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Sex hormones

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Sex hormones

  1. 1. SEX HORMONES M.PRASAD NAIDU Msc Medical Biochemistry, Ph.D Research scholar.
  2. 2.  Steroid hormones  Synthesized in mammals by the ovary, testis, A.cortex corpus luteum and placenta  The activity of sex hormones controlled by the adenohypophyseal hormones.  Bcos of this, the sex hormones are, some times referred to as 20 sex hormones of the adenohypophysis.  3 types are sex hormones are recognized.  1. the estrogens (female / ovarian / follicular hormones)  2. the androgens ( male / testicular hormones)  3. the gestogens ( corpus luteal hormones)
  3. 3.  The sex hormones are concerned with sexual processes and the development of 20 characteristics which differentiate males from females  The adrenal cortical hormones perform a variety of important functions related to cell metabolism.  Based on the no.of C atoms present in the molecule, the steroid hormones may be named as C18,C19 or C21 steroids.
  4. 4.  Structure:-  Mammalian ovary contains ovarian follicles and corpus lutea.  Hormones produced mainly in the follicles are known as estrogens.  Estrogens are derivatives of C18 hydro carbon, estrane.  The imp estrogens are  1. β-estradiol ( C18H24O2)  2. Estriol (C18H24O3)  3. Estrone (C18H22O2)
  5. 5.  Estrone is the 1st known member of the sex hormones.  Isolated from the urine of pregnants.  All these are characterized by the absence of a CH3 group at C10 and by the aromatic ring A, making the OH group phenolic in character.  Β-estradiol is the most potent estrogens.  Estrone is less potent and estriol is least active.  Their relative potencies are 50:5:1.  Although ovary is the chief source of estrogens, they are in smaller amts also produced by the testis& A.cortex.
  6. 6.  Estrogen production is highest when a woman is young & slows down with age.↑  Biosynthesis:-  In non-pregnant females, estrogen is mainly synthesized in the ovary.  The estrogen(as well as androgen) transported by binding to a specific plasma protein called sex steroid binding protein.  The amt of SBT increases in pregnancy or estrogen therapy which results in reduced androgenic action.  Testosterone, an androgen is the precursor of estrogens.
  7. 7.  Most of the metabolic reactions of the estrogens take place in the liver  Estradial - 17β  2-OH-estradiol-17β  2- methoxyestradiol-17β  2-methoxyestrone  Estrone 16→ α -hydroxyestrone  ↓ ↓  2-OHestrone Estriol  Estriol is the principal estrogen found in the placenta and urine of pregnants.  It is produced by hydroxylation of estrone at C16 and reduction of keto group at C17
  8. 8.  Acetate cholesterol  pregnenolon progesteron  testosterone  estrogen  Regulation of Secretion of Estrogen:-  The secretion of estrogen is regulated by FSH released from anterior pituitary.  The release of FSH is caused by the gonadotropic releasing hormone secreted from hypothalamus.
  9. 9.  Effects on uterus  Effects on fallopian tubes  Effects on vagina  Effect on the breast  Effects on 20 sexual characteristics  Effects on bones  Effects on protein & fat metabolism  Effects on electrolyte balance

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