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Caffeine Not a Just Stimulant


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Caffeine Not a Just Stimulant

  1. 1. Caffeine--Not just a stimulant M.Prasad Naidu MSc Medical Biochemistry, Ph.D.Research Scholar
  2. 2.  Introduction  Consideration of the physiological effets of caffeine typically are limited to presumptive “stimulant effects”.  Many of the human responces to caffeine extend beyond”stimulant effects” and evidence of such beneficial responces to caffeine consumption is abundant.
  3. 3. Caffeine potentiates postsynaptic neurotransmission in the sympathetic nervous system Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a plant alkaloid that increases the excitability of the adenosine-sensitive sympathetic nervous system.signals originating within the sns produce transient increases in the cAMP concentration within the postsynaptic cells through which the signal is expressed.
  4. 4. •By acting as a competitive antagonist of adenosine,caffeine inhibits the enzymatic degradation of cAMP by phosphodiesterase within the postsynaptic cell & the presence of caffeine may increase strength of transmitted signals.
  5. 5. Caffeine increases resting energy expenditure  Human 24-h energy expenditure,sleeping metabolic rate,& resting awake metabolic rate all are proportional to the rate of sympathetic nerve activity & plasma norepinephrine concentration.  By potentiating sympathetic activity,caffeine stimulates lypolysis.
  6. 6. For Ex.the ingestion of as little as 50 mg of caffeine by normal-weight,non- excercising,healthy men produced a significant increase in resting energy expenditure within 30 min of caffeine ingestion. The increase persisted for 4 h & produced a significant 6% total increase in daily energy expenditure. Exercise-associated FA oxidation is also increased.
  7. 7. Caffeine increases endurance and enhances performance In addition to effects on energy production,caffeine increases serotonin concentration in brainstem regions that have excitatory projections to spinal motor neurons,increasing the self sustained firing of the skeletal muscle motor units that are innervated by these neurons.  By potentiating motor unit sensitivity to stimulation,caffiene postpones fatigue & increases human endurance
  8. 8. •In its definitive 2001 report,the institute of medicine food & nutrition board committee on military nutrition research concluded that 150 mg of caffeine enhances physical endurance & the quality of physical performance...
  9. 9. Caffeine increases mental energy  In adition to benefiting physical performance & endurance,caffeine directly supports the CNS  MRI evidence shows that cerebral blood flow is directly proportional to recent caffiene intake & the acute consumption of 400mg of caffeine has been shown by pulsed trans cranial doppler sonography to increase significantly blood flow through the middle & anterior cerebral arteries.
  10. 10. In addition, caffeine acutely increases the functioning efficiency of neuronal networks in the human cerebral cortex. Such increases in “mental energy”can produce increases in the functional capacity to engage in cognitively demanding tasks that can be expressed as increased vigilance,alertness,ability to concentrate,& ability to choose among alternatives.
  11. 11. Caffeine enhances cognitive functioning  In many human studies,caffeine consumption has increased alertness,ability to concentrate,problem- solving ability,wakefulness,& feelings of “energy”.  The benefits of caffein consumption extend beyond “wakefulness” to other reflections of enhaced mental energy.
  12. 12. •Cognitive functions,including the ability to concentrate & to solve problems requiring reasoning,mental fatigue,& vigor&alertness,reaction time,accuracy of responces,ability to focus attention,working short-term memory,sentence varification ability.
  13. 13.  In its definitive 2001 report(caffeine for the sustainment of mental task performance.Formulations for Military Operations),the Institute of Medicine Food & Nutrition Board Committee on Military Nutrition Research concluded that the consumption of 150 mg of caffeine enhances cognitive performance & that these effects can persist for as long as 10 h after consumption.
  14. 14. Caffeine increases neuromuscular coordination,  In contrast to common misconseptions,moderate caffeine consumption contributes to enhanced neuromuscular coordination.  A single dose of caffeine upto 600 mg enhance cognitive functioning capabilities & neuromuscular coordination.
