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  1. 1. Advertising is the promotion of a companys products and services carried out primarily to driveup sales of the products and services. It is also done to build a brand identity and communicatechanges in old products or introduce new product/services to the customers. Advertising hasbecome an essential element of the corporate world and hence companies allot a considerableamount of resources towards their advertising budget. There are several reasons for advertising,some of which are as follows: Increasing the sales of the product/service. Creating and maintaining a brand identity or brand image. Communicating a change in the existing product line. Introduction of a new product or service. Increasing the buzz-value of the brand or the company.Thus, there are several reasons for advertising. Similarly, there exist various media which can beeffectively used for advertising. Mentioned below are the various categories or types ofadvertising. Have a look.Print Advertising - Newspapers, Magazines, Brochures, FliersPrint media has always been a popular advertising option. Advertising products via newspapersor magazines is a common practice. In addition to this, the print media also offers options likepromotional brochures and fliers for advertising purposes. Often, newspapers and magazines sellthe advertising space according to the area occupied by the advertisement, the position of theadvertisement in the publication (front page/middle page, above/below the fold), as well as thereadership of the publications. For instance, an advertisement in a relatively new and less popularnewspaper will cost far less than an advertisement in an established newspaper that has a highreadership. The price of print ads may also depend on quality of the paper and the supplement inwhich they appear. For example, an advertisement in the glossy (and popular) supplement of anewspaper costs more than one in a supplement which uses mediocre quality paper.Outdoor Advertising - Billboards, Kiosks, Trade-shows and EventsOutdoor advertising is also a very popular form of advertising. It makes use of several tools andtechniques to attract the customers outdoors. The most common examples of outdoor advertisingare billboards, kiosks, and also events and trade-shows organized by the company. Billboardadvertising is very popular. However it has to be really terse and catchy in order to grab theattention of the passersby. Kiosks not only provide an easy outlet for the companys products butalso make for an effective advertising tool to promote the companys products. Organizingspecial events or sponsoring them makes for an excellent advertising opportunity and strategy.The company can organize trade fairs, or even exhibitions for advertising their products. If notthis, the company can organize several events that are closely associated with their field. Forinstance a company that manufactures sports utilities can sponsor a sports tournament to
  2. 2. advertise its products.Broadcast Advertising - Television, Radio and the InternetBroadcast advertising is a very popular advertising medium that constitutes several branches liketelevision, radio or the Internet. Television advertisements have been very popular ever sincethey were introduced. The cost of television advertising often depends on the duration of theadvertisement, the time of broadcast (prime time/lull time), sometimes the show on which it willbe broadcast, and of course, the popularity of the television channel itself. The radio might havelost its charm owing to new age media. However it remains the choice of small-scale advertisers.Radio jingles have been very a popular advertising medium and have a large impact on theaudience, which is evident in the fact that many people still remember and enjoy old popularradio jingles.Covert Advertising - Advertising in MoviesCovert advertising is a unique kind of advertising in which a product or a particular brand isincorporated in some entertainment and media channels like movies, television shows or evensports. There is no commercial advertising as such in the entertainment but the brand or theproduct is subtly (or sometimes evidently) showcased in the entertainment show. Some of thefamous examples for this sort of advertising have to be the appearance of brand Nokia which isdisplayed on Tom Cruises phone in the movie Minority Report, or the use of Cadillac cars in themovie Matrix Reloaded. Pay attention next time, youre sure to come across a lot of suchexamples.Surrogate Advertising - Advertising IndirectlySurrogate advertising is prominently seen in cases where advertising a particular product isbanned by law. Advertisement for products like cigarettes or alcohol which are injurious tohealth are prohibited by law in several countries. Hence these companies come up with severalother products that have the same brand name and indirectly remind people of the cigarettes oralcohol of the same brand by advertising the other products. Common examples include Fostersand Kingfisher beer brands, which are often seen to promote their brand with the help ofsurrogate advertising.Public Service Advertising - Advertising for Social CausesPublic service advertising is a technique that makes use of advertising as an effectivecommunication medium to convey socially relevant messages about important matters and socialcauses like AIDS, energy conservation, political integrity, deforestation, illiteracy, poverty and
