• The kidney extends from the level of the upper
border of 12 T to the level of the transverse process
of L3. the LT.KD is lower to the RT.KD.
• Ureter is 10-12 inch (25-30 mm). It enters the
bladder at the level of ischial spine.
• Urethra is a musculomembranous type (male= 7-8
cm female = 3-4 cm).
• The male is divided into three portions: ProstaticMembranous- Spongy
• prostate measures 3.8 cm transversly,1.9 cm
anteroposteriorly and 2.5 longitudinally.
Methods of imaging of the urinary tract:
• Excretion urography (I.V.U.).
• Micturating cystourethrogaphy.
• Ascending urethrography.
• Retrograde pyelography.
• KUB (kidney, ureter and bladder) is the
standard plain radiography of the
urinary tract, which consists of a fulllength abdominal film.
• The KUB is most usefully employed
part of an intravenous urography or to
follow up a previously proven calculus.
The anatomical structures which can be
seen on the KUB:
Kidneys- psoas- axial skeleton- bowel gasbase of the lung.
Excretion urography (I.V.U.).
The IVU consists of a series of films taken
after the administration of intravenous
injection of CM. The choice of whether to
use an ionic or nonionic contrast medium
depends on patient risk and economics.
It demonstrate both the function and
structure of the urinary system.
The main indications for the
Ureteric fistula and stricture.
Urinary tract infection (UTI).
• Before the examination is started, the
procedure is explained to the pt to be more
cooperated and the patient history and
blood chemistry level should be checked.
(BUN= 8-25 mg/100 ml – creatinine = 0.61.5 mg/100ml).
Bowel is purged with strong laxative
and gas-absorbent tabs.
• Patient should take nothing by mouth
after midnight before the day of
• They should be well hydrated (they are at
increased risk for CM induced renal
failure if they are Dehydrated).
• KUB film is done to check:
- Exposure factors.
- Patient preparation.
- Site of kidneys.
obvious pathology (UT calcification).
• The CM is injected through vein.
• Adult dose = 50 mm and pediatric
dose = 1 mm per kg
• Most reaction to contrast media
within the first 5 minutes after
administration. (Should not be left
Immediate film (nephrogram). AP of
the renal areas (14-15 S = arm-to-kidney
time). It aims to show the renal
parenchyma opicified by C.M. in the
2. 5 minutes film. AP of the renal areas.
This film is taken to determine if
excretion is symmetrical.
A compression band is now applied
around the patient’s abdomen at the level
of ASIS. Its aim is to inhibit ureteric
drainage and promote distension of the
pelvicalyceal systems (optimizing their
1. Compression is contraindicated:
• After recent abdominal surgery.
• After renal trauma.
• Large abdominal mass.
• When the 5-min film showed
1. 15-minutes film. AP of the renal areas.
(Adequate distension of the PCS).
*Compression is released.
2. 25-minutes film (release film). Supine
AP abdomen. Its aim to show the whole
1. After micturition film. Based on the clinical
finding and radiological finding (full-length
abdominal film or coned of view of the U.B.).
This film is aimed to:
• Assess bladder emptying.
• Demonstrate a return to normal of dilated
upper tract with relief of the bladder pressure.
• Aid the diagnosis of the bladder tumours.
• Confirm uretrovesical junction calculi.
RADIATION PROTECTION: (IVU)
• Apply a gonadal shield (if it does not
overlap the area under examination.
• Use collimation.
• Work carefully to avoid repetition of