Unit 2 Review


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Review of the period of 600-1450 for AP World History

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Unit 2 Review

  1. 1. Unit 2 Review Post-classical societies
  2. 2. Big Picture Questions <ul><li>What happens when people come into contact with each other? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do some things change while others stay the same? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the development of new technology and movement of people affect the world? </li></ul><ul><li>How do societies organize themselves socially, and what roles to men and women play? </li></ul><ul><li>How do people identify themselves and express themselves culturally and intellectually? </li></ul><ul><li>How do people govern themselves? </li></ul>
  3. 3. What happens when people come into contact with each other? <ul><li>Tremendous growth in long-distance trade (Silk Road, Indian Ocean, Trans-Saharan trade, Mediterranean Sea) </li></ul>
  4. 4. What happens when people come into contact with each other? <ul><li>Pax Mongolia – order established along Mongol empire – trade and interaction at their peak </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why do some things change while others stay the same? <ul><li>Changes: Classical empires had fallen, new political units of organization developed to respond to new challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic migrations caused change (Turks and Mongols) </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity: Religion continued to be important and continued to spread </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity: Classical trade routes continue to grow in importance </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity: Patriarchal gender structures </li></ul>
  6. 6. How does the development of new technology and movement of people affect the world? <ul><li>Major technological developments shaped the development of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of people greatly altered the world </li></ul>
  7. 7. How does the development of new technology and movement of people affect the world? <ul><li>The compass, improved shipbuilding technology, gunpowder </li></ul>
  8. 8. How does the development of new technology and movement of people affect the world? <ul><li>Bantu migrations spread farming and crops, language </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to cultural commonalities in sub-Saharan Africa </li></ul>
  9. 9. How does the development of new technology and movement of people affect the world? <ul><li>Turks significant in the spread of Islam, and trade </li></ul>
  10. 10. How does the development of new technology and movement of people affect the world? <ul><li>Mongols bring order to trade routes, contribute to spread of religions </li></ul>
  11. 11. How does the development of new technology and movement of people affect the world? <ul><li>Vikings contribute to trade and influence Europe’s political developments </li></ul>
  12. 12. How does the development of new technology and movement of people affect the world? <ul><li>Bubonic Plague devastates populations – spread due to movement of people and increased interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa and India spared </li></ul>
  13. 13. How do societies organize themselves socially, and what roles to men and women play? <ul><li>Spread of universal religions such as Islam, Christianity and Buddhism preached equality of all believers in the eyes of God </li></ul><ul><li>Monastic life of Buddhism and Christianity offered alternative path for women </li></ul><ul><li>In China, foot binding </li></ul>
  14. 14. How do people identify themselves and express themselves culturally and intellectually? <ul><li>Religion acted as unifying force – Christianity in western Europe, Islam in North Africa, Southwest Asia (Dar al-Islam), Buddhism and Confucianism in East Asia </li></ul>
  15. 15. How do people govern themselves? <ul><li>After fall of classical empires, political structures in many areas adapted or changed to new conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine empire, Arab Caliphates, Tang and Song dynasties build off successful models of the past </li></ul><ul><li>Europe and Japan decentralized – develop new systems to meet unique challenges – Feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Mongol movements lead to largest empire – alters much of Asia’s political structure </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery from Mongol rule introduced new political structures in many areas </li></ul>
  16. 16. What happened in this period? <ul><li>Europe and China went through periods of decentralization </li></ul><ul><li>China reunited as an imperial empire </li></ul><ul><li>Roman empire never reunited successfully in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Regional kingdoms developed in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Islam is the new player on the scene – will have a major impact on cultures, politics, economics and intellectual developments </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim scholarship is adopted by West African and European leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic movements integrate world more </li></ul><ul><li>Europe begins to explore world toward the end of the period </li></ul>
  17. 17. Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE)
  18. 18. Song Dynasty (960-1229 CE)
