Curso Crisis Management - 2011 - versão inglês


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Curso desenvolvido em inglês para treinamento em empresa multinacional. Milton Roberto de Almeida, www.

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Curso Crisis Management - 2011 - versão inglês

  1. 1. ByMilton Roberto de 1
  2. 2. Crisis Management Be prepared! Expect the Unexpected.By Milton Roberto de Almeida 2
  3. 3. “When planning for a crisis, it is instructive to recallthat Noah started building the Ark before it started torain.” Norman Augustine
  4. 4. COURSE OBJECTIVES The purpose of the course is to: • describe the principles and processes of crisis and risk management • give practical guidance on designing a suitable framework for crisis management • give practical advice on implementing enterprise risk managementBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 4
  5. 5. COURSE CONTENT • About course • Vision, Mission, and Quality objectives • Crisis Management concepts • Crisis Prevention and Response • Teamwork Behavior and knowledgeBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 5
  6. 6. Brief Overview of Crisis Management Literature Etc.By Milton Roberto de Almeida 6
  7. 7. A key difficulty and major concern is how to move from “the rhetoric of conflictprevention to one of institutionalized practice” (Ackermann, 2003, p. 339).By Milton Roberto de Almeida 7
  8. 8. Citation analysis is an effective process to identify seminal authors and key areas of study within a field of literature. Proposed Research Goals and Questions The primary research goals of this thesis are as follows: •Determine seminal authors within of crisis management •Determine influential manuscripts, journals, books and book series. •Identify key areas of crisis management literature •Identify and classify key fields of study within crisis management literature •Provide a mapping tool to display seminal authors with respect to their specific field of study within crisis management •Provide an all accessible, user-friendly interface available to researchers and individuals interested in crisis management literatureBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 8
  9. 9. Suggested bibliography Crisis Management: Planning for the Inevitable by Steven Fink (Jun 19, 2000) Managing Crises Before They Happen: What Every Executive and Manager Needs to Know about Crisis Management by Ian I. Mitroff and Gus Anagnos (Jun 5, 2005) Crisis Leadership Now: A Real-World Guide to Preparing for Threats, Disaster, Sabotage, and Scandal by Laurence Barton (Dec 20, 2007)By Milton Roberto de Almeida 9
  10. 10. Atividade # 1 Meeting opener exercise DrawingBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 10
  11. 11. By Milton Roberto de Almeida 11
  12. 12. EMERGENCY, RISKS, AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT EMERGENCY AND RISK MANAGEMENT deal primarily with NATURAL disasters. CRISIS MANAGEMENT deals mainly with MAN-MADE or HUMAN-caused crises, such as: Computer hacking, environmental contamination, executive kidnapping, fraud, product tampering, sexual harassment, and workplace violence. Ian Mitroff Managing Crises Before They HappenBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 12
  13. 13. Unlike natural disasters, human-caused crises are not inevitable. They do not need to happen.For this reason, thepublic is extremelycritical of thoseorganizations that areresponsible for theiroccurrence. 13
  14. 14. Crises are no longer an aberrant, rare,random, or peripheral feature of today’ssociety.They are built into the very fabricand fiber of modern societies.All of us everywhere are impacted daily bycrises larger or small.Ian MitroffManaging Crises Before They Happen 14
  15. 15. The vast majority of organizations andinstitutions have not been designedto antecipate crises or tomanage then effectively once theyhave occurred.Neither the mechanisms northe basic skills are in placefor effective CrisisManagement. 15
  16. 16. Most organizations still do not understand the “new managementand thinking skills” required to head off crises.CM is broader than dealing withcrises alone.It provides a unique and criticalperspective on the newmanagement skills and the newtypes of organizations that willbe required in the 21st century.Ian MitroffManaging crises before they happen 16
  17. 17. ORGANIZATIONAL DEFENSE MECHANISMS By Ian Mitroff(Denial)• Crises only happen to others. We are invulnerable.(Disavowal)• Crises happen, but their impact on our organization is small.(Idealization)• Crises do not happen to good organizations 17
  18. 18. (Grandiosity)• We are so big and powerful that we will be protected from crises.(Projection)• If a crisis happens, it must be because someone else is bad or out to get us. 18
