Violence prevention data 2011

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Violence prevention data 2011

  1. 1. Michael P. McNeil, MS, CHES, FACHAColumbia UniversityACHA Annual MeetingJune 2, 2011
  2. 2. Participants should be able to:1. Describe the rationale for collecting campus-specific violence-related data.2. Identify potential tools for collecting campus violence- related data.3. List two strategies for conducting and analyzing data on a limited budget.4. Discuss the importance of data-driven decision- making for preventing and addressing violence on campus. McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011 2
  3. 3. • Violence Prevention and Response Programs • Are more than just disseminating information. • Embraces and supports the mission of the institution. • Supports students’ so they can work to achieve their personal and academic goals • Engage the whole campus • Environmental context • Improves the community in which faculty, staff and students live, work, and learn McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  4. 4. • Please take a moment and write down the single most important violence-related priority on campus.• In a moment we will share a couple of examples and discuss the justification for these items. McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  5. 5. There are a number of historical factors that may be helpful related to how we develop violence prevention- and response-related priorities:• Clinical data and experiences• Past understanding of the issues on campus (historical records)• Crisis response• Broad-based data sources McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  6. 6. Priorities may be determined by:• History – a program continues to exist because it has become core to the unit operations• Perception – a stated need that may not be supported by other data (includes emergent needs and anticipated needs)• Directives – a mandate given from a source of authority to provide a program or service (e.g. Cleary Act, Title IX)• Mission-Driven – selecting priorities that reflect commitment to and support for the organizational mission• Relevance to Higher Priorities – related the directives, this strategy is based on the need to support efforts of a higher level part of the organization• Higher-Level Impact – some priority issues cannot be justified with process measures as the true impact is often unknown or under reported.• Data-Driven Decisions – quantitative or qualitative data that support priorities McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  7. 7. As accountability in higher education moves forward, we find ourselves in an era that requires:• evidence- and theory-informed practice• cost-effectiveness• standards-driven• culturally competent• data-driven and research-informed strategies for advancing the health of students and the well being of campus communities McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  8. 8. • Comprehensive sets of national health objectives for the decade• Developed by a collaborative process• Designed to measure progress over time• Public and college health documents • part strategic plan • part textbook • on national and college health priorities McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011 8
  9. 9.  A number of Healthy People 2020 objectives support our violence prevention work  IVP-33 Reduce physical assaults  IVP-39 (developmental) Reduce violence by current or former intimate partners  IVP-40 (developmental) Reduce sexual violence  IVP-41 Reduce nonfatal intentional self-harm injuries http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectiveslist.aspx?topicId=24 McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  10. 10. • Broad context of efforts, like violence prevention programs in higher education, are historically seen as auxiliary to the purpose of the institution• Health in higher education has historically focused success measures on process instead of outcome• We have not always seized the opportunity to engage key stakeholders• To improve our self-advocacy with regard to a mission-driven purpose• Be sure to recognize that classroom learning is only part of the institutional mission• We’ve not fully embraced student development and human development theories that complement the work of addressing violence prevention issues in higher education• Many people come to this work from a single academic preparation program or philosophical approach, potentially missing exposure to the concepts, theories, and practices of the other McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  11. 11. Gather Data Assess Evaluate Prioritize Utilize Findings Implement Plan McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011 12
  12. 12. • Comparison of campus data to national data, targets, guidelines, and objectives• Identification of focus issues and goals• Creation of a strategic plan based on best practices in the field • Creation of programs targeting identified behaviors/practices by students• Implementation of plan• Continued ongoing reassessment of progress towards goals & objectives McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  13. 13. • What are the sources of data available to you?• Examples may include: • Clinical data (ICD-9 codes, Dx numbers) • Fiscal expenditure data • Population-based assessments (ACHA-NCHA) • Campus-specific surveys, focus groups, etc. • Learning & development surveys (NSSE, ESS) • Process, impact, and outcome evaluations • Community-based data (Hospitals) McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  14. 14. Data Source Key FindingClinical Visits Upper Respiratory Infection (URI)Fiscal Expenditure AlcoholPopulation-Based Assessments AllergiesLearning & Development Assessments StressEvaluations Sexual & Reproductive HealthCommunity Data OTC & RX Drug Sales increasingSo how do we find a balance among competing topics? McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  15. 15. The next set of slides presents examples of how institutionshave utilized data in a variety of settings including:•Priority setting•Budget allocations•Administrative reporting•Target audience identification•Program development & evaluation 16
