Sadiya Attiq GCSE Citizenship Revision Guide For 3.2.1/3.2.2/3.2.3/3.2.4 3.2.1 -Identities and CommunitiesBeing BritishTo be British you have to be Patriotic and proud of your country. If you were born here, but movedto a different country, you still can be British.Cultural Traditions:Cultural Traditions include more than having afternoon tea or wearing bowler hats. Royal Traditionsinclude: Trooping the colour, The Queen’s speech and Royal Ascot. There are festival occasions suchas: dancing around a maypole on May Day or setting Guy Fawkes alight on Bonfire night. Value Systems Personal Freedom: Equal Opportunity: Being free to make your Everyone has equal own decisions, careers and chances choices. Getting a job should The right to speak your depend on the quality of mind BUT being careful to that certain skill NOT race not offend others while or culture. doing so. Equal rights for women Representative Democracy: British Law: The right to have a say in Laws are created to make how Britain is run! life fair People elect MPs who Everyone has to follow the represent their set of rules constituents Illegal acts won’t be tolerated To protect our rights.British and the UKBritain= England, Scotland and WalesUK= Britain and Northern IrelandCity/Town/Area AccentBirmingham BrummieLondon CockneyWales WelshLiverpool ScouseManchester Manchurian
Sadiya Attiq GCSE Citizenship Revision Guide For 3.2.1/3.2.2/3.2.3/3.2.4Key ReligionsChristianityIslamSikhismHinduismJudaismBuddhismKey Ethnics/RacesWhite Black Asian OrientalBritain is a Multicultural countryFor centuries immigration has bought many different people to the UK. This is why the UK is verydiverse today and multi-cultural.The HistoryThe Celts were Then the They brought The Normansthe first to live Romans came. over Black then invaded inin Britain. Africans. 1066.The Russians Protestants then Gypsies then A Jewishand Nazis came settled. arrived in the community thenover. 16th Century. settled.Seafarers from Black and Asian Immigration The Chinese,India and China Troops from India Americans,came over. increased. French & Polish Cypriot, Turkish and Eastern Europeans came
Sadiya Attiq GCSE Citizenship Revision Guide For 3.2.1/3.2.2/3.2.3/3.2.4 Immigration Immigration means entering or leaving legally or illegally. There are many reasons on why some people leave such as: War Poverty Lack of educational prospects Lack of employment prospects Persecution Lack of Human Rights The reasons they come to the Britain are: Financial Security Escape war Better lifestyle More educational Opportunities Community Cohesion This is when the whole of the society work together for a cause to encourage respect and a better understanding of one another. Promoting Community Cohesion: Language classes- For people who don’t speak English Community Projects School’s teaching student about different cultures Passing the ‘Life in the UK’- To help foreigners understand British Cultures and Traditions What are Human Rights? – The rights you have as a human.The 30 Human rights: 1. Nationality 2. Marriage and Family 1. Born free and equal 3. Ownership 16. Marriage and Family 2. Don’t Discriminate 4. Freedom of thoughts 17. Ownership 3. Live free 5. Freedom of expression 18. Freedom of thoughts 4. No slavery 6. Public Assembly 19. Freedom of expression 5. No torture 7. Democracy 20. Public Assembly 6. Universal 8. Social Security 21. Democracy 7. Equal before the law 9. Workers Rights 22. Social Security 8. Protected by the law 10. To play 23. Workers Rights 9. No unfair detainment 11. Food and shelter for all 24. To play 10. To have a trial 12. Education 25. Food and shelter for all 11. Innocent till proven guilty 13. Copyright 26. Education 12. Privacy 14. Fair and free world 27. Copyright 13. To move 28. Fair and free world 14. Asylum 29. To know 15. Nationality 30. No one can take away your rights
Sadiya Attiq GCSE Citizenship Revision Guide For 3.2.1/3.2.2/3.2.3/3.2.4Regional Variations-Regional Variation How different aspects are different to the rest of the regions and areas suchas: Accents The way you dress What you eat HobbiesCensus A census is a procedure done every 10 years that records important information about the member’s o f the public. Important information such as: Full name, current address, wages etc is recorded by the government.Glossary:Creed: A ReligionIdentity: The Characteristics that make you who you areEthnicity: Involved in a particular racial or cultural groupsPrejudice: Unreasonable and unfair dislike for a particular type of person or thingStereotype: A fixed or set characteristics to represent a personReligion: The belief in a god or gods and all the activitiesCommunity: Groups living in within a societyDiscrimination: To recognise and understand someone’s differencesMulti-culturalism: Different ethnic background coming togetherInterdependence: Working together and alongside each otherImmigration: Coming in to a country or different areaDiversity: Having different formsNational: Related to the entire nation or countryRegional: Related to a particular region or a country
