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The tales of smart cities



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The tales of smart cities

  1. 1. The 5 tales of Smart Cities Marc Pous - Founder @ theThings.IO
  2. 2. Technology is the answer. But what is the question? As the British architect Cedric Price said in the mid-1960s: “Technology is the answer. But what is the question?”
  3. 3. 1 First tale of Smart Cities
  4. 4. He is Salvador Allende in 1970 after winning the Chilean presidential elections.
  5. 5. Stafford Beer was a scientific who created the theory of the cybernetics on the 1950s . On the 1970s he envisioned the Viable System Model for organisation modelling. He was hired by the Chilean government to apply this organisation model into the Chilean society.
  6. 6. This project was called the Cybersin Project and was called by the socialists the 4th revolution of Socialism. It tried to bring socialism to everyone (citizens and companies) through technology.
  7. 7. Viable system model ● System 1 in a viable system contains several primary activities. Each System 1 primary activity is itself a viable system due to the recursive nature of systems as described above. These are concerned with performing a function that implements at least part of the key transformation of the organization. ● System 2 represents the information channels and bodies that allow the primary activities in System 1 to communicate between each other and which allow System 3 to monitor and co-ordinate the activities within System 1. Represents the scheduling function of shared resources to be used by System 1. ● System 3 represents the structures and controls that are put into place to establish the rules, resources, rights and responsibilities of System 1 and to provide an interface with Systems 4/5. Represents the big picture view of the processes inside of System 1. ● System 4 – The bodies that make up System 4 are responsible for looking outwards to the environment to monitor how the organization needs to adapt to remain viable. ● System 5 is responsible for policy decisions within the organization as a whole to balance demands from different parts of the organization and steer the organization as a whole.
  8. 8. More than 500 of this Telex machines where spreaded around Chile to get "real-time" bidirectional communication between the public companies in Chiel and the Chilean experts in the government that where managing/mentoring these companies from remote.
  9. 9. The project Cybersyn was supported by four IBM 360 Computer in the 1970s.
  10. 10. The project's ultimate goal was to create a network of computers and communications equipment that would support the management of the state-run sector of Chile's economy; at its core would be an operations room where government managers could view important information about economic processes in real time, formulate plans of action, and transmit advice and directives to managers at plants and enterprises in the field.[5] However, consistent with cybernetic principles and the ideals of the Allende government, its designers aimed to preserve worker and lower-management autonomy instead of implementing a top- down system of centralized control. The system used a network of about 500 telex machines located at enterprises throughout the country and in government offices in Santiago, some of which were connected to a government-operated mainframe computerthat would receive information on production operations, feed that information into economic modeling software, and report on variables (such as raw material supplies) that were outside normal parameters and might require attention. The project, implemented by a multidisciplinary group of both Chileans and foreigners, reached an advanced prototype stage, but was interrupted by the 1973 coup d'état.
  11. 11. After Pinochet arrived at the power, the project was completely destroyed and Stafford Beer gave up (probably) the Cybersin project.
  12. 12. 2 This is the 2nd Smart City tale.
  13. 13. This is a city where some of the rich live in gated communities while some of the poor in the favelas pirate electricity from the grid. And where disasters, natural and otherwise, sometimes strike. Rainstorms can cause deadly landslides. Last year, a historic streetcar derailed, killing five people. Earlier this year, three buildings collapsed downtown, killing at least 17. Rio is also reconstructing major arenas and building a rapid-bus system ahead of the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympics. The project cost Rio about $14 million, Mayor Paes said. If it all works according to plan, it could make Rio a model of data-driven city management.
  14. 14. I.B.M. incorporated its hardware, software, analytics and research. It created manuals so that the center’s employees could classify problems into four categories: events, incidents, emergencies and crises. A loud party, for instance, is an event. People beating up each other at a party is an incident. A party that becomes a riot is an emergency. If someone dies in the riot, it’s a crisis. The manuals also lay out step-by-step procedures for how departments should handle pressing situations like floods and rockslides. I.B.M. also installed a virtual operations platform that acts as a Web-based clearinghouse, integrating information that comes in via phone, radio, e-mail and text message. When city employees log on, they can enter information from, say, an accident scene, or see how many ambulances have been dispatched. They can also analyze historical information to determine, for instance, where car accidents tend to occur. In addition, I.B.M. developed a custom flood forecast system for the city. Mr. Banavar even recommended that the mayor create the position of chief operating officer to oversee the operations center, and the mayor agreed.
