Topic.06 A Civil War


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Topic.06 A Civil War

  1. 1. United States History Topic 06: A Civil War Mr. Michael Meechin Celebration High School Social Science Dept.
  2. 2. [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] “ I will say then that I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races - that I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of making voters or jurors of Negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people; and I will say in addition to this that there is a physical difference between the white and black races which I believe forever forbid the two races living together on terms of social and political equality. And in as much as they cannot so live, while they do remain together there must be the position of superior and inferior, and I as much as any other man am in favor of having the superior position assigned to the white race.” - Abraham Lincoln
  3. 3. Mr. Lincoln [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>Abraham Lincoln began his presidency by sneaking into Washington; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of a suspected assassination plot in Baltimore, Lincoln’s railroad car was re-routed so he arrived at a different time than publicly announced; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Within a few months of taking office 11 states had left the Union: </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mr. Lincoln [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>Abraham Lincoln was not an abolitionist; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He did however, oppose slavery, but like most white Americans, he though black Americans were inferior; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lincoln’s main objective was to preserve the Union… </li></ul><ul><li>“ If I could save the Union without freeing any slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. The “Wayward Sisters” [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>Even though Lincoln believed that no state could leave the Union without a fight, others though different; </li></ul><ul><li>“ Peace Democrats” and “Copperheads” called to negotiate a way to just let the Southern states go; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The normally patient Lincoln became very impatient with these groups… so he violated the Constitution; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln suspended the right to a speedy trial and to be charged with a specific crime when arrested; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 13,000 people were arrested and held without trial during the war… </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. North vs. South [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] North Population: 22 million 7x the manufacturing of the South 75% of railroad track was in the North Control of Navy and the merchant fleet Central gov’t in place Immigrants fought in military South Population: 9 million; 3.5 million were slaves Mainly agriculture Transportation difficult Civilian boats New location for gov’t in Richmond
  7. 7. Civil War Weapons [ Topic 06: A Civil War ]
  8. 8. Civil War Weapons [ Topic 06: A Civil War ]
  9. 9. Civil War Weapons [ Topic 06: A Civil War ]
  10. 10. Civil War Weapons [ Topic 06: A Civil War ]
  11. 11. Mobilizing the Troops [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>At the beginning of the war many Northern and Southern men enlisted in the armies; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As the war dragged on, fewer men enlisted on either side; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The South introduced conscription in April 1862; </li></ul><ul><li>The North tried to get volunteers to enlist by offering a bounty to men who enlisted for three years of military service… </li></ul>
  12. 12. Mobilizing the Troops [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>Congress passed the Militia Act in July 1862, giving Lincoln the power to call state militias into federal service; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1863, Congress introduced a national draft… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do we keep our military packed with new recruits year after year? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mobilizing the Troops [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>Man power became key in the Civil War, for example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confederate reinforcements were led by Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson in the First Battle of Bull Run; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The reinforcements forced Union commander Gen. Irwin McDowell to retreat when he saw the Confederate back-up; </li></ul><ul><li>The retreat quickly turned into a panic by the Union troops… </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Naval War [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>By 1862, the North had blockaded all of the Southern ports, except for Charleston, SC and Wilmington, NC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln wanted to cut the South’s trade with the world; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Union blockade became increasingly effective as the war went on; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Union navy had trouble stopping blockade runners used to get through the blockade… </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Naval War [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>The Confederacy used ships out of foreign ports to attack Northern merchant vessels; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two of these attack vessels were built in Great Britain, straining relations between the US and GB; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In April of 1862, the Union completed a strategic naval victory; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A fleet of Union ships captured New Orleans giving them control of the lower Mississippi… </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The War in the West [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>In 1862, Gen. Grant began a campaign to take control of the Tennessee River; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of the river cut Tennessee in two and gave the Union a river route deep into Confederate territory; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grant advanced down river until the Confederates launched a surprise attack at Shiloh; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Union won the battle of Shiloh, but lost 20,000 troops in the battle; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of the victory, the Union was also able to capture Chattanooga; where Lincoln ordered the rail lines to be cut, stopping supply flow… </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The War in the East [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>In the East, McClellan took over for the Union after the defeat at the 1st Battle of Bull Run; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal was for the Union to capture Richmond; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McClellan took too long to capture Yorktown; this gave the Confederacy time to move troops into position in Richmond… </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The War in the East [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>McClellan allowed his troops to become divided by a river; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was attacked by the Confederacy in a series of attacks known as the Seven Days’ Battle; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Union suffered heavy casualties; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lincoln ordered McClellan back to Washington, DC; needless to say, he was not happy… </li></ul>