Sadiya Attiq GCSE Citizenship Revision Guide For 3.2.1/3.2.2/3.2.3/3.2.4 3.2.2.-Fairness and Justice in decision-making and the Law The Law “Law is a formal method of controlling people and society through rules set down and then enforced through courts and the legal system” Laws are there for people’s health and safety- E.g. The ban of smoking in public places to protect the health of non smokers from harmful chemicals. Making LawsThe Government draws up a bill; The First Reading; The Second Reading; Politicians talk to experts about Title of the Bill is read out in HOC Debates are set out and a vote is their idea. Several Drafts are and the date for the second taken. If the bill is voted against, it made (GreenWhite Paper) reading is set. does not go through to the next stage. The whole process is re done in Report Stage and Third Reading; Committee Stage; the House of Lords; The committee reports on any Each detail of the bill isLords can make changes but HOC changed and the bill is read out scrutinised and voted on.have to agree. (delay up to a year) again. The vote takes place.Back To the House of Commons; The Royal Asset; The House of Commons can use The Queen singes of the bill. Now and Act of Parliament! the Parliament to override the House of Lords. Civil and Criminal Law Civil Law Criminal Law Solve disputes between Maintain Law & Order and to protect the individuals/businesses/organisations. citizens. Includes: Family law, Contract law and Started up by the Police by the Crown ASBOs. Prosecution Service (CPS). The person/organisation is the wrong Criminal cases include: theft, murder and must pay compensation to the other drink driving. party. Punishment could vary e.g. Chop down a Always in a punishment; fines, tree that is blocking a neighbour’s light. probations, curfew, prison... The decision is a civil case if made by judge/judges not a jury!
Sadiya Attiq GCSE Citizenship Revision Guide For 3.2.1/3.2.2/3.2.3/3.2.4 Antisocial Behaviour Orders They are orders that prevent people from doing different things e.g. being noisy, begging, spitting or harassing someone. An ASBO is a civil order though if you break one = 5 YEARS IN PRISON! Legal SupportThe Citizens’ Advice Bureau (CAB) Solicitors - Provide free legal support - Provide legal support and - From money to relationship represent you in court problems - Not free as it is expensive - Ring/Email - Specialist areas Punishment and the Youth Justice Youth Justice System deals with crime. Different types of punishments for Law- Breakers... Fines Speeding Community Sentences Curfew Restorative Justice Offender and victim communicating Prison From weeks to life The Police and the CPS o Main Law enforcers in Britain o Many types of police officers; from patrol officers to police detectives o The CPS decide whether the case should be taken into court Protecting Human Rights Human Rights are enforceable by the European Law 1948 UN published Universal Declaration of Human Rights (means nothing in the court of law) 1953 EU passed European Convention of Human Rights (enforced by the law) Humanitarian Law Humanitarian Law-Aim to protect human rights of civilians such as: Protects rights in conflict Rules that regulate how wars are needless suffering weapons-NO fought in order to limit suffering Attacks direct to Enemy and destruction No enemy to be hurt
Sadiya Attiq GCSE Citizenship Revision Guide For 3.2.1/3.2.2/3.2.3/3.2.4 Democracy 3.2.3.-Democracy and Voting Ruled by the The UK is a Democracy only People for the representative exists if you have People! democracy- Rights and Elections take place Freedoms! History ● ● ●End of 17th Century- Democratic Country Non Democratic CountryParliament took controlfrom Monarchy Choice of political parties One political party E.g. UK, France, USA No Vote19th Century- Series of Elections held regularly Media Controlledreform Acts; more men can Can be a Republic A lot of Powervote Constitutional Monarchy Opposition is suppressed1918- The Representation (limited powers)of the people Act; men over21 and women over 30 canvote1928- The voting agelowered to 21 (Equality) ● ● ● Dictatorship “A system of Government in which a country is ruled by a single person with absolute power” Adolf Hitler, Saddam Hussein and Colonel Gaddafi – All were voted in but became very harsh dictators. LEFT CENTRE RIGHT SOCIALSIT FACIST
