Now that you know some biology and ecology it’s time to go in depth. • Water’s role in the ecosystem• Characteristics• Impact on Life• Quality and pollution• Become ecologists by testing water• Learn about our own environment (The West Fork of the North Branch of the Chicago River)
Activity: What is water?On the front desk you will see a container of water.You and your table partner must write down atleast 7 characteristics of water. Consider everythingyou have learned about water over your lifetime. CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER: Consider its color, its phase or state at various temperatures, its odor, its chemical make up, its density, etc.
COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERIt is a liquid but can also be a solid or gas As a liquid it ranges in temp from 0-100 degrees Celsius. Earth is the only planet where water exists in all three states.It is the most abundant compound on earth.Made of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom; H 2OVery high heat capacity- can absorb a ton of heat without becoming toohotWater likes to stick together and to things- cohesionWater is the Universal Solvent (*next slide)WHEN WATER FREEZES IT EXPANDSWater is necessary for life to exist as we know it.
A solvent is a liquid, solid, or gas capable of dissolving anotherliquid, solid or gas called a solute and forming a solution of the 2 substances..
Universal SolventSolvents dissolve substances.Even though water dissolves many substances, itsown molecules are not chemically changed by thedissolved materials. When it evaporates it loses itsimpurities. Why is this important? When water evaporates from solutions it leavesimpurities behind; purifying it and thus it can be used over and over.
Water CycleNow that you see how importantwater is, lets look at how much ofthis stuff we have. GLOBE TOSS ACTIVITYHOW CAN WE AS A CLASS ESTIMATE HOW MUCH WATER COVERS THE EARTH WITH JUST OUR HANDS AND A BLOW UP GLOBE?
PREDICTIONSOf the amount of global water, how much isrealistically usable (usable meaning fresh water notsalt water?)Your group will be given one liter (1000 mL ofwater this represents all of the water on earth, giventhe types of water found on earth predict thevarious amounts that water that exist in each type. Make predictions in your team After you have divided it up, write down predictions of percentages and then we will reveal the true answers
TYPE OF WATER True amount out of % on earth your 1L ContainerOceans 973mL 97.2%Ice Caps/ Glaciers 21mL 2.15%Groundwater 6.1 mL .0622%Freshwater Lakes .09mL or 2 drops .018%Salt Lakes .08mL or 2 drops .0089%Soil Moisture .05mL or 1 drop .005%Atmospheric .01mL or 1/5 .001% dropRivers .004mL .0001%
Notice, over 97 percent is saline (salt water-oceans).Of thetotal freshwater(3%), over 68 percent is locked up in ice andglaciers. Another 30 percent of freshwater is in the ground.Surface-water sources, such as rivers, only constitute about300 cubic miles (about 1/10,000th of one percent of totalwater).
Now that you see how much water isreally usable, you can understand why it is necessary to protect and responsibly use this vital substance.• Conservation can only occur through understanding the WATER CYCLE.• Remember from ecology that water was one of the important cycles in nature. Water used by plants, animals, and people is never destroyed: it is used and reused by living and non- living forms. It is the earth’s vast plumbing system. Powered by the sun, the water is continually purified for reuse.
THE WATER CYCLE TEST You probably know the answers to this test! Let’s see!1. What is it called when water rises fromplants?of water into the atmosphere? 2. What if water rises from living a body
PRECIPITATION THE WATER CYCLE TEST3. And the water that rises then cools during condensationand sits in clouds until what happens? PRECIPITATION
PRECIPITATIONTHE WATER CYCLE TEST AND THERE YOU HAVE IT! A WATER CYCLE!
PRECIPITATIONOne more Or it canthing…when the dribble and runwater hits the off the groundground it can do called1 of 2 things…either it can seepinto the groundcalled RUN-OFFINFILTRATION EITHER WAY IT EVENTUALLY MAKES IT WAY BACK INTO THE WATER CYCLE!
