Igcse settlement

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IGCSE settlement: site, situation and pattern

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Igcse settlement

  1. 1. Settlement: Site, situation and Patterns.
  2. 2. A settlement is… ►A place where people live. A Village A Town. A City
  3. 3. Site: Where a settlement is placed.
  4. 4. Site Factors: ►1 - Protection ► It was especially important to protect settlements from those who wished to attack. A good vantage point to watch for this was a hill, and many castles and forts were built on hills to watch for attackers. Climatically, these settlements were prone to wind and harsher weather.
  5. 5. Site Factors ►2 – Plenty of Water ► Washing, drinking and cooking all need water, and it was vital to have an adequate supply especially during the summer. Springs, wells and rivers provided supplies. Nowadays, settlements have water piped to them, but it is still a consideration to be near to the mains supply or in a region that actually has adequate rainfall to sustain a supply.
  6. 6. Site Factors ►3 – Not Too Much Water ► It was important then and is still important to ensure that settlements are not built on areas that will flood, or are marshy (as the settlement will sink). This isn't always possible to see, particularly if the floods only occur every few years, or there isn't a flood whilst building the settlement.
  7. 7. Site Factors ►4 – Rivers ► Rivers can be useful supplies of water in themselves, or agents of flooding. But what is important about rivers as a site factor is that they can be crossed, either by bridge or ford. A river that couldn't be crossed would have been a problem for early settlements, if they couldn't escape across a river during an attack. Rivers can now be crossed by building bridges, but these are expensive.
  8. 8. Site Factors ►5 – Building Materials ► Either wood or stone was needed to build early settlements, so a forest, wood or hillside with crags was needed to provide the materials. This is not so important today, as houses are built of brick and slate, which are easily provided.
  9. 9. Site Factors ►6 – Supply of Wood ► Not as important today, but early settlements would need wood for fuel. It was therefore vital that the settlement was near trees.
  10. 10. Site Factors ►7 – Flat Land ► It is extremely difficult to build a settlement on land with a gradient (such as a hillside) and so land should be flat wherever possible. This should not be confused, as it often is, with low-lying land: the top of a high hill or plateau could be flat too. It is possible to build a settlement now on a gradient, but it is much more time consuming and expensive.
  11. 11. Site Factors ►8 – Shelter ► It is important the direction that the settlement faces, and this is geographically known as aspect. In early settlements, it was important that agricultural land faced south so that the sun shone directly on the land. Building a settlement in a valley provided a way to keep out of harsh winter winds.
  12. 12. Situation The location of a settlement in relation to the surrounding area. E. g. ‘bridging point’ or ‘route centre’.
  13. 13. Pattern The shape of the settlement.
  14. 14. There are 4 types of settlement patterns… ► Nucleated….. ► Linear… ► Dispersed…. ► Isolated
  15. 15. Nucleated. ► When houses are very close to each other. ► Usually around a central point, like a cross roads. = Houses ROAD
  16. 16. Linear. ► ► ► Like the word says, along a line. Maybe along a road, river or the bottom of a valley. The houses would slowly be built along the road. = Houses ROAD
  17. 17. Dispersed ► When the houses are far apart. ► So your neighbour could live a few miles away. ► E.g. Farms = Houses
  18. 18. Isolated ► This is usually a farmhouse found either in areas of extreme adverse physical conditions or in areas of pioneer settlement where land was divided into planned lots. = Houses
  19. 19. So what do you now know? ► Which of the following is a settlement pattern? (Click on your answer) A – Linear B – Along a line C – lenghty
  20. 20. Wrong!!! Try again…
  21. 21. Well Done!! Try this one…
  22. 22. Number 2… If you were in a place that had dispersed buildings, what do you think the buildings would be? 1. Garages 2. Farms 3. Schools
  23. 23. Wrong!!! Try again…
  24. 24. Well Done!! Try this one…
  25. 25. Number 3… Using the map, decide which one of these settlements is nucleated. 1. Porthloo 2. Maypole 3. Old Town
  26. 26. Wrong!!! Try again…
  27. 27. Well Done!! The end is nigh…
  28. 28. Well Done. You have now finished this section of work, remember to visit this again for revision.

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