  3. 3. so on. David Ogilvy who is considered to be one of the pioneers of advertising and marketingconcepts had reportedly encouraged the use of the advertising field for a social cause. Ogilvyonce said, "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest - it is much toopowerful a tool to use solely for commercial purposes.". Today, public service advertising hasbeen increasingly used in a non-commercial fashion in several countries across the world inorder to promote various social causes. In the United States, radio and television stations aregranted to bidders on the basis of a fixed amount of public service advertisements aired by thechannel.Celebrity AdvertisingAlthough the audience is getting smarter and smarter and the modern-day consumer is gettingimmune to the exaggerated claims made in a majority of advertisements, there exists a section ofadvertisers that still bank upon celebrities and their popularity for advertising their products.Using celebrities for advertising involves signing up celebrities for advertising campaigns, whichconsist of all sorts of advertising including, television ads or even print advertisements. Howeffective these ads are, is something that each consumer himself can determine.So, those were the most popular kinds of advertising used today. Each of the advertisement typesmentioned has its own sub-types and rates of effectiveness. It is the job of advertising departmentto figure out which type of which medium is the best and the most feasible for the company.………………………………………………………………………………………………………Advertising and marketing have become an essential part of the business world. If you have a goodproduct or an efficient service to offer, you need to master the art of selling it. While some advertisingagencies might stick to conventional advertising methods, most of the leading players are resorting tofresh and modern advertising methods. There is a new cult of modern advertisers who areexperimenting with ideas that are truly modern and innovative! Newspaper advertisements and coloredfliers are so passé! Say hello to the era of instant, quick, smart and out-of-the box ideas! If you stillassociate advertising with the newspaper ads, televisions ads or radio ads for that matter, then youdefinitely need a refresher course. So lets get started. Here is a brief tutorial on modern advertising.Modern Advertising MethodsThere are different types of advertising and advertising techniques that are available for promotingproducts and services. However, here are some of the latest and hottest trends in advertising that aregaining popularity. People are now looking for new types of advertising appeals that they can target.Many of the new-age advertising methods are a result of the advent of the Internet, while some of thetrends are just novel ideas that have transformed mundane advertising media into brilliant and wittyadvertising methods! Internet advertising is a vast concept and it entails several sub-types, many ofwhich have been only recently introduced. Email advertising is one of the earlier trends, while the new
  4. 4. ones include banner advertising, pixel advertising, blog advertising, keyword advertising and contextualadvertising. Lets take a look at some of the most widely used modern advertising methods.Web Banner AdvertisingIf billboard advertising is used on roads, then a similar type called banner advertising is used on the web.Have you noticed the horizontal advertisement strips that are seen at the top of almost every webpage? These are we banners. Web banners are usually constructed using images, or JavaScript, or anyother multimedia objects and animation. Web banners are usually linked to web pages that are relatedto the content on the existing website.Bandwagon AdvertisingThis is nothing but a propaganda advertising technique, which aims at convincing the user that everyoneelse is using the products or everyone in the customer base, is in favor of the brand and so he must doso too. This compels the consumer to at least think about buying that product and check what everyoneelse is raving about and in turn jump on the bandwagon. Bandwagon advertising is a strategy that isbased on consumer psychology and hence, is an effective advertising technique which can be used viaany media, be it print, electronic or broadcast.Promotional AdvertisingPromotional advertising involves the use of promotional give-away items or promotional media events,which help to garner public attention and are an effective way of advertising. Handing out promotionalfreebies is a modern advertising technique that is innovative and very effective as well.Testimonials and EndorsementsEver wondered why Colgate brought Brooke Shields on board to promote their toothpaste? Or did youknow that Keanu Reeves had once been a part of an advertisement for Corn Flakes? Well, anendorsement from a celebrity or a public figure is reason enough for certain customers to try aparticular product. Such testimonials or endorsements are