  19. 19. (Intellectualization)• We don’t have to worry about crises since the probabilities of their occurring are too small.• Before a crisis can be taken seriously, one would have to measure precisely its odds of occurrence and its consequences (Compartmentalization) • Crises cannot affect the whole of our organization since the parts are independent one of another. 19
  20. 20. CONFORT TIME RECOVERY BUSINESS CRISIS: RESPONSE (If a business DEVELOPMENT A rupture or is prepared for changing crisis) moment. Webster’s defines a CRISIS as a BUSINESS DIES “turning point for BETTER or WORSE”; as a ‘decisive moment” or “crucial time.”By Milton Roberto de Almeida 20
  21. 21. DEFINING CRISIS MANAGEMENT It is a discipline within the Crisis management is the broader context of process by which an management consisting of organization deals with a skills and techniques required major event that threatens to identify, assess, to harm the organization, its understand, and cope with a stakeholders, or the general serious situation, especially public. from the moment it first occurs to the point that recovery procedures start.By Milton Roberto de Almeida 21
  22. 22. Crisis management is defined as helping avert crises or more effectively manage those that occur.By Milton Roberto de Almeida 22
  23. 23. Crisis Management Objectives General objectives of any interorganizational crisis response network: PREPARATION Providing the planning, RESPONSE WISDOM training, and Actually LearningANTICIPATION implementing tpgether from collectiveA commitment the collective the event in responsibilitiesto analyzing, resolution arm order to prevent, prior to a crisis.attempeting to when a crisis lesson thepredict, occurs. severity of, orforewarn, and improve uponsteer clear of responses toemerging future crises.crises. 23
  24. 24. Crisis Management framework CRISIS Prevention Response Recovery OBJECTIVES - DOCTRINES LEADERSHIP Rules to follow ORGANIZATION Responsibility Structure and Processes Performance Architecture CULTURE TRAINING Values, behaviours RESOURCES Learning People, Money, EquipmentsBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 24
  25. 25. Crisis ManagementFive-phase sequence describes how crisis are handled among“best case” organizations or networks. 1 – Signal detection phase 2 – Preparation 3 – Damage containment 4 – Recovery 5 - Learning 25
  26. 26. Crisis VariablesIntensityRefers to the number of problems evident in a particular crisis. Intensitymeasures the number, not the variety of types, of problems encountered.ComplexityA crisis’s complexity rating measures the number of dimensions that acrisis crosses. Complexity is concerned with the different types ofproblems in the same emergency.FamiliarityThe familiarity rating of a crisis is determined by the frequency ofoccurrence of the particular crisis in the resolution network. Michael J. Hillyard Public Crisis Management 26
  27. 27. WHY CRISIS ARE INEVITABLE AND PERMANENT FEATURE OF MODERN SOCIETIES Changes never stop. We live in a world: •Political •Volatile. •Economic •Uncertain. •Military •Complex •Social •Ambiguous. •Technology •EnvironmentBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 27
  28. 28. THREATSBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 28
  29. 29. Sudden Crisis A sudden crisis is defined as: A disruption in the companys business which occurs without warning and is likely to generate news coverage, including fires, explosions, natural disasters and workplace violence and may adversely impact: •Employees, investors, customers, suppliers or other publics •Offices, plants, franchises or other business assets •Revenues, net income, stock price, etc. •Reputation--and ultimately the good will listed as an asset on the balance sheetBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 29
  30. 30. Sudden Crisis A sudden crisis may be: a. A business-related accident resulting in significant property damage that will disrupt normal business operations b. The death or serious illness or injury of a manager, employee, contractor, customer, visitor, etc. as the result of a business-related accident c. The sudden death or incapacitation of a key executive d. Discharge of hazardous chemicals or other materials into the environmentBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 30
  31. 31. Sudden Crisis e. Accidents that cause the disruption of telephone or utility service f. Significant reduction in utilities or vital services needed to conduct business g. Any natural disaster that disrupts operations, endangers employees h. Unexpected job action or labor disruption i.. Workplace violence involving employees/family members or customersBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 31