WHERE DOES THE WATER GO? INFILTRATION RUN-OFFWater that sinks into the This is water that runs ground gets held in a over the lands into the aquifer rivers lakes and and is called ground reservoirs and is water. known as surface water.The next slide dissects an aquifer.
AN AQUIFER Aquifer is like an underground sponge! The top layer of the aquifer is called the water table! How far the water infiltrates depends on the soil, vegetation, and types of rock present.
TAKE A MINUTE TO LABEL AND RECOGNIZE THE PARTS OF THE WATER CYCLE IN YOUR UNIT 2 PACKET.
WHAT IS THE MAIN SOURCE OFENERGY FOR THE WATER CYCLE?
THE WATER CYCLE EQUATIONIF YOU HAD TO COME UP WITH AN ADDITION EQUATIONFOR THE WATER CYCLE’S WATER…WHAT MIGHT IT BE? EVAPORATION + TRANSPIRATION = PRECIPITATIONThe problem with this equation is that the distribution ofwater is not even throughout the biosphere. What does that mean?
RENEWEL TIME DEFINITION:The time required for all water in a body of water to be replaced or renewed. Renewel time depends on: -rate of flow (things with faster flow renew quicker) -volume of the body of water (smaller volume of water renews quicker)
ESTIMATE WHICH WOULD RENEW FASTER…A RIVER OR AN OCEANLAKE POLAR ICEMICHIGAN OR CAPSDEEP GROUND LAKE ERIE ORWATER THE NILESOIL MOISTURE OR RIVER
Renewel Time On average water is completely renewed in rivers once every 16 days. Water in the atmosphere is completely replaced onceevery 8 days. Slower rates of replacement occur in large lakes,glaciers, ocean bodies and groundwater. Replacement in thesereservoirs can take from hundreds to thousands of years. Some of these resources (especially groundwater) are being used by humans at rates that far exceed their renewal times. This type of resource use is making this type of water effectively nonrenewable.
Typical residence times of water found in various reservoirs. Reservoir Average Residence Time Glaciers 20 to 100 years Seasonal Snow Cover 2 to 6 months Soil Moisture 1 to 2 months Groundwater: Shallow 100 to 200 years Groundwater: Deep 10,000 years Lakes 50 to 100 years Rivers 2 to 6 months
DEFINITION: A river is a collection ofsurface water finding its way over land fromhigher altitude to lower altitude, all due toGRAVITY.
Let’s explore some common features about surface water and rivers.
Some common river vocabulary1.Flowing water from run offfinds its way downhill initiallyinto these B A.Lakes2.Small creeks merge to formthese C B.Small Creeks3.Rivers eventually flow intothese E C.Streams and rivers4.Water that has made its way toa place that is surrounded by D.Reservoirhigher land on all sides is calledthese A E.Oceans5.If man has built a dam tohinder a river’s flow that lakethat forms is called this D
WHERE DOES THE RIVER’S WATER COME FROM?THINK ABOUT THE EARTH AND WHAT YOU KNOWABOUT LAND AND THE WATER CYCLE!
WHERE DOES THE RIVER’S WATER COME FROM?THINK ABOUT THE EARTH AND WHAT YOU KNOWABOUT LAND AND THE WATER CYCLE! REMEMBERWHAT THE WATER TABLE IS? The water table is the top of the aquifer and is usually far underground. SOMETIMES though, a river bank or low lands can actually dip into the water table and then water seeps into a river.