  15. 15. I.B.M’s Smarter Cities unit has it built a citywide system in Rio De Janeiro that leverages real-time information to anticipate problems, analyze trends, and coordinate available resources. Integrating data from over 30 agencies operating in the city, I.B.M’s Operations Center collates data captured by sensors, video cameras, and GPS devices throughout the city and utilizes an algorithm to identify patterns and trends. I.B.M has also installed a virtual operations platform for integrating information that comes in via phone, radio, e-mail and text message and allows city employees to view real-time information from an accident scene, or see how many ambulances have been dispatched to an incident, for example. The new alert system is expected to drastically reduce the reaction times to emergency situations by using instantaneous mobile communications, including automated email notifications and instant messaging, to reach emergency personnel and citizens. There is nothing quite like it in the world’s other major cities. I.B.M. has created similar data centers elsewhere for single agencies like police departments. But never before has it built a citywide system integrating data from some 30 agencies, all under a single roof. PREVIOUSLY, I.B.M. developed crime control centers for Madrid and New York City, along with a traffic congestion fee system for Stockholm. But creating a citywide,
  16. 16. interdepartmental system for Rio was a far bigger task. I.B.M. approached the challenge like a general contractor, managing the overall project while farming out some of the work. Local companies handled construction and telecommunications. Cisco provided network infrastructure and the videoconferencing system that links the operations center to the mayor’s house. The digital screens are from Samsung.
  17. 17. As Saskia Sassen points out, there is a further tendency to “make these technologies invisible, and hence put them in command rather than in dialogue with users.”
  18. 18. That remains the Panopticon
  19. 19. 3 The 3rd Smart City tale
  20. 20. Some of you will remember the Japanese tsunami in 2011.
  21. 21. This tsunami finished with the famous Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster.
  22. 22. This is an example of the radiation emitted by Fukushima 24h after the disaster.
  23. 23. And this is an example of the information that Japanese citizens could access through a PDF sheet from the government every 24 hours.
  24. 24. On the other hand, this became one of the most famous feeds at Cosm / Pachube / Xively during the Fukushima disaster. A far away from Fukushima geiger detector.
  25. 25. Seen that, the hardware japanese hackers began to build open hardware geiger counters and shared theme among their friends and neighbours. People was sharing real-time information of the radiation through Pachube. And not only radiation sensors, but wind speed sensors, rain detectors among dozens of other different sensors that allow experts to create real-time maps about how were the radiation clouds moving around Japan and other regions.
  26. 26. Even these sensors could be mobile.
  27. 27. On one hand we had the PDF sheets from the Japanese government and on the other hand there were real-time information from hundreds of citizens creating maps and add-value with this information.
  28. 28. 4 The 4th Smart City tale
  29. 29. This is a picture of Wall Street in New York city a hundred years ago.
  30. 30. This is a picture of Wall Street nowadays.
  31. 31. Nowadays the trend at Wall Street is called high trading frecuency.
  32. 32. The famous Hotel Carrier from New York is at 60 Hudson Street and is full of computers connected directly with Wall Street. This fiber is the fastest way to get connected with the Wall Street Arena, that means that is the best place to have all the High Trading Frecuency computers. []
  33. 33. May 6, 2010 Flash Crash
  34. 34. 30. Latent in the ideology underwriting the smart city is the notion that there is one universal and transcendently correct solution to each identified individual or collective human need, and that this solution can be arrived at algorithmically. As Adam Greenfield depicted in a latest blog post, there is an idea of controlling everything with algorithms.
  35. 35. 5 The last Smart City tale
  36. 36. The Computer of the 21st Century, Mark Weiser, 1991 In the 80s and 90s Mark Weiser from the XEROX Park was doing research on the next generation of computing. He created the ubiquitous computing term in his article The Computer of the 21st Century.
  37. 37. EveryWare, Adam Greenfield, 2006 Adam Greenfield wrote the book Everyware: The Dawning Age of Ubiquitous Computing in 2006 dechipering the future of public spaces and objects as a software. This book allows to understand the future of the city and the urban computing as a topic.
  38. 38. The street as platform, Dan Hill, Feb 2008 In 2008 Dan Hill wrote an awesome post on his blog explaining the possibility to convert any street of our city as a connected street using the available data in the Internet, such as, social networks, data from the governments, sensors, etc. This collection of use cases just make aware to the citizens and developers that the ubiquitous and urban computing was even more closer and available for everyone.
  39. 39. The Carlo Ratti talks about Smart Cities he creates an analogy between the Formula 1 twenty years ago and now. He describes and scenario where sensors and actuators with real-time accessible information by governments and citizens allows the create of new city paradigm.