  16. 16. • 88.5% of athletes reported receiving Alcohol and other drug use prevention information on one or more health AIDS or HIV infection prevention topics from the University. Dietary behaviors and nutrition Injury prevention and safety• Alcohol and other drug use prevention and sexual Physical activity and fitness assault/relationship violence Pregnancy prevention Sexual assault/relationship prevention were the highest violence prevention Sexually transmitted disease reported categories for both (STD) prevention Suicide prevention populations. Tobacco use prevention Violence prevention McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  17. 17. XYZ University Undergraduate GraduateSexual assault/relationship 62.4 25.8violence preventionSuicide prevention 27.7 13.1Violence prevention 25.0 15.0Summary:We seem to be doing a much better job of reaching our undergraduates with healthinformation. We also seem to do the best with information on preventing sexual assaultand relationship violence.Women reporting receiving information at higher rates than men (table not show).Suggests that we need to increase our efforts to engage men with violence preventionefforts. McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011 18
  18. 18. XYZ University FEMALE MALECompletely Familiar 2 3Somewhat Familiar 22 21Somewhat Unfamiliar 27 28Completely Unfamiliar 45 39No Answer Provided 5 9 Summary: Generally speaking students are not familiar with campus policy. Efforts to increase familiarity are needed. McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  19. 19. XYZ University FEMALE MALEConcerns about confidentiality 30 37Concerns about not being believed 19 27Concerns about reputation of another 20 13Concerns about reputation of self 36 27Concerns about the matter not being taken seriously 22 36Don’t know enough about the procedure 58 49Fear of retaliation 22 13Feeling responsible / blaming self 20 10Other 22 24Summary:Generally speaking students are unlikely to file a complaint because of lack of knowledgeabout the process and concerns of confidentiality, reputation, and seriousness. McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  20. 20. XYZ University National Sample UNDERGRADUATE GRADUATE Male Female Male Female Male FemaleOn campus (daytime) 99.0 99.5 99.3 99.2 87.9 83.7On campus (nighttime) 96.5 92.9 92.3 83.0 51.3 23.5Surrounding neighborhood(daytime) 97.7 96.6 95.3 92.7 58.2 49.4Surrounding neighborhood(nighttime) 73.0 60.2 64.1 49.1 27.1 10.7 Summary: Generally speaking students feel safe on and near campus. Some efforts to address nighttime safety in the neighborhood are indicated. An opportunity to promote the positive! McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  21. 21. EXPERIENCED (top 5) NEGATIVE IMPACT (top 5)  Cold/flu/sore throat  HIV infection  Stress  Learning disability  Alcohol use  ADD  Concern for a troubled  Depression/anxiety/ friend or family seasonal affective member disorder  Relationship difficulty  MononucleosisWhere is the violence prevention and response connection? McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  22. 22. ACHA-NCHA Data Q45 100 90Percent of Those Experiencing Condition 80 70 with Academic Impact 60 Learning Disability Deficit Disorder Attention Depression/Anxiety Disorder/Seasonal Affective Disorder 50 Pregnancy (self or partner) Sleep Difficulties 40 Relationship Difficulty Stress Internet Use/ Computer GamesCold/Flu/Sore throat Mononucleosis Death of friend/family Sinus Infection/Ear 30 Chronic illness Infection/Bronchitis/ Strep Eating Disorder/Problem Concern for friend/family Throat Assault (sexual) Chronic pain 20 Injury Sexually Transmitted Disease Drug Use 10 HIV Infection Allergies Alcohol Use Assault (physical) 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent in Population Experiencing Condition McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  23. 23. XYZ University Undergraduate Graduate Of those Of those experiencing experiencing Experienced Experienced … had an … had an … in last year … in last year academic academic impact* impact* Assault 3.2 23.3 1.9 17.6 (Physical) Assault 3.4 21.1 1.5 24.3 (Sexual)*A negative academic impact is defined as receiving a lower grade on an exam orproject, receiving a lower grade in a course, receiving an incomplete or dropping acourse, or significant disruption in thesis, dissertation, research or practicum work. McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011 24
  24. 24.  Using frequency numbers it will be hard to justify the need for violence prevention efforts on campus. Using links with academic impact can show the level of impact that violence has on the students  Interferes with the achievement of personal and academic goals  Linking with academics connects to the core mission of an institution ▪ ACHA Standards of Practice for Health Promotion in Higher Education ▪ CAS Standards McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011 25
