Chapter 09


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Chapter 09

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Overview<br />State, Society and the Quest for Salvation in India<br />
  2. 2. I. The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India<br />
  3. 3. A. The Mauryan Dynasty and the Temporary Unification of India <br />Aryans in India – small kingdoms<br />520 BCE Persian Emperor Darius conquers north-west India<br />Introduces Persian administrative techniques (ruling patterns)<br />327 Alexander of Macedon destroys Persian Empire in India<br />Troops mutiny, departs after 2 years - Political power vacuum<br />
  4. 4. 1. Kingdom of Magadha<br />Filled the power vacuum left by Alexander<br />Most important state in N. India <br />Conquered neighboring states – lead role in unification of India<br />Controlled Indian commerce passing through Ganges<br />
  5. 5. 2. Chandragupta Maurya<br />Overthrew Magadha rulers<br />Expanded kingdom to create 1st unified Indian empire<br />
  6. 6. 3. Chandragupta’s Government<br />Advisor Kautalya<br />Oversee trade, agriculture, tax collecting, maintaining order, foreign relations, waging war<br />Network of spies<br />Bureaucratic administrative system<br />Harsh political philosophy recorded in Arthashastra<br />
  7. 7. 4. AshokaMaurya(268-232 B.C.E.)<br />Conquered the kingdom of Kalinga (along major trade route), 260 B.C.E.<br />Ruled with tightly organized bureaucracy<br />Established capital at Pataliputra<br />Oversaw implementation of his policies<br />Rocks and pillar edicts<br />Encouraged Buddhist values – fair, just and humane rule<br />
  8. 8. Ashoka’sMauryan Empire<br />Regions of India become well integrated<br />Subcontinent benefits from trade and stability<br />Irrigation systems = agricultural wealth<br />Roads built – inns, shaded areas, well<br />
  9. 9. 5. Decline of Mauryan Empire<br />Economic crisis after Ashoka’s death<br />High costs of bureaucracy, military not supported by tax revenue<br />Frequent devaluations of currency to pay salaries<br />Regions begin to abandon Mauryan Empire - disappears by 185 BCE<br />
  10. 10. B. The Emergence of Regional Kingdoms and the Revival of Empire<br />Mauryan collapse <br />India did not crumble into anarchy<br />Local rulers form series of regional kingdoms<br />
  11. 11. 1. Bactrian Rule in NW India<br />Northwestern India<br />Ruled by Greek-speaking descendants of Alexander’s campaigns<br />Intense cross-cultural activity accompanies active trade<br />Link to China, Medit. <br />Taxila flourished<br />
  12. 12. 2. The Kushan Empire<br />Nomadic conquerors from Central Asia attack Bactria<br />Northern India/Central Asia (C. 1-300 CE)<br />Kanishka- pacified region between China and Persia<br />Maintained silk road network<br />
  13. 13. 3. The Gupta Dynasty<br />Based in Magadha – wealthy region<br />Founded by Chandra Gupta (no relation to Chandragupta Maurya), c. 320 CE<br />Samudra Gupta and Chandra II conquered regional kingdoms – formed alliances <br />Highly decentralized leadership<br />Brought stability and prosperity to subcontinent<br />
  14. 14. 4. Gupta Decline<br />Frequent invasions of White Huns, 5thc. CE<br />High cost – resources depleted<br />Gupta Dynasty disintegrates along regional fault lines<br />After the fifth century C.E., Gupta dynasty continued in name only<br /> Large regional kingdoms dominated political life in India<br />Smaller local kingdoms dominate until Mughal Empire founded in 16thc.<br />
  15. 15. II. Economic and Social Distinctions<br />
  16. 16. A. Towns and Trade <br />Towns dotted Indian countryside<br />Northwest corner of subcontinent (closer to Persian Empire)<br />