  32. 32. Smoldering Crisis A smoldering crisis is defined as: Any serious business problem that is not generally known within or without the company, which may generate negative news coverage if or when it goes "public" and could result in fines, penalties, legal damage awards, unbudgeted expenses and other costsBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 32
  33. 33. a. Sting operation by a news organization or government agency Examples of the types of b. Safety violations which could result in fines or legal action smoldering business crises c. Customer allegations of overcharging or other improper that would conduct prompt a call to the Crisis d. Investigation by a federal, state or local government Management agency Team would include: e. Action by a disgruntled employee such as serious threats or whistleblowing f. Indications of significant legal/judicial/regulatory action against the business g. Discovery of serious internal problems that will have to be disclosed to employees, investors, customers, vendors and/or government officials.By Milton Roberto de Almeida 33
  34. 34. In some instances crisis situations may be either sudden or smoldering,depending on the amount of advance notice and the chain of events in thecrisis. Examples would include: Anonymous accusations Competitive misinformation Confidential information disclosed Equipment, product or service sabotage Misuse of chemical products Industrial espionage Disgruntled employee threats Investigative reporter contact 34
  35. 35. Employee death or serious injury Sexual harassment allegationEmployee involved in a scandal Special interest group attackLabor problems Strike, job action or workExtortion threat stoppageSecurity leak or problem Terrorism threat or actionFalse accusations Illegal or unethical behavior of an employeeSevere weather impact onbusiness Major equipment malfunctionIncorrect installation of Nearby neighbor, businessequipment protest 35
  36. 36. Myths in Business Crisis Management The stereotype of business crises is industrial accidents, oil spills and bizarre crimes like terrorist bombings or the Tylenol incident. ICMs analysis of business crises since 1990 indicates these no-warning crises are the minority. The majority are smoldering crises. In other words management knows about them before they go public. Milton Roberto de Almeida 36
  37. 37. Another fallacy is that most crises are caused by employee errors or naturaldisasters. The reality is that most newsworthy business crises are theresults of management decisions, actions or inaction. 37
  38. 38. Crisis Categories Compared 1990 – 2009 (% of total crises each year) 1990 2002 2005 2009 Catastrophes 5.5 4.0 14.0 7.0 Environmental 7.8 2.0 2.0 2.0 Class Action Lawsuits 2.2 20.0 13.0 7.0 Consumer Activism 2.8 2.0 7.0 9.0 Defects & Recalls 5.4 13.0 3.0 8.0 Discrimination 3.3 3.0 3.0 3.0 Executive Dismissal 1.3 1.0 2.0 1.0 Financial Damages 4.2 3.0 4.0 5.0 Hostile Takeover 2.6 1.0 1.0 0.0 Labor Disputes 10.3 11.0 9.0 8.0 Mismanagement 24.1 11.0 9.0 16.0 Sexual Harassment .4 1.0 1.0 1.0 Whistle Blowers 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 White Collar Crime 20.4 14.0 18.0 18.0 Casualty Accidents 4.8 4.0 7.0 11.0 Workplace Violence 3.8 11.0 3.0 4.0 Milton Roberto de Almeida 38
  39. 39. By Milton Roberto de Almeida 39
  40. 40. By Milton Roberto de Almeida 40
  41. 41. The accident had a large influence on the industry, particularly in the area of communication. Less experienced flight crew members were encouraged to challenge their captains when they believed something was not correct, and captains were instructed to listen to their crew and evaluate all The Tenerife airport disaster occurred decisions in light of crew concerns. on March 27, 1977, when two Boeing This concept would later be 747 passenger aircraft collided on the expanded into what is known today runway of Los Rodeos Airport (now as Crew Resource Management. known as Tenerife North Airport) on the Spanish island of Tenerife, one of the CRM training is now mandatory for Canary Islands. With a total of 583 all airline pilots. fatalities, the crash is the deadliest accident in aviation history.By Milton Roberto de Almeida 41
  42. 42. TEAM RESOURCES MANAGEMENT The offshore oil industry has traditionally functioned with a teamwork culture and many operations are managed by crews, shifts and groups working together. This course is based in a particular type of crisis management and operational philosophy and team training called crew resource management (CRM) which was developed by the aviation industry for flight deck crews but which is now being used in other domains, such as in merchant navy ships (e.g. Braathens-SAFE) and hospital operating theatres. CRM now is called, for several industries, TRM – Team Resources ManagementBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 42