  15. 15.  Approved the inclusion of Caffeine in dietary supplements intended to promote alertness,wakefulness,enhanced cognitive performance,endurance,decrease of fatigue,&enhanced motor performance.  The Recommended intakes of caffeine are 100 to 200 mg, every 3 to 4 h, upto five times daily.
  16. 16. Caffeine elevates mood and relieves anxiety  Improvement in cognitive functioning capabilities are accompanied by improved mood,self image, and overall “happiness” and less anxiety.  The cognitive & emotional benefits of caffeine consumption increase in magnitude as the amount of acutely consumed caffeine increases,persist for 6 h after consumption.
  17. 17. Caffeine consumption is safe  Moderate intakes of caffeine pose no health risks.  Daily consumption of up to 400 mg of caffeine significantly decreased(by10%)the risk of dying from any cause.  Study demonstrated that even more than six cups of caffeinated coffee(equivalent to about 1000 mg of caffeine) daily had no risk for developing coronary heart disease.
  18. 18.  A Health Professionals Follow-Up Study with type-2 diabetes,there was no relation between habitual coffee consumption & risk for developing cardiovascular disease.  Another study indicated that the risks for dying prematurely from any cause & specifically from cardiovascular disease & risk of developing a stroke also were significantly inversely proportional to chronic daily coffee consumption.
  19. 19.  Lowa Women’s Health Study on Postmenopausal women demonstrated that any amount of habitually consumed caffeinated coffee decreased the risk of death from cardiovascular disease by 15% to 25%  Consistent with these findings,the 10-y prospective Framingham Study of men&women initially 65 to 96 y old found that the consumption of coffee halved the risk for heart valve disease & from death from CAD
  20. 20. Regular intake of caffeinated coffee does not increase the risk of hypertention  The US Food & Drug Administration has concluded that individuals who habitually consume coffee develop Tachyphylaxis-a dimnishment of a response after the repetative consumption of a pharmocologically active substance.  Based on published scientific evidence that any acute pressor effects of caffein consumption cease after 1 to 2 wk of daily consumption,USFDA concluded that “the available evidence shows that cronic use of caffeine has no effect on bloob pressure that persists beyond 2 weeks.
  21. 21.  The risk of developing GOUT,the most common inflammatory arthtitis in men, was approx.halved by the daily consumption of six or more cups of caffeinated coffee.  Postmenopausal women also showed a 12% decrease in risk of developing breast cancer.  Study indicated that the risk for developing Diabetes decreases as habitual caffeine intake increases in men & women.  The safety of caffeine during pregnancy remains contraversial.
  22. 22.  The potential for habitual caffeine consumption to be associated with the neurologic phenomen of dependence,tolerence,&withdrawl might suggest the presence of a relation between caffeine consumption & psychiatric sequlae.  A 21 y study of initially middle aged men & women(the Cardiovascular Risk Factors,Aging & Dementia {CIADE} study)found that compared with subjects routinely consuming less than 300mg of caffeine daily,those subjects routinely consuming 400 to 650mg daily showed a significantly lower incidence of clinical dementia & parkinson’s disease.
  23. 23. CONCLUSIONSThe foregoing publicly available scientific evidence substantiates the conclusions that the consumption of moderate amounts of caffeine  Increases energy availability  Increases daily energy expenditure  Decreases fatigue  Decreases the sense of effort associated with physical activity  Enhances physical performance
  24. 24.  Enhances motor performance  Enhances cognitive performance  Increases alertness,wakefulness,and feelings of “energy”  Decreases mental fatigue  Quickens reactions  Increases the accuracy of reactions,  Increases the ability to concentrate & focus attention  Enhances short-term memory
  25. 25.  Increases the ability to solve problems requiring reasoning  Increases the ability to make correct decisions  Enhances cognitive functioning capabilities & neuromuscular coordination,and  In otherwise healthy non-pregnant adults is safe.
  26. 26. THANK YOU