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012 7-landscape-history-review

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012 7-landscape-history-review

  1. 1. 012 History of Landscape Design<br />A <br />REVIEW<br />
  2. 2. Clemson University Presents<br />Certificate of Accomplishment inLandscape and Garden Design<br />
  3. 3. Sponsored by Clemson’sDepartment of Planning and Landscape Architecture in the College of Art, Architecture and Humanities<br />
  4. 4. 012-1 The Early English Kitchen Garden:A Persistent Garden Form<br />
  5. 5. 012-1 Landscape History <br />Early Kitchen Garden lecture<br />Put garden history into perspective by analyzing the earliest form of garden and its resilience to change despite social pressure.<br />Homework: Begin thinking of a garden in Europe or America that is worthy of a discussion in class.<br />Result: To learn about the social pressures that shaped landscape history, develop an aptitude for reading plans, to understand the 3 main periods of stylistic imprints.<br />
  6. 6. Medieval Period<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Geometric Period<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Picturesque Period<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
  13. 13. 012-2 Landscape HistoryConimbriga(118-138 c.e. ), & Portuguese Gardens(1528-1750 ) <br />
  14. 14. Early Roman Gardens<br />Hadrian’s Villa<br />Pompeii<br />Venzano<br />Conimbriga<br />
  15. 15. 012-2 Landscape History <br />Conimbriga & Portuguese Gardens what makes these early gardens special (ad 200-1550), their special decorative techniques and design motifs (azulejos, mosaic, hydrology) Homework : Bring a short history of the garden you chose to read/researchResult: To define a renaissance garden in both descriptive and spatial terms, relate it to political events of the period.<br />
  16. 16. Roman wall painting<br />
  17. 17. Conimbriga<br />
  18. 18. Conimbriga<br />
  19. 19. Conimbriga<br />
  20. 20. Conimbriga<br />
  21. 21. Conimbriga jets <br />
  22. 22. Renaissance Gardens<br />
  23. 23. Bacalhoa<br />Balcalhoa 1528-1554<br />
  24. 24. Bacalhua<br />
  25. 25. Bacalhua<br />
  26. 26. Quinta das torres<br />Quinta das torres<br />
  27. 27. cypress<br />What earmarks a Portuguese Garden?<br />
  28. 28. Features of a Portuguese Garden<br />A water tank or basin<br />Walls with Ajulejos<br />Green backbone<br />Connection with the house<br />Beautiful pots, well-placed<br />Citrus<br />
  29. 29. Frontiera Palace<br />Palacio dos Marqueses <br />de Frontiera c 1624<br />
  30. 30. Frontiera Palace<br />
  31. 31. Frontiera Palace<br />
  32. 32. Frontiera Palace<br />
  33. 33. Frontiera Palace<br />
  34. 34. Frontiera Palace<br />
  35. 35. Frontiera Palace<br />
  36. 36. Frontiera Palace<br />
  37. 37. Geometric Period 1650<br />
  38. 38. Queluz 1747- 52<br />Queluz Palace 1747- 52<br />
  39. 39. queluz<br />
  40. 40. Picturesque Period<br />
  41. 41. Montserrat, Sintra<br />
  42. 42. 012-3Landscape HistoryItalian Renaissance & Italian Baroque Gardens (1525-1800 )<br />
  43. 43. 012-3Landscape History<br />Italian Renaissance gardens…what makes these early gardens special Result: To define a renaissance garden in both descriptive and spatial terms, relate it to political events of the period.<br />
  44. 44. Villa d’este 1550-72<br />
  45. 45. Villa medici d’este tivoli<br />
  46. 46. Villa Lante<br />
  47. 47. Villa lante 1568<br />
  48. 48. VILLAS Designed by ANDREA PALLADIO<br />Absence of foundation plantings<br />Respect fort the genius loci<br />
  49. 49. Villa Barbaro 1549-58<br />
  50. 50. Villa Rotunda 1565<br />
  51. 51. Villa rotunda 1565<br />Villa Poiana<br />
  52. 52. cypress<br />What earmarks an Italian Garden?<br />
  53. 53. Italian Renaissance Gardens have:<br />. Soaring cypresses<br />.fountains<br />.geometric layout<br />.grottoes, masks, mythological statues<br />.mazes<br />
  54. 54. Giardino Guisti<br />
  55. 55. Guisti 16th c<br />
  56. 56. Villa rale<br />Villa Reale<br />
  57. 57. Villa Barbarigo, Valsanbizzio<br />
  58. 58.