  25. 25. XYZ University National Sample UNDERGRADUATE GRADUATE Male Female Male Female Male FemaleA physical fight 8.5 2.5 3.1 1.3 12.9 4.2Being physically assaulted (non- 5.4 2.8 3.3 1.9 6.3 3.6sexually)Verbal threats 21.8 13.0 15.4 10.1 29.1 17.0Sexual touching without consent 2.9 9.3 1.7 3.8 3.9 7.8Attempted sexual penetration 0.9 3.0 0.3 1.3 0.8 3.2without consentSexual penetration without 0.5 1.8 0.3 0.6 0.6 1.7consentAn emotionally abusive 5.0 7.9 6.7 7.6 7.7 11.3relationshipA physically abusive relationship 1.4 1.7 1.6 1.1 2.4 2.3A sexually abusive relationship 0.9 1.6 0.3 1.2 0.9 1.9Victim of stalking 3.0 7.9 1.8 4.7 4.0 7.9 McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  26. 26. XYZ University National Sample UNDERGRADUATE GRADUATE Male Female Male Female Male FemaleA physical fight 8.5 2.5 3.1 1.3 12.9 4.2Being physically assaulted (non- 5.4 2.8 3.3 1.9 6.3 3.6sexually)Verbal threats 21.8 13.0 15.4 10.1 29.1 17.0Sexual touching without consent 2.9 9.3 1.7 3.8 3.9 7.8Attempted sexual penetration 0.9 3.0 0.3 1.3 0.8 3.2without consentSexual penetration without 0.5 1.8 0.3 0.6 0.6 1.7consentAn emotionally abusive 5.0 7.9 6.7 7.6 7.7 11.3relationshipA physically abusive relationship 1.4 1.7 1.6 1.1 2.4 2.3A sexually abusive relationship 0.9 1.6 0.3 1.2 0.9 1.9Victim of stalking 3.0 7.9 1.8 4.7 4.0 7.9 McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  27. 27.  Undergraduates are more likely to report having experienced the following compared to graduate students at the institution  1.7 times more likely to report physical assault  2.3 times more likely to report sexual assault This suggests that we should focus more of our violence prevention efforts on the undergraduate populationUsed logistic regression to determine odds for categorical variables. Both are statistically significant (p<.05). McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011 28
  28. 28.  Of those that reported experiencing sexual assault  No statistically significant differences were found by ethnicity  No statistically significant differences were found by age Suggests that we should not focus our violence prevention efforts based on ethnicity or age, but rather use other measure for targeted or indicated prevention. McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011 29
  29. 29. XYZ University NationalThe percentage of students Sample reporting intimate relationships as traumatic or very difficult to handle within the last 12 months UNDERGRADUATE GRADUATE Intimate relationships 33.5 32.9 33.2Summary:Relationship difficulties are being experienced by about one third of the students at XYZUniversity. As a result, the campus may wish to conduct qualitative data gathering tounderstand what types of intimate relationships, sources of difficulty, and resources thatwould assist students. McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  30. 30. McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  31. 31. injured Physically person another Injured fight Involved in a regretted they something Did they did were or what where they Forgot sex force to have threat of Force orPercent of…reporting… as aresult ofdrinkingalcohol Athlete 21.1% 6.4% 8.2% 50.9% 44.1% 2.3% Other 15.4% 2.6% 4.1% 37.5% 29.6% 1.2% UndergradsSummary:Because a relationship between alcohol and violence is well established and athletes areperceived to engage in both higher levels of alcohol consumption and risky behavior, ananalysis was conducted to compare athletes with non-athlete undergraduates.Athletes reported experiencing violence-related consequences of alcohol at higher ratesthan non-athlete undergraduates. Suggests that additional work related to preventingconsequences of alcohol consumption are indicated with athletes on this campus. McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  32. 32. • Correlation is not causality• There are always more analyses to be done• Final reports, including program and policy implications, should be completed in an ongoing basis (refer to planning cycle) McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  33. 33.  What data is currently available on campus? What data might you need to make a more effective case for your violence prevention and response efforts? What strategies are needed to collect violence prevention and response data? How can you make the case for gathering new (or additional) data? McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011 34
  34. 34. • Build support for your efforts• Removes confusion & uncertainty• Supports institutional commitment 35
  35. 35. • Necessary Tools & Infrastructure • Program format that includes data-driven decision-making • Administrative support • Ongoing funding • Models & theories rely on data"If the only tool you have is a hammer, you will see every problem as a nail.“ - A. Maslow McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  36. 36. • What’s In It For Them?• Supporting the Academic Mission• National Standards & Guidelines• Your Language or Theirs?• Everybody’s Doing It… McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  37. 37. • Expand the focus beyond health information and programming• Integrate responsibility for health across student affairs and academic units• Provide supportive environments and reduce barriers to optimal outcomes• Promote leadership and involvement by multiple partners McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  38. 38. Mission & Vision StatementsAdequate Population- Budget Based Data Violence Prevention & ResponseMeasurable Programs Institutional Learning SupportOutcomes Assessment & Evaluation Data McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  39. 39. • Collaboration Is Key• Partners • Students • Faculty • Other Staff • Administrators • Community Support McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  40. 40. • Sharing costs for collecting and analyzing data• Using cost/benefit ratios in priority setting• Planning for effective practice & accountability• Using institutional expertise • Faculty support • Student researcher(s) • Office of Institutional Research McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011 41
  41. 41. Understanding our efforts through multi-levelevaluation helps to support our mission.Efficacy is an important tool to ensure we areproviding the best support to the populations weserve and ensure we are using our limitedresources in the most appropriate manner.
