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Reported Speech

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English grammar

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Reported Speech

  1. 1. BACHILLERATO
  2. 2. <ul><li>When we use reported speech, we are usually talking abou the past, so verbs change. </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGES IN VERBAL TENSES </li></ul>VERBAL TENSE DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH SIMPLE PRESENT WORK WORKED PRESENT CONTINUOUS IS/ARE WORKING WAS/WERE WORKING SIMPLE PAST WORKED HAD WORKED PRESENT PERFECT HAS/HAVE WORKED HAD WORKED PAST PERFECT HAD WORKED HAD WORKED FUTURE WILL WORK WOULD WORK FUTURE BE GOING TO IS/ARE GOING TO WORK WAS/WERE GOIMG TO WORK CONDITIONAL WOULD WORK WOULD WORK
  3. 3. <ul><li>Statements are affirmative and negative sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>The verb which is going to introduce the subordinate sentence is “ SAY” in the past tense (SAID). The link we are going to use to introduce the subordinate sentence will be “ THAT”, look at the example: </li></ul><ul><li>Direct speech: “ Mary works in my office”, my sister said. </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect speech: My sister said that Mary worked in her office </li></ul><ul><li>You have to consider not only the neccessary changes in verbal tenses but also other possible changes in possessive adjectives, pronouns, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in time or place expressions: </li></ul>DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH HERE THERE TODAY THAT DAY YESTERDAY THE PREVIOUS DAY/ THE DAY BEFORE TOMORROW THE NEXT / FOLLOWING DAY AGO BEFORE
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ I ´m sorry but I didn´t write to you, but I have been quite busy.” He said to her. </li></ul><ul><li>“ We are going to have lunch at this new restaurant; it is really nice and comfortable.”, she said to me. </li></ul><ul><li>  .` I´ve never lied you and never will.´ She said to us </li></ul><ul><li>`We have seen her at the theatre this morning .´ Peter said. </li></ul><ul><li>´I think I will go to Madrid tomorrow because my father gave me some money yesterday.´ Sue said </li></ul><ul><li>“ I´m not happy here because my room is too small for me and all the waiters always serve me the last´. He said. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I haven´t seen Billy for years” , Natalie said </li></ul><ul><li>“ I am thinking of going to Canada and if you want you can come with me” He told me yesterday. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>We can report a question by using verbs like ask, wonder, want to know </li></ul><ul><li>We have to make here a distinction between wh-questions and yes/no questions </li></ul><ul><li>WH_QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Wh-questions are introduced by question words like when, what, how, where or which. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Where do you live” he asked me. </li></ul><ul><li>The structure changes in indirect speech in this way: </li></ul><ul><li>He asked me where I lived………….. </li></ul><ul><li>We introduce the subordinate sentence with the same question word of the sentence in direct speech , then the subject and at last the verb in the correct verbal tense following the table of verbal changes </li></ul><ul><li>YES/NO QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>We follow the same scheme but using if or whether as the introductory link instead of the question word: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Do you live here” He asked me…………………DIRECT SPEECH </li></ul><ul><li>He asked me If I lived there…………………………INDIRECT SPEECH </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>`How much did the car cost?´. He asked her </li></ul><ul><li>`Where do you want to go this evening? ´she asked him. </li></ul><ul><li>´Did you sleep well yesterday night? ´. She asked Roger. </li></ul><ul><li>`Do you know that the shoes you are wearing aren´t a pair?´. I asked him. </li></ul><ul><li>“ How long have you been back? Jerry asked. </li></ul><ul><li>“ have you ever used a computer?” asked my teacher </li></ul><ul><li>“ Yes. I learnt to use computers a year ago”. I said. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Do people still play croquet?” She asked them </li></ul><ul><li>“ when did the boss decide to fire the workers?” He asked. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Where are you going to study next year?” Peter said to Rob. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>-Commands are sentences in which an imperative is the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>-Commands can be affirmative or negative. </li></ul><ul><li>- The verbs used to report commands are : tell, order. warn, beg …….. depending on the sense we want to give to the sentence. After the introductory verb we have to use the verb in infinitive preceded by “to” </li></ul><ul><li>AFFIRMATIVE COMMANDS: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Shut the door now” He told me……………………….direct speech </li></ul><ul><li>He told me to shut the door then…………………………indirect speech </li></ul><ul><li>NEGATIVE COMMANDS: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Don´t go outside” She told me……………………….direct speech </li></ul><ul><li>He told me NOT to go outside……………………………indirect speech </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>“ Don´t be late tomorrow” My boss said to me. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Don´t smoke in my house” our neighbour said. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Shut the door but don´t lock it.” The doctor said. </li></ul><ul><li>`Leave the key under the mat if you go out.´ She said. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Don´t worry. I´ll collect the tickets for you”. She said to him </li></ul><ul><li>“ Leave me alone and, please, forget the question´. She said to her brother </li></ul><ul><li>`Don´t forget to take your coat when you leave, Steve.´ She said. </li></ul><ul><li>`Don´t run in the house. You can break something´. She told them. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Don´t smoke in my office. I´ve got a terrible cough.” She said to me. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>SUGGESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>You can suggest something to someone by using different structures, such as: </li></ul><ul><li>“ How about going to the cinema?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ What about going to the cinema?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let´s go to the cinema?” </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why don´t we go to the cinema?” </li></ul><ul><li>All these sentences are reported in the same way: </li></ul><ul><li>We have to use the verb “ suggest” to introduce the reported sentence and then we have to write what you suggest in GERUND: SUGGESTED+GERUND ; let´s see the example: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why don´t we go to the cinema?” He suggested me………………….direct speech </li></ul><ul><li>He suggested me going to the cinema……………………………………..indirect speech </li></ul><ul><li>And, remember , all the suggestions above are reported in the same way </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>INVITATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>To invite someone you usually say: “ Would you like some coffee?” </li></ul><ul><li>Although invitations can be reported as a normal question, we can also use invite+to-infinitive to do it: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Would you like some cooffee?” He said to me……………..direct speech </li></ul><ul><li>He invited me to have some coffee…………………………….indirect speech </li></ul><ul><li>If you are invited to have “ a noun” you can also use the verb “OFFER” to report the invitation, </li></ul><ul><li>“ Would you like an apple?” he said to me ………………………..direct speech </li></ul><ul><li>He offered me an apple………………………………………………..indirect speech </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>“ Let´s go over to John´s house” Denise said. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Would you like to have lunch with me on Sunday?´. He said to me. </li></ul><ul><li>`No, thanks. Why don´t we go to the beach?´I answered. </li></ul><ul><li>  `What about going to a round-the- world cruise?´ suggested Mrs. Smith </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let´s have lunch at this new restaurant; it is really nice and comfortable.”, she said to me. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let´s go to the theatre if you like.” She daid. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Would you like to come with me to the party?” I asked her </li></ul>

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