Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
Chapter Three
Ethics: What Are My
Responsibilities as a Res...
Key Concepts
• Communication research could harm
participants.
• Classic ethical positions provide bases for
decisions abo...
For Discussion
Would you . . .
▫ Show participants offensive materials?
▫ Deliberately deceive participants?
▫ Accept fund...
Some Classic Ethical Positions
• Judeo-Christian -
“Do unto others.”
• Kant – categorical imperative –
A behavior is valid...
The Purpose of Ethics Codes
The primary purpose of ethics codes
in human communication research is
to protect research par...
Key Points of Ethics Codes
• Do no harm.
• Informed consent.
• Voluntary participation.
• Participants can leave at any ti...
Nuremberg & Helsinki Codes
Nuremberg Code (1948) –
▫ Participants must consent to research.
▫ Research benefits must outwe...
The Belmont Report (1979)
• Respect for Persons
▫ Information.
▫ Comprehension.
▫ Voluntariness.
• Beneficence
▫ Maximize ...
Peer Review
• Basic Assumption:
Those best equipped to evaluate your work and
its impact on human participants are
appropr...
Institutional Review Board
IRB
A formal review mechanism established to
review research proposals for their impact on
huma...
Relationships of Participants to
Researchers.
• Subject
• Respondent
• Informant
• Participant
• Collaborator
• Partner
In...
Ethics of the Literature Review
• How far back in time to review.
• Use of secondary sources (summary articles)
versus pri...
Ethical Issues in Reporting
Research
• Honesty.
• Plagiarism.
• Confidentiality or anonymity.
• Crediting others.
• Approp...
The Internet and Research Ethics
Advantages
• Rapid access to large numbers of research
participants.
• Low cost.
Disadvan...
The Internet Research Ethics
Dilemma
• Human participants are being studied.
• Consent of participants is therefore requir...
Guidelines for Internet Research
• The more vulnerable the participants, the
greater the researcher’s obligation to protec...
Chapter Summary
Research Ethics . . .
• Focus on how research participants should be
treated.
• Basic concern is protectin...
Vocabulary Review
Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
Vocabulary Review
Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
Web Resources
• The National Institutes of Health Bioethics
Resources -
http://bioethics.od.nih.gov/IRB.html
• American Ps...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

17352 03ppt

347 views

Published on

Published in: Spiritual, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
347
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

17352 03ppt

  1. 1. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications Chapter Three Ethics: What Are My Responsibilities as a Researcher?
  2. 2. Key Concepts • Communication research could harm participants. • Classic ethical positions provide bases for decisions about treating participants. • Codes of practice provide practical guidelines about treating participants. • Formal review is often required where research on humans is proposed. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  3. 3. For Discussion Would you . . . ▫ Show participants offensive materials? ▫ Deliberately deceive participants? ▫ Accept funding from a source that wants your research to help sell its products? ▫ Start false rumors? ▫ Record people’s behavior without them being aware of it? Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  4. 4. Some Classic Ethical Positions • Judeo-Christian - “Do unto others.” • Kant – categorical imperative – A behavior is valid if you are willing to accept it as a universal rule. • Bentham, Mill – utilitarianism – Greatest good for the greatest number. • Rawls – “Veil of Ignorance” – Dispassionate; review all sides of decision equally. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  5. 5. The Purpose of Ethics Codes The primary purpose of ethics codes in human communication research is to protect research participants. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  6. 6. Key Points of Ethics Codes • Do no harm. • Informed consent. • Voluntary participation. • Participants can leave at any time. • Debriefing after the study. • Anonymity or confidentiality. • Crediting other researchers. • Full reporting. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  7. 7. Nuremberg & Helsinki Codes Nuremberg Code (1948) – ▫ Participants must consent to research. ▫ Research benefits must outweigh risks. Declaration of Helsinki (1964) – ▫ Review by independent committee. ▫ Informed consent. ▫ Research by qualified individuals. ▫ Research benefits should exceed risks. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  8. 8. The Belmont Report (1979) • Respect for Persons ▫ Information. ▫ Comprehension. ▫ Voluntariness. • Beneficence ▫ Maximize benefits / minimize harm. • Justice ▫ Fair procedures and outcomes in selecting research subjects. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  9. 9. Peer Review • Basic Assumption: Those best equipped to evaluate your work and its impact on human participants are appropriately qualified people doing similar work to your own. • Formal Review:  Institutional Review Boards, editorial process. • Informal Review:  Networking, conferences. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  10. 10. Institutional Review Board IRB A formal review mechanism established to review research proposals for their impact on human participants. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  11. 11. Relationships of Participants to Researchers. • Subject • Respondent • Informant • Participant • Collaborator • Partner Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  12. 12. Ethics of the Literature Review • How far back in time to review. • Use of secondary sources (summary articles) versus primary (original) sources. • Reporting research that does not support your viewpoint. • Reporting research that is proprietary (“owned”). Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  13. 13. Ethical Issues in Reporting Research • Honesty. • Plagiarism. • Confidentiality or anonymity. • Crediting others. • Appropriate language. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  14. 14. The Internet and Research Ethics Advantages • Rapid access to large numbers of research participants. • Low cost. Disadvantages • Conceptual problems defining the Internet. • Practical problems of sampling, obtaining consents & establishing authenticity of participants Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  15. 15. The Internet Research Ethics Dilemma • Human participants are being studied. • Consent of participants is therefore required. versus • The web is published content. • Internet research is content analysis. • Consent of participants is therefore not required. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  16. 16. Guidelines for Internet Research • The more vulnerable the participants, the greater the researcher’s obligation to protect them. • The more public the venue, the less obligation there may be to protect individual privacy, confidentiality, & right to informed consent. Adopted from the Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR) - http://aoir.org/documents/ethics-guide. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  17. 17. Chapter Summary Research Ethics . . . • Focus on how research participants should be treated. • Basic concern is protecting participants from harm. • Review mechanisms include IRBs and informal peer review. • Formal ethics codes include “Nuremberg”, “Helsinki”, the Belmont Report and the “Common Rule”. Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  18. 18. Vocabulary Review Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  19. 19. Vocabulary Review Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications
  20. 20. Web Resources • The National Institutes of Health Bioethics Resources - http://bioethics.od.nih.gov/IRB.html • American Psychological Association - http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx • American Association for Public Opinion Research - http://www.aapor.org/aaporcodeofethics Introducing Communication Research 2e © 2014 SAGE Publications

×