  43. 43. A US Airways jetliner crashed into the frigid Hudson River after a collision with a flock of birds disabled both its engines, sending more than 150 passengers and crew members scrambling onto rescue boats. Flight 1549 had just taken off from LaGuardia Airport en route to Charlotte, N.C., when the crash occurred in the river near 48th Street in midtown Manhattan. Miraculously, there were no deaths or serious injuries. Was this luck? Was God looking over the crew and patients on board? Maybe. But why did this event have a happy ending? Crew Resource Management.By Milton Roberto de Almeida 43
  44. 44. According to Wikipedia, Crew (or Cockpit) Resource Management (CRM) training originated from a NASA workshop in 1979 that focused on improving air safety. The CRM training approach has been adapted for use in industrial settings such as nuclear plants and offshore oil installations, particularly in control rooms and emergency command centres. In essence, CRM involves enhancing team members understanding of human performance, in particular the social and cognitive aspects of effective teamwork and good decision making.By Milton Roberto de Almeida 44
  45. 45. CRM beyond aviation Further evidence of the success of CRM comes from the Danish company Maersk,. They introduced Crew Resource Management for their mariners in 1994, and have been running Rig Crew Resource Management since 1997 (Byrdorf, 1998). Incidents and accidents in Maersk shipping company have decreased by a third from one major accident per 30 ship years in 1992 (before the introduction of CRM training) to one major accident per 90 ship years in 1996 (after the introduction of CRM training). In addition, at the beginning of 1998 all insurance premiums were lowered by 15 percent. They attribute this reduction in accidents and incidents to combined use of CRM and simulator training. CRM training has been adopted by a number of other professions including anaesthetists (Howard et al., 1992), air traffic control, the nuclear power industry (Harrington & Kello, 1991), and aviation maintenance (Marx & Graeber, 1994).By Milton Roberto de Almeida 45
  47. 47. By Milton Roberto de Almeida 47
  48. 48. THE CRISIS- READY COMPANYBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 48
  49. 49. Is your company prepared for crises? Only 6% survived after a disaster. Are you prepared?By Milton Roberto de Almeida 49
  50. 50. Crisis and Organizational Resilience NORMAL SITUATIONCRISIS SITUATION 50
  51. 51. CRISIS FORECASTING “Everyone talks about the weather, but no one does anything about it” - Mark Twain What are the five worst things that could happen to your organization? 1 _______________________ 2 _______________________ 3 _______________________ 4 _______________________ 5 _______________________By Milton Roberto de Almeida 51
  52. 52. THINKING FAR OUTSIDE OF THE BOXESBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 52
  53. 53. Exercício XAdicionando UMA LINHA, transformar o Xem... 53
  54. 54. ASSESSING YOUR CRISIS RISKBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 54
  55. 55. SITUATIONAL AWARENESSBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 55
  56. 56. PERCEPTION AND STRATEGIC THINKING PERCEPTION Like a filter, mental processes build a perception of reality Experience, Education, Values, Culture, Organizational rules, Strategic thinking, Quality of information Ex.: Ciclone Catarina REALITYBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 56
  57. 57. Do you see the old or the young woman? 57
  58. 58. The wheel is moving, isn’t it?By Milton Roberto de Almeida 58
  59. 59. Wrong perceptions may kill people. There are no threats. O Ciclone ou Furacão Catarina 29/Março/2004 – O ciclone extratropical Catarina, que atingiu a região sul do país, o fez com a intensidade de um furacão. Segundo autoridades locais, sua passagem deixou pelo menos 3 mortos e 100 mil casas destruídas. (...) Segundo a GloboNews, a Defesa Civil de Torres havia proposto a evacuação da cidade, mas o Ministro Ciro Gomes, da Integração Nacional, não autorizou, dizendo que os ventos seriam mais fracos que o previsto. Não foram. Fonte: Milton Roberto de Almeida 59
  60. 60. Wrongperceptions maykill you.LOOK OUT!By Milton Roberto de Almeida 60
  61. 61. TEAM, TEAMWORK AND LEADERSHIPBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 61
  62. 62. TEAMWORK The notion that effective teamwork is an essential component of organizational performance has now pervaded management practice, and teams, of different types and varying degrees of competence, can be found in abundance from the shopfloor to the boardroom.By Milton Roberto de Almeida 62
