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Mexico from 1821-1850

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  1. 1. Standard 3.2 Explain and analyze problems facing the new Mexican nation, leading to eventual conflict between the United States and Mexico
  2. 2. 1810 -1821: Mexico is Born Monarchy v Catholic Churh Union of Gachupines/Criollos
  3. 3. Effects of War
  4. 4. Mexico’s Infancy <ul><li>By 1820 – Agriculture and Mining industries left devastated </li></ul><ul><li>New Spain becomes Mexico - change in name but not in power </li></ul><ul><li>Power remains with the wealthy Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>Battle for power between Conservatives and Liberals </li></ul>
  5. 5. De Iturbide and Guerrero <ul><li>Conflict moderated by Agustin de Iturbide </li></ul><ul><li>Made deal with liberal Vicente Guerrero </li></ul><ul><li>Plan de Iguala </li></ul>
  6. 6. Plan de Iguala <ul><li>Mexico would become monarchy – European king or price invited </li></ul><ul><li>Church would maintain power and privilege </li></ul><ul><li>Criollos and Peninsulares equal </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary peace in 1821 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bankruptcy <ul><li>Spaniards allowed to leave with their value in land holdings in hard currency </li></ul><ul><li>Silver church bells and gold altarpieces melted to pay Spaniards </li></ul>
  8. 8. Troubled Monarchy <ul><li>1823 – governors and generals including Lopez de Santa Anna issue el Plan de Casa Mata </li></ul><ul><li>Call for overthrow of Emperor and for a republic </li></ul><ul><li>1824 – Iturbide overthrown, exiled and later executed </li></ul><ul><li>Guadalupe Victoria (Liberal mestizo) becomes first elected president </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal-Conservative battle continues </li></ul>
  9. 9. Age of the Caudillo
  10. 10. Age of the Caudillo <ul><li>Liberal-Conservative battle left Mexico weak </li></ul><ul><li>Strongmen – political and military seen as way to control country </li></ul><ul><li>Political goals were secondary to personal power </li></ul><ul><li>1831 – 1850 – Mexico had over 50 governments (11 headed by Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna) </li></ul><ul><li>No president ever served a full term </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1829 - 1834 <ul><li>Vicente Guerrero (2 nd President) receives word that Spain is launching an invasion to reconquer </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish land in Tampico </li></ul><ul><li>General Lopez de Santa Anna surrounds and attacks </li></ul><ul><li>By 1830 – Santa Anna was a hero </li></ul><ul><li>1833 – wins presidency and soon retires </li></ul><ul><li>Valentin Gomez Farias becomes president and introduces liberal reforms </li></ul>
  12. 12. Santa Anna Returns <ul><li>Church and military upset at liberal reforms of Gomez Farias </li></ul><ul><li>Call for his overthrow </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Anna returns and abolishes Constitution of 1824 </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Anna creates a centralist government </li></ul>
  13. 13. Political Instability <ul><li>In first 30 years, Mexico went backward </li></ul><ul><li>Faced several civil war threats and coups </li></ul><ul><li>Treasury was broke </li></ul><ul><li>Roads in disrepair, mines flooded and abandoned, rich land was not farmed, Indigenous still had no rights </li></ul>

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