  17. 17. 1. Towns and Manufacturing<br />Manufactured goods in big demand – large agricultural economy<br />Pots, textiles, iron tools, metal utensils<br />Developed in dense network of small workshops<br />Large scale businesses - Saddalputta<br />Trade intense, capitalizes on trade routes across India built by Ashoka<br />
  18. 18. 2. Long Distance Trade<br />Persian connection since Cyrus, Darius<br />Massive road-building projects under Persian rule<br />Alexander extends trade west to Macedon<br />Trade routes through Kush mountains, the silk roads<br />Cotton, Aromatics, black pepper, pearls and gems<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. 3. Trade in Indian Ocean Basin<br /><ul><li>Seasonal sea trade expands - Spring/winter winds blow from south-west, fall/winter winds blow from north-west
  21. 21. Trade from Asia to Persian Gulf and Red Sea, Mediterranean</li></li></ul><li>B. Family Life and Caste System<br />Moralist sought to promote stability<br />Encouraged respect for patriarchal families<br />Promote maintenance of social order<br />Nuclear family<br />
  22. 22. 1.Gender Relations <br />Patriarchy entrenched<br />Mahabharata and Ramayana – women are weak-willed emotional creatures<br />Child marriage common (8 year old girls married to men in 20s)<br />Dominated in household affairs<br />Women encouraged to remain in private sphere<br />female subordination<br />
  23. 23. 2. Social Order<br />Caste system from Aryan times<br />Brahmins (priests)<br />Kshatriyas (warriors, aristocrats)<br />Vaishyas (Peasants, merchants)<br />Shudras (serfs)<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. 3. Castes and Guilds<br />Increasing economic diversification challenges simplistic caste system<br />With trade and commerce new social groups of artisans, craftsmen, and merchants appeared<br />Jatis formed: guilds that acted as sub-castes<br />Families associate with others in like castes<br />Jatis enforced social order<br />“outcastes” forced into low-status employment<br />
  26. 26. 4. Wealth and the Social Order<br />Vaishyasand shudras saw unprecedented wealth<br />Upward social mobility possible for Vaishyas, Shudras<br />Wealth challengesvarnafor status<br />Old beliefs and values of early Aryan society became increasingly irrelevant<br />
  27. 27. III. Religions of Salvation in Classical India<br />
  28. 28. A. Jainism and the Challenge to the Established Cultural Order<br />Social change generated resentment of caste privilige<br />e.g. Brahmins free from taxation<br />6th-5thc. BCE new religions and philosophies challenge status quo<br />Charvakas: atheists<br />Jainists, Buddhists<br />
  29. 29. 1. VardhamanaMahavira<br />VardhamanaMahavira (Jina) founded Jain religion in 5th century B.C.E. <br />Abandoned privileged family to lead ascetic life<br />Promotes 7thc. movement based on Upanishads<br />Emphasis on selfless living, concern for all beings<br />
  30. 30. 2.Jainist Ethics<br />Striving to purify one's selfish behavior to attain a state of bliss<br />Principle of ahimsa, nonviolence toward all living things<br />Jainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow movements to avoid killing insects<br />Too demanding, not a practical alternative to the cult of the brahmans<br />
  31. 31. 3.Appeal of Jainism<br /> Social implication: individual souls equally participated in ultimate reality<br />Rejected caste, jati distinctions<br />Obvious appeal to underprivileged groups<br />Too extreme - no mass movement<br />Ahimsa continues to inspire modern movements (Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr.)<br />
  32. 32. B. Early Buddhism<br />Founder came from Kshatriyafamily<br />More practical that Jainism<br />Salvation comes from leading a balanced and moderate life<br />
  33. 33. 1. Siddhartha Gautama<br /> Gave up his comfortable life to search for cause of suffering<br />c. 563-483 BCE<br />Encountered age, sickness, death, then monastic life<br />Abandoned comfortable life to become a monk<br />