  19. 19. Islamic Caliphates
  20. 20. Byzantine Empire (4 th Century-1453)
  21. 21. W. Europe – Early Middle Ages (500-1000)
  22. 22. Japan (600-1000)
  23. 23. The Delhi Sultanate
  24. 24. Nomadic Empires
  25. 25. Vikings (Around 800-1100) <ul><li>Settled in Scandinavia </li></ul><ul><li>Raids conducted to supplement farm production </li></ul><ul><li>Small, maneuverable boats used to terrorize coastal communities </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved from plunderers to traders – North and Baltic Seas </li></ul><ul><li>Great seafarers </li></ul><ul><li>Vikings in France known as Normans </li></ul><ul><li>William invades England – 1066 </li></ul><ul><li>Vikings Christianized and absorbed into European society </li></ul>
  26. 26. Turks (Around 1000-1450) <ul><li>Pastoral nomads from central Asian steppes </li></ul><ul><li>Hired as mercenary soldiers by Muslim leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Seljuk Turks convert to Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Seljuk Turks invade Abbasid territory- capture Baghdad </li></ul><ul><li>1071 – Defeat the Byzantine Empire and take most of Anatolia </li></ul><ul><li>Afghan Turks raid India in 10 th century – destroy Hindu temples </li></ul><ul><li>Turks create Delhi Sultanate – spread Islam into N. India </li></ul>
  27. 27. Mongols (Around 1200-1550) <ul><li>Pastoral nomads from central Asian steppes </li></ul><ul><li>Clan based society organized around kin </li></ul><ul><li>Great horsemen </li></ul><ul><li>Temujin united Mongol tribes – became Genghis Khan </li></ul><ul><li>Males age 17-70 served in military </li></ul><ul><li>“ Submit and live. Resist and Die” </li></ul><ul><li>Raided settled societies </li></ul><ul><li>Mamluks defeat Mongols in 1260- stop movement into region </li></ul>
  28. 28. Yuan Dynasty <ul><li>Kublai Khan defeated Song Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes Yuan Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed, regular tax system </li></ul><ul><li>Foreigners employed in bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>No civil service exam </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese purposely separated from Mongols – different laws </li></ul><ul><li>Horse relay connected Beijing to Vienna </li></ul>
  29. 29. Middle East: Ilkhanates <ul><li>Hulegu (Kublai’s brother) defeated Abbasid Caliphate </li></ul><ul><li>Mongols in Middle East employ local bureaucrats in gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>Convert to Islam by 1295 </li></ul><ul><li>Local rulers remain as long as they pay taxes & maintain order </li></ul><ul><li>Mongol culture mixed with local cultures </li></ul>
  30. 30. Russia: The Golden Horde <ul><li>Mongol ruler Batu conquered and ruled Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Kept large number of local rulers intact </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy taxes collected by Russian bureaucrats </li></ul><ul><li>Trade supported </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim conversion encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Christian missionaries allowed to visit </li></ul>
  31. 31. Pax Mongolia <ul><li>Peak of Mongolian power </li></ul><ul><li>Huge areas of Asia and Europe under one rule – religious tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Lasted 100 years – united two continents </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed trade and contact between different cultures by eliminating tariffs </li></ul><ul><li>Silk Road trade reaches greatest height – paper money used throughout empire </li></ul><ul><li>Failed invasion of Japan due to typhoon winds </li></ul><ul><li>Mongols poor administrators – only last a few generations </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry among successors weaken empire – by 1350 most lands reconquered by other armies </li></ul>
  32. 32. Impact of Interaction
  33. 33. West African Kingdoms <ul><li>Domesticated camels = increased trade across Sahara </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim and N. African merchants establish relations with W. Africa – Spread of Islam as a result of trade </li></ul><ul><li>Ghana (500-1200) – important commercial center for trade in gold from south (built large army by taxing trade and gold) </li></ul><ul><li>Ghana kings converted to Islam – improved trade relations </li></ul><ul><li>Mali (1235 – 1400s) – controlled and taxed all trade – Islamic rulers – Capital at Timbuktu </li></ul><ul><li>Mansa Musa – traveled to Mecca, built schools and mosques </li></ul>
  34. 34. Christianity in North and East Africa <ul><li>Began in 1 st century – most people converted to Islam by 700 </li></ul><ul><li>Christians remained in Egypt and Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopia evolves into a Christian kingdom with unique traditions and architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Monasticism in Egypt (Coptic) and Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>Christians allowed to worship freely </li></ul><ul><li>Unique linguistic and artistic expression emerge </li></ul>
  35. 35. East African City-States <ul><li>Indian Ocean trade integrates East Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Bantu people had settled on coast and interacted with Arab merchants – Swahili language is a direct result of interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Swahili city-states - Mogadishu, Kilwa, Sofala </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic merchants traded gold, ivory and slaves for pottery, glass and textiles from Persia, China, and India </li></ul><ul><li>City-states grew wealthy – built mosques </li></ul><ul><li>1200s – Great Zimbabwe built </li></ul><ul><li>Ruling elite and merchants convert to Islam, do not completely give up traditional cultural and religious customs </li></ul>
