The Physical Features of Sub Saharan Africa

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The Physical Features of Sub Saharan Africa

  1. 1. Sub-Saharan Africa Physical Geography
  2. 5. Standard 9.6.2 <ul><li>Identify and locate the major physical land features of Sub-Saharan Africa; identify the natural resources of Africa south of the Sahara, and generalize the effects of the land features and natural resources upon the populations of each area. </li></ul>
  3. 6. Directions <ul><li>On the left side of your notebook, fold your paper in preparation for Cornell notes </li></ul><ul><li>Open your book to page 499 </li></ul><ul><li>Students will take turns reading and then a slide will summarize the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Copy the notes as the appear on the screen on the large side of your paper </li></ul><ul><li>After each section of notes, write study questions on the small column of your paper </li></ul>
  4. 7. Can you guess where the Sahara Desert is located?
  5. 8. Landforms <ul><li>Sahara - largest desert in the world </li></ul><ul><li>South of the Sahara includes about 9 million square miles of huge PLATEAUS, MOUNTAINS and VALLEYS </li></ul>
  6. 9. Plateaus, Highlands and Mountains <ul><li>Plateaus make up most of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow coastal plains extend inland less than 20 miles – edge the continent </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden rise prevented easy access to interior of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Separating plateaus are steep cliffs or slopes known as ESCARPMENTS </li></ul>
  7. 11. Escarpment
  8. 12. <ul><li>Broadest plateaus and steepest escarpments are found in south and east </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers spill over escarpments in thundering waterfalls known as CATARACTS, as they plunge toward the Atlantic or Indian Oceans </li></ul>
  9. 14. Continent of Plateaus <ul><li>Africa has the highest overall elevation of any other continent </li></ul><ul><li>Average elevation south of the Sahara is 2,000 feet above sea level </li></ul>
  10. 17. Mountains and Highlands <ul><li>Africa has few mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Most mountains in Sub-Saharan Africa are found in the EASTERN HIGHLANDS – </li></ul><ul><li>Drakensberg Mts. rim the edge of the southeastern plateau </li></ul><ul><li>Ruwenzori Mts. Border Uganda and Democratic Republic of the Congo </li></ul>
  11. 18. Drakensberg Mountains
  12. 19. Eastern Highlands Drakensberg Mountains Ruwenzori Mountains
  13. 20. Ruwenzori Mountains Snow clad peaks seem to float in the sky so Africans call them Mountains of the Moon
  14. 21. Kenya and Tanzania <ul><li>Cone shaped volcanic peaks of Kenya and Tanzania include Mount Kenya and Mount Kilimanjaro </li></ul><ul><li>Africa’s highest mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Mount Kilimanjaro (19,340 feet) </li></ul>
  15. 22. Mount Kenya
  16. 23. Mount Kilimanjaro
  17. 25. The Great Rift Valley <ul><li>Valley that stretches from the Jordan River in Southwest Asia to the Zambezi River in Mozambique </li></ul><ul><li>Slashes a Y-shaped trench more than 3,500 miles long </li></ul><ul><li>Escarpments a mile high </li></ul>
  18. 26. Great Rift Valley
  19. 27. Northern section of Great Rift Valley
  20. 29. The Great Rift Valley <ul><li>Ripped apart 180 million years ago creating the continents we know today </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure on land surface caused cracks, or FAULTS, and pushed up mountains </li></ul>
  21. 31. Pangaea
  22. 33. Water Systems <ul><li>Influenced by landforms shaped millions of years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Cuts in Great Rift Valley form Africa’s largest lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Long rivers due to plateaus </li></ul><ul><li>High escarpments create rapids and waterfalls – blocks easy inland travel by river </li></ul>
  23. 34. Lake Victoria <ul><li>Surrounded by Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda </li></ul><ul><li>Second largest freshwater lake in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Source of the White Nile </li></ul>
  24. 36. Lake Tanganyika <ul><li>Southwest of Victoria </li></ul><ul><li>420 miles long </li></ul><ul><li>World’s longest freshwater lake </li></ul>
  25. 38. Lake Malawi <ul><li>Surrounded by Tanzania, Mozambique, and Malawi </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd largest lake in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Home to many types of endemic species of fish – only live in that lake </li></ul>
  26. 39. Lake Malawi
  27. 40. Lake Volta and Lake Chad <ul><li>Lakes in West Africa </li></ul><ul><li>People of Ghana built a dam across Volta river to form lake Volta </li></ul><ul><li>Lake Chad – no natural outlet to sea – loses water to evaporation </li></ul>
  28. 41. Lake Chad Lake Volta Lake Malawi
  29. 42. Rivers and Basins <ul><li>4 great rivers slice through Africa – the Nile, the Congo, the Niger, and the Zambezi </li></ul><ul><li>Nile’s White Nile branch starts in Lake Victoria </li></ul>
  30. 43. The Congo River <ul><li>Largest river system south of the Sahara </li></ul><ul><li>Twists and turns for almost 2,700 miles </li></ul><ul><li>Crosses the equator twice </li></ul><ul><li>10 million gallons of water flow through the Congo each second – potential for hydro electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a huge saucer shaped basin </li></ul>
  31. 44. The Congo River
  32. 46. The Niger and Zambezi Rivers <ul><li>Third and Fourth largest rivers of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Niger empties into the Atlantic Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Zambezi empties into Indian Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Zambezi widens to 18,297 feet before plunging down a huge chasm known as Victoria Falls </li></ul>
  33. 47. Victoria Falls 350 Ft High
  34. 53. Waterfalls <ul><li>Victoria falls is twice as high as Niagara Falls </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of gallons flow over during rainy season </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers and waterfalls create incredible potential for hydroelectric power – economic development </li></ul>
  35. 54. Natural Resources <ul><li>Diamonds in South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Gold – ½ of World’s gold from Great Rift Valley and South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Copper – Central Africa is rich in copper </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroelectric power growing </li></ul><ul><li>Solar power beginning to develop </li></ul><ul><li>Oil - Nigeria, Angola, Gabon and Congo </li></ul>
  36. 55. <ul><li>On the left side of your notebook, attach a foldable on the physical features of the region. Reorganize notes onto the foldable </li></ul>

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