  63. 63. By Milton Roberto de Almeida 63
  64. 64. LEADERSHIP Leadership has been considered one of the most important elements affecting organizational performance.By Milton Roberto de Almeida 64
  65. 65. Leadership as an influence process Influence may be defined as the ability of one person to alter the behavior of another person. This influence may be formal or informal (not prescribed by the organization in terms of position or authority.By Milton Roberto de Almeida 65
  66. 66. By Milton Roberto de Almeida 66
  67. 67. Toxic leaders kill “I’m tired of being the only one who does teams and anything!” “You’re incompetent.” organizations! “If you make me look bad again, I’ll make your life miserable.” “You’re not a team player.”By Milton Roberto de Almeida 67
  68. 68. DECISION MAKINGBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 68
  69. 69. Planning Framework: a decision aid Situational Awareness Doctrine Organization Company Resources Training Leadership Scenarios Materials Strategic or Personnel Operational Decision FacilitiesBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 69
  70. 70. COMMUNICATION Communication is considered as na interpersonal process that results in the exchange of information. Communication is necessary for effective decision making. It is fundamental to the implementation of decisions.By Milton Roberto de Almeida 70
  71. 71. ASSERTIVENESSBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 71
  72. 72. By Milton Roberto de Almeida 72
  73. 73. There are four communication styles that exist along a continuum from which you can choose no matter the situation. Each style honors different parties’ rights and each brings about a different outcome. 1.Passive: Not standing up for yourself, or ineffectively doing so that your rights are easily violated; you allow others rights to be more important than your own and cave in to others’ wants and needs denying your own; 2.Aggressive: Standing up for yourself in a way that violates the rights of others; you’re concerned with getting what you want without concern about others getting what they need; 3.Passive-aggressive: The indirect expression of anger or frustration; it appears passive and non-hostile but you sabotage the other person; you’re too indirect to assert your own needs so communicate in a manipulative way, like through gossiping in a covert attempt to defend your rights; 4.Assertive: Standing up for yourself in a way that respects the rights of others; you’re direct, honest and appropriate in expressing your feelings and opinions;By Milton Roberto de Almeida 73
  74. 74. 74
  75. 75. Assertive people accept others’ rights are as important to them as yours are to you. When rights collide the assertive assumption is that youll negotiate in a way that helps everyone get their most important needs met and their rights respected, which is easier said than done.By Milton Roberto de Almeida 75
  76. 76. RESILIENCE AND FIRST RESPONDERSBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 76
  77. 77. STRESSBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 77
  78. 78. By Milton Roberto de Almeida 78
  79. 79. By Milton Roberto de Almeida 79
  80. 80. By Milton Roberto de Almeida 80
  81. 81. SIMULATIONS A simulation can take many forms, from real-life case studies to an engine failure on a passenger jet.By Milton Roberto de Almeida 81
  82. 82. TABLETOP EXERCISES - TTX A tabletop exercise simulates an emergency situation in an informal, stress- free environment. The participants can be either people on a decision-making level, veterans of the organization, or new members, who gather around a table to discuss general problems and procedures in the context of an emergency scenario. The focus is on training and familiarization with roles, procedures, or responsibilities. No plan? No tools? No problem! A TTX is also a great way to build a response plan based on input from the exercise and can be accomplished with some basic preparation (just like a lesson plan) and without any special equipment.By Milton Roberto de Almeida 82
  83. 83. Designing a TTX is Simple! There are eight simple steps you can use to design a TTX: Assess your needs Define the scope Write a statement of purpose Define TTX objectives Compose a narrative Write major and detailed messages List expected actions Prepare messagesBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 83
  84. 84. AAR – AFTER ACTION REVIEWBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 84
  85. 85. Milton Roberto de Almeida 85
  86. 86. BEST PRACTICES DISCUSSION GROUPSBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 86
  87. 87. By Milton Roberto de Almeida 87
  88. 88. NeverBy Milton Roberto de Almeida 88
  89. 89. 89