  36. 36. Europe: High Middle Ages <ul><li>Pre-modern economy begins to develop by 1100 </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in trade stimulates growth of commercial cities in heart of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Bruges (in Flanders) – located on rivers connecting North Sea and Central Europe – imported wool from England </li></ul><ul><li>Hamburg – part of Hanseatic League – major port on North Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Florence – controlled flow of goods up and down peninsula – became banking center </li></ul>
  37. 37. The Crusades <ul><li>Christian holy wars against “infidels” </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Urban II sent crusaders to recapture Palestine from Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>1 st crusades – capture Edessa, Antioch and Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>1187 – Muslims retake Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>4 th Crusade – conquer Constantinople – weaken Byzantine Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Crusades encouraged trade with Muslim Merchants – benefit Italian city-states like Venice, Genoa </li></ul>
  38. 38. Long Distance Trade <ul><li>This period characterized by increase in long-distance trade </li></ul><ul><li>Overland – silk, precious stones </li></ul><ul><li>Sea trade – steel, stone, coral, building materials </li></ul><ul><li>Silk Road linked Eurasian land mass through trade </li></ul><ul><li>Trans-Saharan trade connected West Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Ocean Trade linked China, Southeast Asia, India, Arabia, and East Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean Sea linked Europe with goods from the Muslim World and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of Mongol empire leads to economic dominance of Indian Ocean trade network </li></ul>
  39. 39. Missionary Campaigns <ul><li>Buddhism – Theravada Buddhism spreads in Southeast Asia and Mahayana Buddhism spreads to Central and East Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted to polytheism and cultural traditions in central Asia – becomes popular in Tibet </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries spread Buddhism to Korea and Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity also a missionary religion </li></ul><ul><li>Missionary spread religion to N. Europe – sponsored by Pope </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Orthodox Church spreads into Russia and E. Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted to pagan beliefs (saints) and holidays (winter solstice) </li></ul><ul><li>Nestorian Christianity spread in Persia and Mesopotamia </li></ul>
  40. 40. Agricultural and Technological Diffusion <ul><li>Increased interaction leads to spread of agriculture and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Compass – From China to Europe via Indian Ocean Trade increased maritime trade and exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Sugarcane – From SW Asia to European crusaders led to Italian Mediterranean island plantations and increase in slave labor </li></ul><ul><li>Gunpowder – From China to Persia, Middle East, and Europe by the Mongols increased weapon technology </li></ul>
  41. 41. Travelers <ul><li>Rabban Sauma (1225-1294) – Nestorian priest from Mongolia in China – tried to get Europeans to support Mongol cause </li></ul><ul><li>Marco Polo (1253-1324) – Merchant from Venice traveled throughout the Mongol empire – influenced European interest in goods from the East </li></ul><ul><li>Ibn Battuta (1304-1369) – Muslim scholar from Morocco traveled throughout Dar al-Islam, W, Africa, India, SE Asia – demonstrated widespread influence of Islam </li></ul>
  42. 42. The Spread of Disease: The Plague <ul><li>1340s – late 1600s </li></ul><ul><li>Black Death (Bubonic Plague) spread from Yunnan region of SW China </li></ul><ul><li>Infected rodents – fleas spread disease to humans </li></ul><ul><li>1340s spread by Mongol merchants and travelers on Silk Roads </li></ul><ul><li>Most victims died within days </li></ul><ul><li>Significant population decrease – created labor shortages </li></ul><ul><li>Weakened feudal system </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Semitism increased – Jews used as scapegoats and accused of poisoning wells </li></ul><ul><li>Christians questioned faith </li></ul>
  43. 43. Recovery and Renaissance in Asia and Europe <ul><li>Beginning Around 1400 CE </li></ul>
  44. 44. Political Developments <ul><li>China (Ming Dynasty) </li></ul><ul><li>Hongwu started dynasty after collapse of Yuan (Mongols) </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate evidence of Mongol rule </li></ul><ul><li>Reinstated civil service </li></ul><ul><li>Policies implemented by mandarins </li></ul><ul><li>Conscript labor – rebuild irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Private merchants continued to trade </li></ul><ul><li>Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Developed strong powerful monarchies </li></ul><ul><li>Taxed citizens, maintained large standing armies </li></ul><ul><li>Italy, Venice, Milan, Florence benefit from trade – increased tax collection </li></ul><ul><li>Kings in France and England control feudal lords </li></ul><ul><li>Competition among European rulers = increase in military tech </li></ul><ul><li>Roots of European dominance </li></ul>