Sadiya Attiq GCSE Citizenship Revision Guide For 3.2.1/3.2.2/3.2.3/3.2.4 Political Parties Voting Conservatives Happens in Polling Stations Ballot box Ballot Paper First Past the Post Candidate with the most votes becomes MP; the party with the most votes become Government; leader of winning party becomes Prime Minister! Influencing Decision Making Pressure Groups- Interest Groups- Group of people who try to Group of people who try to influence decision makers as they influence decision makers as they are concerned about a particular are concerned about a particular Drug Abuse issue issue Terrorism Media Broadcasting Ways in Fashion Types of which media Radio Media Books is used CrimeMagazine Social Networking Poverty Religion TV Newspaper Free Press Positive- Freedom of Speech Negative- Bias/ create conflict/ violating someone’s right to privacy Censorship Positive- Protecting the Government/ creating a stronger country Negative- You cannot voice your full opinion
Sadiya Attiq GCSE Citizenship Revision Guide For 3.2.1/3.2.2/3.2.3/3.2.4European Union 3.2.4.-United Kingdom and the rest of the world Has 27 members (countries) UK joined before 2004 Work together as alliances Obey the EU Laws and contribute to the EU Budget Keep peace in EuropeEuropean Commission Appointed by the Government of Not everyone agreesother countries Seen sometimes asEuropean Parliament 736 members; elected by the EU undemocraticcitizens Too diverse for the EU to be effectiveCouncil of the EU 1 minister/ Government of each UK giving too muchmember country independenceThe Commonwealth 54 members British monarch Meet every 2 years Commonwealth gamesThe United NationsResolve conflicts and protect victims General Assembly = Annual Meeting International Criminal Court set up in 2002 Humanitarian laws; war and genocide Security Council Peace and security (15 members) Kyoto Protocol Agreement on Pollute less (1997) What the UK has done? Switching from coal to oil power stations More recycling Better nylon manufacture
Sadiya Attiq GCSE Citizenship Revision Guide For 3.2.1/3.2.2/3.2.3/3.2.4Glossary Civil law- The part of the common law that sorts out disagreements between people when the state is not directly involved. Commonwealth of Nations- Organisation originating British colonies which work together towards common social and political aims. Consumer rights – The rights of someone who buys something or pays for a service. Crown courts- Courts that deal with serious criminal cases- (verdict decided by jury) Crown Prosecution Service- A separate body from the police. They decide if someone should be taken into court. Democracy- A system where the country is ruled by the people for the people. Dictatorship- A system of Government in which a country is ruled by a single person with absolute power. European commission- The EU institution which rights economic/environmental/social and foreign policy. European Convention on HR- An international agreement which sets out the human rights which apply to everyone. European Parliament- the Elected group which controls EU. European Union- An economic and political alliance of member states. First Past the Post- The voting system for general elections in the UK. The candidate with the most votes wins. Humanitarian laws- Rules of what the country is allowed to do in a war (unnecessary suffering or damage is prevented). Interdependence- Where one action/factor is affected by the actions of another (vice versa). International Criminal Court- A court set up by UN to deal with war cranial and accused of genocide. Kyoto Protocol- An agreement signed in 1997. It aimed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Magistrates’ court- Local courts which hear most criminal cases. Media- Ways of communicating with the public using technologies of print, video and sound. Non-statutory bodies- Organisation not set up by the government and with no legal powers such as Citizens’ Advice Bureau. Parliament- The body which makes the laws in the UK. It consists of the HOL, HOC and the Monarchy. Press Complaints Commission- Manages the voluntary code of conduct which governs the newspapers and magazines. Referendum- When an important question is put out to a direct vote of people Representative democracy- The system of government where people elect representatives to run different factors. Sustainable development- Improving qualities of life in a way that can continue in the future. United Nations- An organisation which aims to find peaceful solutions to conflicts and promote global cooperation and human rights. Universal Declaration of Human Rights- The document which lays down the basic human rights which everyone has.