument 1 Body 2nd para: Argument 1 FORMAT Argument 1 I have many convincing reasons to support my Topic sentence opinion. Captivity causes many health problems in marine mammals. Many tanks have water full of chemicals and bacteria; this results in blindness and many skin problems in dolphins Evidence/ and other marine mammals. Marine mammals in Explanation / captivity die from pneumonia, ulcers and other Examples to stress-related diseases. Most of these helpless support creatures suffer from boredom. Dolphins in the Argument 1 wild can swim up to 40-100 miles per day but in pools they go around swimming repetitive patterns. Due to boredom and limited space many dolphins abuse themselves; they often bang their heads against tank and aquarium walls. Topic Sentence: basically tells what the rest of the paragraph is about. All sentences after it have to give more information about the sentence, prove it by offering facts about it, or describe it. 
  6. 6. Body –– 3rd para: Argument 2 Body 3rd para: Argument 2 FORMAT Argument 2 Some of these poor innocent creatures Topic face abusive treatment by their sentence caretakers, thus shortening their life span. In fact, Keiko, the killer whale, the star of Free Willy, was a victim of Example to this type of abuse. It was known to be support said that he was 1000 pounds Argument 2 underweight and developed a wartlike disease. His teeth were ground down from chewing the sides of the pool due to boredom and he had a problem with his dorsal fin.
  7. 7. Body –– 4th para: Argument 3 Body 4th para: Argument 3 FORMAT Argument 3 Topic Marine mammals breed very poorly in sentence captivity with very high infant death rates. For this reason, when a baby dolphin is Supporting evidence to born into captivity, its birth is usually kept support a secret from its mother until it shows Argument 3 signs of survival. Marine mammals do breed in captivity, but the birth rate in captivity is not as successful as in the wild.
  8. 8. Body –– 5th para: Counter-Argument Body 5th para: Counter-Argument FORMAT Many people think that marine mammals should remain in captivity. I realise that some people may believe that captivity increases the life span of certain animals, but the truth is if these creatures are so happy in is the point of an they die so fast? What captivity, why do Opposing “opposing argument”? Captivity shortens animal life spans, not increases Argument them. Why oppose your own opinion? in the wild Wild dolphins can live 40 years and orcas can live 90 years, but when held in captivity they rarely survive their teens. Twenty- To show that you do have three out of 25 balanced view in captivity. Some a orcas have died people think that holding animals in captivity helps of the issue. in study and research. But the truth is scientists prefer to learn about animals in their natural environment so they get firsthand knowledge.
  9. 9. Body –– 5th para: Counter-Argument Body 5th para: Counter-Argument FORMAT Many people think that marine mammals should Counter argument = facts realise that some people may remain in captivity. I you use to show that the opposing argument believe that captivity increases the life span of is not valid certain animals, but the truth is if these creatures are so happy in captivity, why do they die so fast? Captivity shortens animal life spans, not increases Counter them. Wild dolphins can live 40 years in the wild argument to the and orcas can live 90 years, but when held in opposing captivity they rarely survive their teens. Twenty- argument three out of 25 orcas have died in captivity. Some people think that holding animals in captivity helps in study and research. But the truth is scientists prefer to learn about animals in their natural environment so they get firsthand knowledge.
  10. 10. Conclusion –– Final para Conclusion Final para FORMAT Restate In conclusion, I think marine mammals your opinion should definitely not be held in captivity. I think Ghandi said it best when he mentioned, “The greatness of a nation and its moral process can be measured by the way its animals are treated.” In a world where much of nature and the wild has Call for already been lost to us, it is up to us to let action by these beautiful marine mammals free. readers
  11. 11. LANGUAGE What TENSE is used throughout? What TENSE is used throughout? Life for captive whales and dolphins is nothing like a life in the wild sea. Marine mammals are a part of nature and should not be bought, sold or thrown in an aquarium. I believe that they have the right to be kept in their natural environment and not be held in captivity. Use PRESENT TENSE
  12. 12. What tense should be used in the What tense should be used in the LANGUAGE supporting explanations e.g. supporting explanations e.g. Paragraph 3? Paragraph 3? Some of these poor innocent creatures face abusive treatment by their caretakers, thus shortening their life span. In fact Keiko, the killer whale, the star of Free Willy, was a victim of this type of abuse. It was known to be said that he was 1000 pounds underweight and developed a wartlike disease. His teeth were ground down from chewing the sides of the pool due to boredom and he had a problem with his dorsal fin. Past tense is used here because the writer is writing about an incident that is already over
  13. 13. LANGUAGE The underlined phrases are The underlined phrases are known as… known as… In my opinion there is no doubt that marine mammals should not be held in captivity. Marine mammals are a part of nature and should not be bought, sold or thrown in an aquarium. I believe that they have the right to be kept in their natural environment. Words of belief- Words to show that you believe in what you are writing Other examples of words of belief: I am convinced, definitely, certainly, I am certain, surely, I strongly believe etc
  14. 14. What effect do these underlined What effect do these underlined LANGUAGE words have on you? words have on you? I have many convincing reasons to support my opinion. Captivity causes many health problems in marine mammals. Many tanks have water full of chemicals and bacteria; this results in blindness and many skin problems in dolphins and other marine mammals. Marine mammals in captivity die from pneumonia, ulcers and other stress- related diseases. Most of these helpless creatures suffer from boredom. Dolphins in the wild can swim up to 40-100 miles per day but in pools they go around swimming repetitive patterns. Due to boredom and limited space many dolphins abuse themselves; they often bang their heads against tank and aquarium walls. These are known as emotive words – they bring out some feelings in the readers. Purpose – to cause readers to feel strongly for what the writer is arguing about.
  15. 15. Highlight examples of emotive words Highlight examples of emotive words LANGUAGE in Paragraph 3. in Paragraph 3. Some of these poor innocent creatures face abusive treatment by their caretakers, thus shortening their life span. In fact Keiko, the killer whale, the star of Free Willy, was a victim of this type of abuse. It was known to be said that he was 1000 pounds underweight and developed a wartlike disease. His teeth were ground down from chewing the sides of the pool due to boredom and he had a problem with his dorsal fin.
  16. 16. Use Rhetorical Questions Use Rhetorical Questions • A Rhetorical question is a question that has an obvious answer. • Purpose: To force the reader to think about that question / issue. • Eg. Could dolphins possibly be happy swimming in the same tank day after day? You obviously don’t need to answer this question but it forces the reader to think about this image and he/she would most likely support your opinion.
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