  45. 45. Intellectual Developments <ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-Confucianism – stressed filial piety, self-discipline, obedience to rulers </li></ul><ul><li>Yongle Encyclopedia </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in printing </li></ul><ul><li>Pop. Culture – The Dream of the Red Chamber, Journey to the West </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuit missionaries introduce European science and technology – fail to convert Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Increased interaction leads to interest in outside world </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance – intellectual and artistic movement </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with Islam reintroduces Greek and Roman texts (Arabs had translated classics) </li></ul><ul><li>Humanism looked to classics to update medieval thought </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth in Italy funded artists (Medici family) </li></ul>
  46. 46. Exploration <ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Ming refurbished navy </li></ul><ul><li>1405-1433 – seven expeditions </li></ul><ul><li>Reestablish presence in Indian Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Impose imperial control on trade </li></ul><ul><li>Zheng He – led expeditions </li></ul><ul><li>Abandoned to focus on protecting northern border </li></ul><ul><li>Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Seek profits, spread Christianity, adventure </li></ul><ul><li>Spices expensive due to long journey </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese begin exploring ways around Muslim middlemen </li></ul><ul><li>Prince Henry the Navigator </li></ul><ul><li>Race to dominate seas in Europe begins </li></ul>
  47. 47. American Civilization <ul><li>The Mexica, Maya, and Inca </li></ul>
  48. 48. Maya (300-900 CE) <ul><li>Borrowed from Olmec tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Yucatan Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural economy </li></ul><ul><li>Ritualistic polytheism </li></ul><ul><li>Urban areas with thousands of people </li></ul><ul><li>Indep. city-states linked by trade </li></ul><ul><li>Maize and beans – staple crops </li></ul><ul><li>Astronomical consideration for location and architecture of buildings such as those in Tikal </li></ul>
  49. 49. Mexica (Aztec) – Around 1400 -1521 <ul><li>Used fighting skills to gain control around Lake Texcoco </li></ul><ul><li>Militant warrior tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Priestly class oversaw rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive pantheon – polytheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Tenochtitlan – 150,000 inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural economy – cacao beans used as currency </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralized network of city-states that paid tribute </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative farming techniques </li></ul>
  50. 50. Inca (Around 1400 – 1540) <ul><li>South American highlands </li></ul><ul><li>Covered 3,000 miles – absorbed many Andean tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized empire – capital at Cuzco </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive, irrigated agricultural economy – innovative techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Large urban centers </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheistic – center around worship of the sun - religion helped rulers secure political authority as elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal society with few rights for women </li></ul>
  51. 51. SUMMARY <ul><li>Improved technology = more long distance trade </li></ul><ul><li>Trade on Silk Roads, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Trans-Saharan routes spread ideas, technology, religion and disease </li></ul><ul><li>Better ship building, compass, gun powder shaped development of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic interaction with settled societies led to improved technology, change, increased trade and conflict (Vikings, Mongols, Turks) </li></ul><ul><li>Religions preached equality in eyes of God – Monastic life offered alternative path for women (Christianity and Buddhism) </li></ul><ul><li>Religion as unifying force, sometimes conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Political structures changed and adapted </li></ul>
  52. 52. Change Over Time <ul><li>Describe and analyze the impact of nomads in ONE of the following areas from 600 to 1450. Be sure to discuss continuities as well as changes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East Asia (China and/or Japan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle East </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Comparative Essay <ul><li>Major religions and philosophies have served as the foundation for many societies. Discuss the similarities and differences in the political and social influence that two of the following religions had on their respective societies from 600 – 1450. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity – Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Islam – West Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism - China </li></ul></ul></ul>