PARTS OF A RIVER HEAD The place a river begins is called the HEAD or HEAD WATERS of the river. As they flow to lower altitudes toward the ocean, rivers tend to merge to form larger rivers. The end of the river where it enters another river, a lake, or the ocean is known as the MOUTH.MOUTH OCEAN
PARTS OF A RIVER HEAD Sometimes at the mouth of a river a DELTA is formed. As the river meets the Ocean or lake, it loses velocity and dumps its sediment in an expanding fan- shaped, or roughly triangular-shaped zone called a delta.MOUTH DELTA OCEAN
PARTS OF A RIVER HEAD Do you know what this zig zag pattern is called for a river? Hint: It is like a “wandering river” MEANDER Meanders happen to a river over time. A river bends as itMOUTH adjusts to disturbances, such as, DELTA increases in water volume or obstacles that deflects its current. OCEAN
PARTS OF A RIVER HEAD Sometimes a river meanders so much that a portion if it breaks off and forms a mini lake called an OX BOW lake.OX BOW MEANDER Let’s take closer lookMOUTH at the formation of an oxbow lake. DELTA OCEAN
Key parts ofmost riversPoolsRapidsOxbowLakesRifflesRuns
REVIEW QUIZ1. What is the process called where water leaves plants and rises into the atmosphere?2. What is main source of energy/cause of the water cycle?3. What is the difference between run off and infiltration?4. What is the area called where a river begins?5. Where it ends?6. Where do most rivers eventually end up?7. THINK! How does water get from the mouth of a river back to the headwaters?
CRINKLE PAPER ACTIVITY Please listen carefully to your teachers instructions
Shade in the low areas with a blue marker/pencil. Theserepresent the rivers, lakes, and reservoirs.The higher land levels, or peaks on the paper, can be themountains, hills, a RIDGE, CONTINENTAL DIVIDE ORMORAINE.THIS ENTIRE DRAINAGE AREA IS CALLED A
Most of the continental divides that formthe watershed boundaries in the midwest were formed by glacial moraines.
Moraine isrock debris,fallen orpluckedfrom amountainandtransportedby glaciersor icesheets. Itforms a risein the land.
While we don’t have a lot of mountains in thisarea we do have some hills, almost all of them areformed by glacial deposits or moraines.
WHAT IS A WATERSHED?A drainage basin or a land area which receives all the water flowinginto a particular river. Check out these short movies!
Features of a Watershed• Streams and Rivers• Headwaters (formed from springs, glacial melt, lake or wetland• Lakes• Ponds• Wetlands (area of land saturated by water and inhabited by plants and animals adapted to those living conditions) includes bogs, swamps and marshes.
Stream order describes the relative size of streams
The Mississippi River is a tenth order stream!
Can you provide the stream order for the diagram in your packet?Give it a try with your table partner.
CONTINENTAL DIVIDEThe one that runs along the highest ridges of the Rocky Mountainsseparates 2 watersheds. Precipitation falling on the western side ofthe Divide will flow towards the __________ Ocean and rainfalling on the eastern slopes will flow toward the _____________Ocean via the Gulf of Mexico.
All rivers impact the land they runover and all land impacts the river’s quality and features. Mississippi River Delta
Rivers do three main things to the land they travel over.• Erode the land by the force of water on the land’s surface.• Transport the land. Carry the eroded land to another place.• Deposit the eroded and transported land to another location.
Examples where rivers effect land.•As silt is deposited in flood plains of rivers, excellent farmland ismade. The ancient ______________ who lived along the ______ Egyptians Niledepended on the annual flooding for their livelihood.•Also as the river ran over the land for millions of years in theArizona area, it created the __________________ GRAND CANYON• As rivers move they carry and drop off, or deposit, soil, sand, andsediments. _River Deltas
EFFECTS OF RIVER WATER ON LAND Another Matching Game!1. Removal of material from a A. Deposition channel or bank B. Transportation2. Movement of eroded particles by dragging or in C. Erosion solution3. Accumulation of transported particles to another location on the streambed or floodplain.
DEPOSITION Opposite of erosion Where a river lays down or drops sediments, rocks, mud, silt, boulders, pebbles, stones or materials that it is carryingBENEFIT: Why might deposition help us? FARMINGDOWNSIDE: Why might deposition be harmful? FLOODING, BLOCKING OF CHANNEL
Deposition of sand on the inside edge of river bendThis is where the river current is the slowest.