  40. 40. 99. The city is not a finite state machine, something with limited configurations. Networked cities, therefore, must be understood as constituting a generative grammar that admits to a very large number of valid permutations. Understood correctly, any such place will be ripe with potential for interconnection, recombination and improvisatory structuration — something capable of being extended, enhanced and repurposed by its users as new potentials become available and new desires arise. Adam Greenfield also wrote about
  41. 41. The Allegory of the Cave from Plato is the scenario where we are moving nowadays. Perceiving the reality though displays such as mobile devices, laptops and TVs we are living in a Myth Cave.
  42. 42. But there is some people still fighting and trying to describe the Open Internet of Things rights.
  43. 43. Challenges
  44. 44. ● Transparency and trust of the political system ● Trust on the public administration ● Crisis of the world finantial system ● Citizen mass participation ● Sense of belonging and identity ● Social inclusion and social integration ● Behaviour transformation Democracy challenges
  45. 45. ● Health and ageing ● Energy sustainability ● Green mobility ● Climate change ● Demographic shifts ● Sustainable water and food supplies ● Housing ● Waste management ● Security Future cities' challenges
  46. 46. Bibliography
  47. 47. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Ricky Robinson , Markus Rittenbruch , Marcus Foth , Daniel Filonik & Stephen Viller (2012): Street Computing: Towards an Integrated Open Data Application Programming Interface (API) for Cities, Journal of Urban Technology, ● Jana Koehler, Chris Giblin, Dieter Gantenbein and Rainer Hauser. On Autonomic Computing Architectures, com/pdf/ebizz/idd-ac.pdf ● 20JLAS%202006.pdf ● concept-to-rio-de-janeiro.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 Bibliography
  48. 48. ● ● ● ● 2.21%20New%20trends%20for%20Smart%20Cities.pdf ● 4.2%20Requirements%20for%20tools%20for%20Open%20Data.pdf ● 20Introduction%20to%20UOS%20Architecture,%20Open%20Standards% 20&%20Protocols%20(2012-09-26-v05).pdf ● ● ● ● http://ofps.oreilly. com/titles/9780596804350/defining_government_2_0_lessons_learned_. html ● Charith Perera, Arkady Zaslavsky, Peter Christen and Dimitrios Georgakopoulos. CA4IOT: Context Awareness for Internet of Things. http: // Bibliography
  49. 49. ● Dan Hill, The street as platform, 2008, http://www.cityofsound. com/blog/2008/02/the-street-as-p.html ● Kristian KLOECKL, Oliver SENN, Giusy Di Lorenzo, Carlo RATTI. LIVE Singapore! - An urban platform for real-time data to program the city, 2011, edu/papers/pdf/2011_Kloeckl_et_al_LIVESingapore_CUPUM.pdf ● Francesco Calabrese, Member, IEEE, Massimo Colonna, Piero Lovisolo, Dario Parata, and Carlo Ratti, Real-Time Urban Monitoring Using Cell Phones: A Case Study in Rome, 2007, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, edu/papers/pdf/2007_Calabrese_Colonna_Lovisolo_Parata_Ratti_sensela b.pdf ● Francisco C. Pereira, Andrea Vaccari, Fabien Giardin, Carnaven Chiu, and Carlo Ratti, Crowdsensing in the Web: Analyzing the Citizen Experience in the Urban Space, 2011, Foth—From Social Butterfly to Engaged Citizen ● Gordon Falconer and Shane Mitchell, Smart City Framework A Systematic Process for Enabling Smart+Connected Communities, 2012 ● Smart cities of the future, The European Physical Journal Special Topics, Bibliography
  50. 50. ● Gordon Falconer and Shane Mitchell, Smart City Framework A Systematic Process for Enabling Smart+Connected Communities, 2012, Cisco Point of View ● the-five-keys/ ● Roy Thomas Fielding, Architectural Styles and the Design of Network- based Software Architectures, 2000, http://www.ics.uci. edu/~fielding/pubs/dissertation/top.htm ● ● FIREBALL Smart cities white paper, http://es.scribd. com/doc/94651094/FIREBALL-White-Paper ● dohler-globecom2012-4961955251780189470.pdf ● http://www.cybersyn. cl/imagenes/documentos/textos/cybersyn_sinergia_cibernetica.pdf ● http://www.cybersyn. cl/imagenes/documentos/textos/STAFFORD_BEER_AND_VIABLE_SYST EMS_IN_THE_XXI_CENTURY_spanish.pdf ● http://www.cybersyn. cl/imagenes/documentos/textos/Como_no_quedar_atras_siglo_XXI.pdf Bibliography
  51. 51. ● government/city-platform/index.html ● de-janeiro/ ● ● skeptical-about-smart-cities#.UQowhr9TMiw.twitter ● inteligentes-lo-importante-son-las-personas/ ● smart-citizens-instead.html Bibliography