  59. 59. Valzazibbio rabittery<br />
  60. 60. Valzam arch<br />
  61. 61. Vigna maaggio<br />Villa Vignamaggio<br />
  62. 62. Baroque Italian Gardens<br />Characteristics:<br />Elaborate Gateways/Gate Screens<br />Acqua d’Gnocci<br />Soaring Cypressses <br /> Overscaled Plants & Formal Gardens<br />Grottoes<br />
  63. 63. Villa torregiani 17th 715th<br />Villa Torrigiani<br />
  64. 64. Isola Bella<br />
  65. 65. Sienna villa<br />Villa Cetinale<br />
  66. 66. Villa Gamberaia<br />
  67. 67. 012-4History of Landscape Design: France<br />
  68. 68. Gardens of France (Review)<br />Chateau de Fountainbleau c 1528<br />Chateau de Villandry c 1536<br />Potager de Roi Versailles c 1638<br />Manoir de Chez (Normandy) <br />Vaux le Vicomte c 1650<br />Giverney Musee Claude Monet 1883-1926<br />Chamont Exhibition (June-October)<br />Maison et Parc Floral des Moitiers (Normandy)<br />
  69. 69. Chateaux de Fountainbleau <br />c 1528<br />
  70. 70.
  71. 71. Chateaux de Villandry c 1536<br />
  72. 72.
  73. 73. Versailles c 1638<br />
  74. 74.
  75. 75. Vaux-le- Vicomte c1653<br />
  76. 76. 76<br />
  77. 77. Giverny -<br />Musee Claude Monet <br />c 1883-1926<br />
  78. 78.
  79. 79. Chamont <br />
  80. 80. Moutier<br />
  81. 81. Hallmarks of French Gardens<br />The geometric landscape movement was characterized by : <br />Outward facing views to the horizon<br />Clipped geometric forms of plant materials<br />Flat planes of terraced land<br />Formal water bodies & canals<br />Man’s dominance of the land<br />
  82. 82. Hallmarks of French Gardens<br />However, one cannot characterize French gardens just in these ways…particularly since new ideas from artists and owners from abroad add fresh fuel to the canvas of nature.<br />Giverney, Chamont’s Garden Festival and the gardens at Moitier remind us to think “out of the box” while reaching to the past for inspiration.<br />
  83. 83. Trademarks of French Gardens<br />Most French gardens illustrate a continuum of layers of garden design…most notably in our studies at Villandry where there is 16th c chateau and formal kitchen gardens plus a formal water garden.<br />Fountainbleau & Vaux le Vicomteare considered to be pure forms of geometric period landscapes<br />
  84. 84. 012-5History of Landscape DesignThe English Picturesque<br />
  85. 85. Gardens of England<br />Stowe<br />Castle Howard<br />Rousham<br />Ilford<br />Buscot<br />Barnsley<br />Sissinghurst<br />Hidcote<br />
  86. 86. Visionaries of Georgian England<br />Sir Issac Newton 1642-1727 optical properties of light<br />John Locke “Essay Concerning Human Understanding in 1690” & 1st Earl of Shaftsbury…Age of Enlightenment<br />Rousseau 1712-1778 visions of a more perfect society<br />3rd Earl of Shaftsbury 1671-1713 Genius of Place<br />Addison & Pope…….<br />
  87. 87. Picturesque Period<br />
  88. 88. Stowe & Castle Howard<br />Birth of the Emblematic gardens of the eighteenth century <br />Landscape Anatomy : Gardens of Romanticism featured…<br />Grottoes, cascades,wild scenery, temples, poetry, iconography …works resembling a painting<br />
  89. 89. Influential works of art by Claude Lorraine & Nicholas Poisson (mid 1600’s) featured mythological subjects from the Roman countryside… wild green theatres of the imagination. <br />The visitor to an Enlightened Landscape would meditate and tell his own story by being in stage sets filled with allusions.<br />
  90. 90. The ferme ornee“the farm-as-landscape”<br />Stephen Switzer (1682-1745)<br />
  91. 91. Stowe c1713-1738Lord Cobham, Richard TempleBridgeman & Kent<br />
  92. 92.
