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APWH Chapter 6
Mesoamerica
Andean South America
Oceania
Mesoamerica Andean S. America P <ul><li>Olmecs  – mother culture </li></ul><ul><li>Maya  – decentralized city-states </li>...
The Olmecs <ul><li>Coast of Gulf of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Name unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Cities – complexes of temples,...
San Lorenzo
La Venta
Tres Zapotes
Obsidian and jade
The Maya <ul><li>Yucatan peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Used terrace farming </li></ul><ul><li>Maize, cotton, cocao </li></ul...
Tikal
Chichen Itza
Mayan writing
Calendars and Mathematics
Murals
 
Popul Vuh <ul><li>Creation story </li></ul><ul><li>Gods wanted intelligent beings to praise them </li></ul><ul><li>Humans ...
Teotihuacan <ul><li>High point – 400 – 600 CE </li></ul><ul><li>200,000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Records perished when cit...
 
Chavin Cult <ul><li>Did not organize politically </li></ul><ul><li>Dry coast and highlands of Andean South America </li></...
Mochica <ul><li>Regional state in South America </li></ul><ul><li>Based along Moche River </li></ul><ul><li>Produced many ...
 
Tihuanaco
Societies in Oceania <ul><li>Humans entered Australia and New Guinea at least 60,000 years BP – lower sea levels </li></ul...
Australia <ul><li>Maintained hunter-gatherer lifestyle until arrival of Europeans in 19 th  century </li></ul><ul><li>Abor...
Austronesian Peoples <ul><li>In New Guinea, human communities turned to agriculture around 3000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Root...
Pacific Islands <ul><li>Settlements in Bismark; Solomon Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Used outrigger canoes and sails </li></u...
Lapita Peoples
Summary <ul><li>Very little writing survives </li></ul><ul><li>Impossible to fully understand social developments in the A...
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APWH Chapter 06

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Overview of Chapter 6 in APWH

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APWH Chapter 06

  1. 1. APWH Chapter 6
  2. 2. Mesoamerica
  3. 3. Andean South America
  4. 4. Oceania
  5. 5. Mesoamerica Andean S. America P <ul><li>Olmecs – mother culture </li></ul><ul><li>Maya – decentralized city-states </li></ul><ul><li>Teotihuacan - </li></ul>Mochica – Andean state; unified individual valleys; relied on arms to introduce order Tiahuanaco – Over 10,000 people E <ul><li>Agricultural base – maize staple </li></ul><ul><li>Cacao beans as money </li></ul><ul><li>Organized under Mochica – reach region contributed its products to larger economy (potatoes, llama meat, alpaca wool, maize) </li></ul>R <ul><li>Bloodletting rituals – fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Sacrifice to pantheon of gods </li></ul>Chavin Cult – large temples, works of art S <ul><li>O: Authoritarian elites, common subjects cultivated, priest class </li></ul><ul><li>M: Priests, Merchants, Professionals, artisans, peasants, slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Complex society </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized labor </li></ul>I <ul><li>Mayan writing – history, poetry, myth </li></ul><ul><li>Astronomy – 365.242 day calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics – concept of zero </li></ul><ul><li>Gold, silver and bronze metallurgy </li></ul><ul><li>Mochica – no written language </li></ul>A <ul><li>O: Jaguars figurines, colossal heads </li></ul><ul><li>M: Pyramids, observatories, murals </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings on pottery vessels; portraits, dieties, demons, everyday life </li></ul>N <ul><li>No river valleys – heavy rain </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated, N-S Axis makes diffusion dif. </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively isolated from Mesoamerica </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult geographic barriers </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Olmecs <ul><li>Coast of Gulf of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Name unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Cities – complexes of temples, altars, pyramids, tombs, stone sculptures </li></ul>
  7. 7. San Lorenzo
  8. 8. La Venta
  9. 9. Tres Zapotes
  10. 10. Obsidian and jade
  11. 11. The Maya <ul><li>Yucatan peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Used terrace farming </li></ul><ul><li>Maize, cotton, cocao </li></ul><ul><li>More than 80 large ceremonial sites </li></ul><ul><li>City-states </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown decline </li></ul>
  12. 12. Tikal
  13. 13. Chichen Itza
  14. 14. Mayan writing
  15. 15. Calendars and Mathematics
  16. 16. Murals
  17. 18. Popul Vuh <ul><li>Creation story </li></ul><ul><li>Gods wanted intelligent beings to praise them </li></ul><ul><li>Humans made of maize and water </li></ul>
  18. 19. Teotihuacan <ul><li>High point – 400 – 600 CE </li></ul><ul><li>200,000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Records perished when city declined </li></ul><ul><li>Theocracy </li></ul><ul><li>“ City of the Gods” </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans – obsidian and orange pottery </li></ul><ul><li>Relied less on military might </li></ul>
  19. 21. Chavin Cult <ul><li>Did not organize politically </li></ul><ul><li>Dry coast and highlands of Andean South America </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted fertility and abundant harvest </li></ul><ul><li>Features of human </li></ul>
  20. 22. Mochica <ul><li>Regional state in South America </li></ul><ul><li>Based along Moche River </li></ul><ul><li>Produced many ceramics </li></ul><ul><li>Did not make use of writing </li></ul>
  21. 24. Tihuanaco
  22. 25. Societies in Oceania <ul><li>Humans entered Australia and New Guinea at least 60,000 years BP – lower sea levels </li></ul><ul><li>5,000 years ago, seafaring people from Southeast Asia went to trade </li></ul><ul><li>Early inhabitants lived on hunting and gathering </li></ul>
  23. 26. Australia <ul><li>Maintained hunter-gatherer lifestyle until arrival of Europeans in 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Aboriginal Australians lived in small mobile communities </li></ul><ul><li>Consumed over 140 species of plants </li></ul>
  24. 27. Austronesian Peoples <ul><li>In New Guinea, human communities turned to agriculture around 3000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Root crops – yams and taro </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs and chickens </li></ul><ul><li>Cause of change – contact with seafaring people </li></ul>
  25. 28. Pacific Islands <ul><li>Settlements in Bismark; Solomon Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Used outrigger canoes and sails </li></ul><ul><li>Austronesian migrants spread agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually reach Fiji, Tahiti, Hawai’I, Easter Island and New Zealand </li></ul><ul><li>Populated Philippines, Madagascar, Micronesia </li></ul>
  26. 29. Lapita Peoples
  27. 30. Summary <ul><li>Very little writing survives </li></ul><ul><li>Impossible to fully understand social developments in the Americas and Oceania </li></ul><ul><li>Human migrations spread population throughout world </li></ul><ul><li>Early inhabitants build productive and vibrant societies </li></ul><ul><li>Many developments paralleled eastern hemisphere </li></ul>

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