Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Sex hormones


Published on


  • Be the first to comment

Sex hormones

  1. 1. SEX HORMONES M.PRASAD NAIDU Msc Medical Biochemistry, Ph.D Research scholar.
  2. 2.  Steroid hormones  Synthesized in mammals by the ovary, testis, A.cortex corpus luteum and placenta  The activity of sex hormones controlled by the adenohypophyseal hormones.  Bcos of this, the sex hormones are, some times referred to as 20 sex hormones of the adenohypophysis.  3 types are sex hormones are recognized.  1. the estrogens (female / ovarian / follicular hormones)  2. the androgens ( male / testicular hormones)  3. the gestogens ( corpus luteal hormones)
  3. 3.  The sex hormones are concerned with sexual processes and the development of 20 characteristics which differentiate males from females  The adrenal cortical hormones perform a variety of important functions related to cell metabolism.  Based on the no.of C atoms present in the molecule, the steroid hormones may be named as C18,C19 or C21 steroids.
  4. 4.  Structure:-  Mammalian ovary contains ovarian follicles and corpus lutea.  Hormones produced mainly in the follicles are known as estrogens.  Estrogens are derivatives of C18 hydro carbon, estrane.  The imp estrogens are  1. β-estradiol ( C18H24O2)  2. Estriol (C18H24O3)  3. Estrone (C18H22O2)
  5. 5.  Estrone is the 1st known member of the sex hormones.  Isolated from the urine of pregnants.  All these are characterized by the absence of a CH3 group at C10 and by the aromatic ring A, making the OH group phenolic in character.  Β-estradiol is the most potent estrogens.  Estrone is less potent and estriol is least active.  Their relative potencies are 50:5:1.  Although ovary is the chief source of estrogens, they are in smaller amts also produced by the testis& A.cortex.
  6. 6.  Estrogen production is highest when a woman is young & slows down with age.↑  Biosynthesis:-  In non-pregnant females, estrogen is mainly synthesized in the ovary.  The estrogen(as well as androgen) transported by binding to a specific plasma protein called sex steroid binding protein.  The amt of SBT increases in pregnancy or estrogen therapy which results in reduced androgenic action.  Testosterone, an androgen is the precursor of estrogens.
  7. 7.  Most of the metabolic reactions of the estrogens take place in the liver  Estradial - 17β  2-OH-estradiol-17β  2- methoxyestradiol-17β  2-methoxyestrone  Estrone 16→ α -hydroxyestrone  ↓ ↓  2-OHestrone Estriol  Estriol is the principal estrogen found in the placenta and urine of pregnants.  It is produced by hydroxylation of estrone at C16 and reduction of keto group at C17
  8. 8.  Acetate cholesterol  pregnenolon progesteron  testosterone  estrogen  Regulation of Secretion of Estrogen:-  The secretion of estrogen is regulated by FSH released from anterior pituitary.  The release of FSH is caused by the gonadotropic releasing hormone secreted from hypothalamus.
  9. 9.  Effects on uterus  Effects on fallopian tubes  Effects on vagina  Effect on the breast  Effects on 20 sexual characteristics  Effects on bones  Effects on protein & fat metabolism  Effects on electrolyte balance