Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this


  1. 1. The Art of Being Human, 7/e Chapter 12 – HAPPINESS PowerPoint by Julie Rodakowski
  2. 2. HEDONISM To a HEDONIST, happiness is having all the pleasure one can obtain. <ul><li>Aristippus </li></ul><ul><li>Laertius </li></ul>
  3. 3. Assumptions of hedonism: <ul><li>Everyone deserves as much pleasure as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure is automatically good. </li></ul><ul><li>No amount of pleasure is ever too much. </li></ul><ul><li>The absence of pleasure is a misfortune for which compensation is due. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hedonism Reconsidered: <ul><li>Is this philosophy based on an accurate view of human nature? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it accurate to assume that people are pleasure-loving at all times and in all places? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it self defeating to assume that happiness is the sum total of all possible pleasures? </li></ul>Hedonism has inspired three critical questions:
  5. 5. EPICUREANISM To an EPICUREAN, happiness is freedom from all pain. <ul><li>Epicurus </li></ul>
  6. 6. Assumptions of Epicureanism: <ul><li>Nothing lasts forever, and we must accept this fact cheerfully. If we are to be happy, it is wiser to recognize that life will consist of things other than pleasure. </li></ul><ul><li>No one can sustain pleasure over prolonged periods of time. </li></ul><ul><li>We must, therefore, exert control and enjoy pleasure in moderation. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Epicureanism Reconsidered: <ul><li>It has been accused of being as firmly rooted in self-interest as the philosophy from which it departs (hedonism). </li></ul><ul><li>It has been accused of creating people who are more interested in their own peace of mind than in social causes. </li></ul>Epicureanism has inspired two critical objections:
  8. 8. STOICISM To a STOIC, happiness is achieved by learning to curb desires and cope with the inevitability of pain. <ul><li>Zeno </li></ul><ul><li>Epictetus </li></ul>
  9. 9. Assumptions of Stoicism: <ul><li>Pain is intrinsic to living, so we must learn to cope with it. </li></ul><ul><li>To find the roots of happiness, we must look inward. </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing is under control except the way we think about things. </li></ul><ul><li>Tranquility is worth any price. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stoicism Reconsidered: <ul><li>It is too convenient. </li></ul><ul><li>It is believed that its advocates secretly want everyone else to be as miserable as they are. </li></ul><ul><li>It is believed that what passes for reason by its advocates is really rationalization. </li></ul><ul><li>It is believed that it can inspire passivity because of the expectation of failure. </li></ul>Stoicism has also inspired critical commentary:
  12. 12. Pleasure is a limited goal, but happiness is a complete goal. If we could reach a state in which nothing else could ever be desired, then we should have found the highest good, or what Aristotle calls the final good. This is the state of complete happiness, and it must be the goal and purpose of life.
  13. 13. Is providing happiness the responsibility of a government? Aristotle believed that the institutions of human society (government, education, etc.) exist for no reason other than to promote the end—the happiness of all—and the means to achieve that end. What are some modern expansions of Aristotle’s theory? Something for you to think about!