  34. 34. 2. Gautama’s Search for Enlightenment<br />Wanders through Ganges valley searching for enlightenment<br />Intense meditation, extreme asceticism<br />49 days of meditation under bo tree to finally achieve enlightenment<br />Attained title Buddha: “the enlightened one”<br />
  35. 35. 3. Buddha and His Followers<br />Announced his doctrine at the Deer Park of Sarnath in 528 B.C.E.<br />Promotes law of righteousness<br />Organized a community of monks<br />“Decay is inherent in all component things! Work out your salvation with diligence”<br />
  36. 36. 4. Buddhist Doctrine: Dharma<br /> The Four Noble Truths<br />1. All life involves suffering <br />2. Suffering is caused by desire<br />3. elimination of desire ends suffering<br />4. disciplined life in accordance to Noble Eightfold Path are the way to end suffering<br /> Religious goal: personal salvation, or nirvana, a state of perfect spiritual independence<br />
  37. 37. 5. Appeal of Buddhism<br />Appealed strongly to members of lower castes because it did not recognize social hierarchies of castes and jati<br />less demanding than Jainism, which made it more popular<br />Used vernacular tongues, not Sanskrit<br />Holy sites venerated by pilgrims<br />The monastic organizations--extremely efficient at spreading the Buddhist message and winning converts to the faith<br />
  38. 38. 6. Ashoka’s Support<br />Converted to Buddhism<br />Disillusioned after violent war with Kalinga<br />Banned animal sacrifices, mandated vegetarianism in court<br />Material support for Buddhist institutions, missionary activities<br />
  39. 39. C. Mahayana Buddhism<br />Early Buddhism was not an easy path to salvation<br />Between 3rd century BCE – 1st century CE - Three new developments<br />
  40. 40. 1. Development of Buddhism<br />1. Buddha became a god<br />2. The notion of boddhisatva--"an enlightened being”<br />3. Monasteries began to accept gifts from wealthy individuals<br />
  41. 41. 2. Spread of Mahayana Buddhism<br />Mahayana (“greater vehicle”), newer development<br />India, China, Japan, Korea, central Asia<br />Hinayana (“lesser vehicle,” also Theravada), earlier version<br />Ceylon, Burma, Thailand<br />
  42. 42. 3. Nolanda<br />Buddhist Monastery<br />Quasi-university: Buddhism, Hindu texts, philosophy, astronomy, medicine, logic<br />Peak at end of Gupta dynasty – attracted students from foreign lands<br />Helped spread Indian thought<br />E.g. mathematical number zero<br />
  43. 43. D. The Emergence of Popular Hinduism<br />Like Buddhism, undergoes change to appeal to more people<br />Inspired by Upanishads and Vedas<br />Departed from older traditions <br />
  44. 44. 1. The Epics<br />Composition of epics from older oral traditions<br />Mahabharata<br />Ramayana<br />Emphasis on god Vishnu and his incarnations<br />
  45. 45. 2. The BhagavadGita<br />Short poetic work: dialogue between Krishna and warrior Arjuna<br />Illustrated expectations of Hinduism and promise of salvation<br />Fulfill caste duties<br />
  46. 46. 3. Hindu Ethics<br />Lead honorable life – 4 principal aims<br />Achieve salvation through meeting caste responsibilities (dharma)<br />Pursuit of economic well-being and honesty (artha)<br />Enjoyment of social, physical and sexual pleasure (kama)<br />Salvation of the soul (moksha)<br />
  47. 47. 4. Popularity of Hinduism<br />Gradually replaced Buddhism in India<br />Political support by Guptas<br />Brahmins given land grants<br />Buddhism in decline in India by 1000 C.E.<br />
  48. 48. SUMMARY<br />Rich agricultural economy leads to creation of large states <br />Interregional trade networks develop<br />Large empires not permanent, but social order maintained by caste system<br />Religious developments reflect social realities<br />Buddhism and Hinduism adapt to needs of growing class of commoners<br />Religion influence daily lives<br />