Think of a MetaphorTake a moment to devise a metaphor with your table partner for theterms deposition, transportation and erosion.EXAMPLE: If a river were like Sunset grocery store, the pickingup the items off the shelves would be erosion, the pushing of mycart would be transportation, and the placing the items down on thecashiers belt would be deposition.
Physical Changes in a River Over Time What happens to people as they get old? •They get slower •They can not lift heavy objects, they get weaker •They do not do as much physical activity
Physical Changes in a River Over Time As opposed to a young person who… •Can move fast •Can lift many objects and carry them around •Have much more physical activity
Physical Changes in a River Over Time THE SAME IS TRUE FOR YOUNG AND OLD RIVERS! Young kid YOUNG OLD Old person RIVER RIVERFast/enerrgy Fast flow Slow flow SlowCan lift thingsand carry them Much Little Can NOT lift things and carry them aroundaround Erosion ErosionCan carry thingsand NOT drop Little Much Can NOT carry things for long. MUST dropthem Deposition Deposition them Steep Shallow
Physical Changes in a River Over Time BECAUSE OF EROSION, DEPOSTION, AND TRANSPORTATION, things like OX-BOW lakes and FLOODPLAINS get formed.
HUMAN CONTACT WITH RIVERSTHE RIVER CAN BE HELPFUL TO US OR HARMFUL TOUS JUST AS WE CAN BE HELPFUL OR HARMFUL TO IT!With your table partner, list 1 way for each by filling in the chart
Human Contact with Rivers (fill in the blanks) How can the river help humans?How can the river be harmful?How can humans help the river?**How can humans be harmful?
Human Contact with Rivers (fill in the blanks) How can the river Farming, trading, help humans? transportationHow can the river be Flooding disasters harmful?How can humans help Monitor it, keep it clean, stop the river? over- erosion**How can humans be Pollution, over channelize it, harmful? construction, damming, draining wetlands
What types of things can cause the pollution of water?
Can your list be grouped by categories? Example: oil and gasoline could be considered toxic pollution.
Four Main Types of Pollution• Organic• Inorganic• Toxic• Thermal
Organic: come from the decomposition of once-living organisms and their by products. Such as ?
Inorganic: comes from suspended anddissolved solids, mainly silt, salts and other minerals.
Toxic Pollutants: Heavy metals and chemical compoundsthat don’t easily recycle that are lethal to organisms.Often they are byproducts of industrial processes: bleach,drain cleaners, paint, pesticides.
Thermal: Waste heat generated and put intowaterways from power generation and coolingequipment for factories in their manufacturingprocess.
POLLUTION Point Source Pollution Non-Point Source Pollution- when a river acts as a sewer or -Pollutants that are trickier todrainage ditch for a factory or sewage point to the origin. Fertilizertreatment plant. From homes, farming, golf courses.-Because we know where the pollution iscoming from we can POINT to the source— -Because we do not know thehence POINT SOURCE POLLUTION. exact source- NON POINT SOURCE
Floodplain Construction and Over Channelization of a River The more we artificially channelize the river, the moreit wants to find its floodplain leading to floods. The more construction that occurs, the more erosion,which adds to the cloudiness and turbidity of the river andmakes the banks less stable.
DRAINING WETLANDSWETLANDS are areas which are next to and even part of riversystems.They are often drained and built upon leading to more run off,then erosion and and finally flooding.When river banks erode flooding can occur!
DAMMING May be the most drastic alteration of river systemsBecause it provides:1) Flood control2) Recreation/beauty3) Water Storage4) Hydroelectricity
DAMMING May be the most drastic alteration of river systemsWhen they are built they1) May kill many organisms2) Severely affect wildlife3) Are dangerous to play by4) Causing reservoirs to fill up with silt/ water back up
Now that we have some of the water and riverbasics we can begin to study our watershed. GBNis located on the West Fork of the North branch of the Chicago River.