  42. 42. What is your purpose/goal? How does this support the mission? How have you involved key stakeholders? How will you measure success? How will you ensure continued support? McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  43. 43. • Process • Short-term• Impact • Intermediate• Outcome • Long-term McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  44. 44. • Use to determine priorities• Individual & campus level change (trend analysis)• Population change over time• Provides evidence that programs are worth the investment McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  45. 45. Goal Outcome Strategy ActivityHow would it look What change What major factors What tasks will beif the outcome needs to happen, have shown completed towere achieved? and how will it be demonstrable success implement the measured? in achieving the strategy, and who desired outcome? will do them?Decrease number Reduce by 10% the Create and enforce Implement a systemof students number of policy on sexual assault to monitor reports ofreporting students who among members of the sexual violence.experiencing report university community.sexual violence. experiencing sexual violence.What do you want Did it work? Did we do the right Did we doto achieve? thing? something? McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  46. 46.  Why do we evaluate our efforts? How do we evaluate our efforts? Do we evaluate for process, impact, outcome? How does our evaluation guide our future efforts? McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  47. 47. Key components Resources, ToolsDATA ACHA-NCHA, CORE, NCHRBS, Single-issue survey, LocalWhat data do we need, and how will we survey, Environmental scan, Interviews, Focus groupsgather it?STANDARDS SPHPHE, CAS, CHES, Literature reviews, Best practicesHow do we know what we’re doing willwork?PRIORITIES Mission, vision, values, learning outcomesHow do we decide what to do? HC 2020 Biggest or smallest problem Easiest or most difficult strategiesCOLLABORATION Formal and informal coalitions, committees, work groupsWith whom will we work?CULTURAL COMPETENCE DemographicsWho are the populations whose health and Cultural, social, economic, political characteristicslearning we are supporting? Best practicesPROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Ongoing performance planning and reviewWhat skills and talents are needed to Trainingachieve the goals? Assessing fit Talents/strengths/personality inventories McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  48. 48. Problem analysis Goals, Do it again objectivesEvaluate: process, Violence Desired impact, outcome outcomes Prevention Implement Go to the strategies w/ literature coalition Select appropriate strategies McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  49. 49. Implications• There are social and political pressures from inside the higher education community and externally in governmental systems to push for new measures of student learning and accountability in higher education (Guskin & Marcy, 2002).• We are the current and future leaders. As such, we have a responsibility to create the highest level systems to support students in the achievement of their personal and academic goals. McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011
  50. 50. • Who are your existing allies that support violence prevention and response programs on campus?• What barriers need to be addressed to improving your violence prevention and response efforts on campus?• How can you use data to build the support needed for a well integrated and evidence-informed violence prevention and response program on campus? McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011 51
  51. 51. What questions, comments, cares, & concerns would you like to discuss? McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011 52
  52. 52. Michael P. McNeilDirector, Alice! Health PromotionHealth Services at Columbiampmcneil@columbia.edu212-854-5453www.alice.columbia.eduThis presentation will be available from the For Health Promotion Professionals section of the Alice! website next week. McNeil, M. ACHA Annual Meeting June 2, 2011

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