  93. 93.
  94. 94.
  95. 95. Castle Howard <br />c1699-1732<br />Charles Howard, Earl of Carlisle<br />Vanbrugh, Switzer, <br />
  96. 96.
  97. 97.
  98. 98.
  99. 99. Rousham c1737 <br />Robert & James Dormer<br />Bridgeman, Pope, Kent<br />
  100. 100.
  101. 101.
  102. 102. Villa Barbarigo (c1669)in Valsanbbio’s fountain backdrop…an influence on Kent at Rousham?? a great research project!<br />
  103. 103.
  104. 104. Ilford…<br />Sir Harold Peto(1854-1933)<br />
  105. 105. Buscot<br />
  106. 106.
  107. 107. Barnsley<br />
  108. 108. The Lasket<br />Sir Roy Strong<br />
  109. 109.
  110. 110. Gardens of England<br />Gardens in England today, like those of France and Italy, are often overlays of several landscape movements. Rousham, Stowe and Castle Howard represent “pure” evocations of the Picturesque Landscape movement. <br />There are many, earlier gardens designed in the geometric tradition which clearly embrace French & Italian influences.<br />
  111. 111. Gardens of England<br />The effect of the National Trust in England and private landowners in opening their gardens to the public has had a profound impact on landscape preservation worldwide by educating visitors in the interpretation of landscape continuums and preservation methods.<br />
  112. 112. Sissinghurst<br />
  113. 113. Hidcote<br />
  114. 114.
  115. 115.
  116. 116. 012-6 History of Landscape Design The United States of America<br />
  117. 117. 012 -6 History of Landscape Design: USA<br />Understanding America’s pioneer ethos and the evolution of the landscape as powerful people created their versions of great country houses…or American farmsteads.<br />
  118. 118. Periods of American Landscape History<br />A. Indians and Conquest<br />B. 1680-1750 Early Transitional<br />C. 1750-1820 Federal<br />D. 1820-1880 Antibellum/Reconstruction<br />E. 1880-1920 Victorian/Edwardian<br />F. 1920- present <br />
  119. 119. Periods of American Landscape History<br />A. Indians and Conquest<br />
  120. 120. Periods of American Landscape History<br />A. Indians and Conquest<br />B. 1680-1750 Early Transitional <br />
  121. 121.
  122. 122.
  123. 123.
  124. 124. Middleton Place<br />
  125. 125.
  126. 126. Periods of American Landscape History<br />A. Indians and Conquest<br />B. 1680-1750 Early Transitional<br />C. 1750-1820 Federal<br />
  127. 127. William Bartram<br />
  128. 128. Willliam Paca House 1772<br />
  129. 129. Governors Palace<br />Colonial Williamsburg<br />
  130. 130. Hagley<br />
  131. 131. Periods of American Landscape History<br />A. Indians and Conquest<br />B. 1680-1750 Early Transitional<br />C. 1750-1820 Federal<br />D. 1820-1880 Antibellum/Reconstruction<br />
  132. 132.
  133. 133. Central Park, NY<br />
  134. 134. Periods of American Landscape History<br />A. Indians and Conquest<br />B. 1680-1750 Early Transitional<br />C. 1750-1820 Federal<br />D. 1820-1880 Antibellum/Reconstruction<br />E. 1880-1920 Victorian/Edwardian<br />F. 1920- present <br />
  135. 135. Biltmore, Ashville, NC<br />
  136. 136. Filoli, Woodside CA<br />
  137. 137. Dumbarton Oaks<br />Beatrice Farrand, Landscape Architect<br />
  138. 138. Longue Vue , NO<br />
  139. 139. Brookgreen Gardens <br />Murrells Inlet , SC<br />
  140. 140. Thomas Church, Landscape Architect<br />
  141. 141. Cheekwood, Nashville, TN<br />
  142. 142. Lotusland <br />Santa Barbara<br />The Garden Conservancy<br />
  143. 143. Clemson University Presents<br />Certificate of Accomplishment inLandscape and Garden Design<br />

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