  19. 19. The War in the East [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>As McClellan withdrew, Lee attacked the Union troops that were defending Washington; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This became known as the Second Battle of Bull Run and the South forced the North to retreat; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confederate forces were just 20 miles from Washington, DC… </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The War in the East [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>Jefferson Davis and Lee believed the only way to be taken seriously was to invade the North; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal was to gain recognition for independence and gain help from Great Britain; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lee and his troops invaded Maryland and McClellan set up at Antietam Creek east of Lee; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest one day battle of the war; Lee was forced to retreat to Virginia… </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Emancipation Proclamation [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>Here is how this country was set-up: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democrats opposed slavery; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans were divided on the issue; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln and others did not want to loose the loyal slaveholding border states; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, as casualties rose, Northerners began to agree that slavery should end… </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Emancipation Proclamation [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>In Sept. 1862, Lincoln encouraged by the victory at Antietam, announced that he would issue the Emancipation Proclamation; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This decree would free all enslaved persons in states still in rebellion on January 1, 1863; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Emancipation Proclamation changed the Civil War from a conflict over preserving the Union to a war to free the slaves… </li></ul>
  23. 23. “ Contrabands” [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>As war raged, slaves began to vote for freedom with their feet; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves began to escape in large numbers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Union Army had to beside on a plan; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For the rest of the war, slaves who came within Union lines were known as Contraband… </li></ul>
  24. 24. Border States [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>At Lincoln’s urging, Congress passed a resolution offering compensation to states that voluntarily abolished slavery; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln argued that the South had the hope that these “border” states would leave the Union; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepting compensated emancipation would kill that hope… </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Women & the War [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>In factories and on farms, women replaced men who had gone off to war; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The war accelerated the entry of women into the teaching profession; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the war, the private sector began hiring women as clerks, bookkeepers, “typewriters”; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nursing was not a new profession for women, but it lacked respect as a wartime profession; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was classified as a little higher than a prostitute; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People thought that the physical, embarrassing environment of a hospital was no place for respectable woman… </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Black Men in Blue [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>Enlistment of black soldiers was a logical result of emancipation; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democrats said, it was part of a Republican plot to establish “the equality of the black and white races.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occupied parts of the South began to organize black regiments in 1862; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These units would serve as labor battalions, supply troops, and garrison forces rather than as combat troops; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They would be paid less than white soldiers and would have white officers… </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Prisoner Exchange Controversy [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>In 1862, both sides signed a cartel for the exchange of prisoners captured in battle; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Confederate Army announced that they would not return former slaves captured in battle; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They and their white officers could be put to death; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On April 12, 1864, Confederate cavalry commander Nathan Bedford Forrest slaughtered scores of black (and some white) prisoners… </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Prisoner Exchange Controversy [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>The Lincoln administration suspended the exchange of prisoners until the Confederacy agreed to treat white and black prisoners alike; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of the stand-still in the prisoner exchange, prison camps were set-up; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>16% of Union soldiers dies in Southern prison camps, compared to 12% of Confederate soldiers; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Andersonville, a Southern camp, was designed to accommodate 15,000, but help more than 33,000; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 100 soldiers died a day at Andersonville, a total of 13,000… </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Issues of Black Soldiers in the South [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>Confederacy eventually had no choice but to begin recruiting black soldiers; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentive was freedom; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before any black regiments could be organized, the war ended… </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. The Assassination of Lincoln [ Topic 06: A Civil War ] <ul><li>On the evening of April 14, Lincoln attended a comedy at Ford’s Theatre; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln was shot in the head from behind, and died on April 15; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within 11 days after Lincoln’s death, his assassin was trapped and killed in a burning barn; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Union cavalry captured the fleeing Jefferson Davis in Georgia (May 1865); </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 13th Amendment to the Constitution confirmed the supreme power of the national government to abolish slavery and ensure liberty for all Americans; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13th Amendment: abolished slavery… </li></ul></ul>