a great way to advertise particular productsand services. Another evolved version of this being a new type called covert advertising, involves the useof brand names or actual products in movies or television shows in an indirect form of advertising.Surrogate AdvertisingSeveral national laws have banned the advertising of products like alcohol or cigarettes. Owing to this,many umbrella brands have come up with an advertising technique which only promotes the umbrellabrand name which of course, also reminds the consumer of the products that have been banned fromadvertising. For example, Kingfisher doesnt need to advertise its beer when the general brand name,also conferred to the aircraft, is being advertised publicly.Pixel AdvertisingPixel advertising is a new type of Internet advertising in which the cost of an advertisement is calculatedbased on the number of pixels it occupies. This form of advertising originated in late 2005, when aBritish student Alex Tew came up with a website called The Million Dollar Homepage, where advertisers
  5. 5. could buy advertising space at the rate of $1 per pixel with a space limit of one million pixels. In additionto the space options provided by the hosting websites, there is also the option of using Do-it-Yourself(DIY) pixel scripts, which ensures that people who do not understand the intricacies of the pixel ads canincorporate the pixel ads in their website without any hassles. Some of the commonly used DIY pixelscripts are Million Pixel Script and the GPix Pixel Ad Script.Contextual AdvertisingDo you notice how Google generates ads that are relevant to your search query? Or more recently, haveyou noticed the Google ads that show up next to your emails in the Google mail service? Well, if you areone of those people who still havent noticed this, then you need to wake up and smell the coffee.Google Adsense was the first contextual advertising venture. Contextual advertising is a very specificallytargeted form of Internet marketing in which the advertisements are selected by automated systemsbased on the content being viewed by a particular user. The automated system scans the text of awebsite for keywords and sends advertisements that match the content which the user is viewing. Manysearch engines also make use of contextual advertising for displaying ads on the search result pages,such that the ads match the things that the user is looking up on the web. After Google started thistrend, there were many others like Yahoo! and Microsoft who followed suit.Keyword AdvertisingCommonly, keyword advertising is also known as pay per click advertising or cost per action advertising.Although Yahoo was the first company to venture into keyword advertising, it is Google Adwordsprogram which is now most popular for its keyword advertising. Some of the popular search engines,which are into keyword advertising, include Yahoo! Search Marketing, Microsoft adCenter, Miva andLookSmart.Blog AdvertisingIf you thought that a blog was nothing but an online journal, then you are wrong. Owing to thetremendous popularity of blogs, advertisers have wisely used blogs as effective advertising andmarketing tools. Corporate blogs are an excellent way for companies to reach out to their customerbase on the Internet. Advertising blogs often make use of Search Engine Marketing techniques, whichensure better results on the web.Bathroom AdvertisingTruly out-of-the-box, isnt it? Yes, bathroom advertising is nothing but placement of advertisements inpublic restrooms. A research was carried out, in which a test group of people visiting a restroom wereasked whether they noticed the advertisements in there, and surprisingly, a major percentage of thegroup were seen to have a high retention of the advertisements. This led to the conclusion that peoplevisiting the restroom are a good target audience. Bathroom advertising is soon catching up as aneffective advertising tool.Mobile AdvertisingYes, as annoying as it might be for you to receive advertisements on your cell phone, it is now a fact that
  6. 6. mobile advertising or cell phone advertising is one of the most effective ways of advertising. Most of thetime, advertisers have a data of mobile numbers of their existing customer base as well as a list of phonenumbers of people who might be potential customers. A message on the mobile phone rarely goesunnoticed and hence, qualifies as an effective marketing or advertising tool!Public Relations AdvertisingMaintaining and developing good public relations has been a marketing tool for companies to maintaingoodwill amongst employees as well as clients. It is not only a way to be in the public eye, but also agreat way to build and maintain a particular brand image and identity. Public relations is thus a greatadvertising tool which is used by companies to reach out to their investors, employees and of course,their existing and potential customer base.As you can see, the field of advertising has evolved and reached the masses in ways that were perceivedto be unimaginable a decade ago. All thanks to huge developments and innovations in the field oftechnology, advertising is now present almost everywhere we go, in almost every form we can imagine.Dont believe it? Just look around you!