Phonetics vowels
vowels <ul><li>free flow of air there is no blocking or constriction of air flow </li></ul><ul><li>Vowels are extremely im...
Where are vowels made
The vowel space <ul><li>Regularised as a wonky quadrilateral </li></ul><ul><li>The left is the front of the mouth </li></u...
Dividing up vowels <ul><li>Unlike most consonants where we have to make discrete muscle movements to change from one conso...
Height <ul><li>differences in vowels different positions of tongue and jaw </li></ul><ul><li>It is the lower jaw that move...
Labelling height HIGH/CLOSE CLOSE MID/MID_HIGH LOW/OPEN BEAT BIT DRESS TAP BOOT PUT CAUGHT BUT POT BARD  OPEN MID/MID-LOW ...
Labelling tongue position <ul><li>Different vowels require raising and lowering of the tongue in different places in your ...
The vowel space FRONT  CENTRAL  BACK heed hid head had food good caught hut f a ther
Lips?  <ul><li>Round or spread </li></ul><ul><li>Like the voiced/voiceless distinction this creates pairs of vowels </li><...
English vowels cot    Bard/     ɑ bat    low caught    but   bet   Mid-low a bout   bird   Mid-high put    bit  ...
The cardinal vowels FRONT  CENTRAL  BACK         Idealised vowels at the extreme points of the vowel space. All ca...
Other common distinctions <ul><li>Long vowels  </li></ul><ul><li>Some linguists add : to BEAT, i.e. i: as well as the BARD...
Nasalised vowels <ul><li>nasal stops block the airflow in the oral cavity but allow air out the nose in a continuous strea...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Vowel Label

6,866 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Vowel Label

  1. 1. Phonetics vowels
  2. 2. vowels <ul><li>free flow of air there is no blocking or constriction of air flow </li></ul><ul><li>Vowels are extremely important as most of the time syllable is built around a vowel </li></ul><ul><li>Languages vary as to the number of vowels in their systems </li></ul><ul><li>Ubhyk a now extinct language has been analysed as having only one, but 80 consonants! </li></ul><ul><li>Some languages have more vowels than consonants </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiian has 8 consonants but 10 vowels, 5 long ones and five short ones </li></ul>
  3. 3. Where are vowels made
  4. 4. The vowel space <ul><li>Regularised as a wonky quadrilateral </li></ul><ul><li>The left is the front of the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>It is sloped because the lower jaw is shorter than the upper jaw </li></ul>
  5. 5. Dividing up vowels <ul><li>Unlike most consonants where we have to make discrete muscle movements to change from one consonant to another </li></ul><ul><li>The vowel space is continuous … diphthongs shows us this </li></ul><ul><li>So dividing up the vowels is a bit tricky </li></ul><ul><li>But like consonants we can use three features to label them </li></ul><ul><li>Height, tongue position, lip position </li></ul>
  6. 6. Height <ul><li>differences in vowels different positions of tongue and jaw </li></ul><ul><li>It is the lower jaw that moves up and down towards or away from the fixed upper jaw. </li></ul><ul><li>Different vowels of English are along this pathway </li></ul><ul><li>Iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa </li></ul><ul><li>Uuuuuuuuuuuuuuooooooooooooo </li></ul><ul><li>BEAT >BID>BET>BAT>(BARD) </li></ul><ul><li>BOOT>BIRD/SCHWA?CAUGHT>BARD/POT </li></ul>
  7. 7. Labelling height HIGH/CLOSE CLOSE MID/MID_HIGH LOW/OPEN BEAT BIT DRESS TAP BOOT PUT CAUGHT BUT POT BARD OPEN MID/MID-LOW BIRD SCHWA
  8. 8. Labelling tongue position <ul><li>Different vowels require raising and lowering of the tongue in different places in your mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Say iiiiiiiiiii with your finger in your mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Where do you feel pressure most from your tongue? </li></ul><ul><li>What about with uuuuuuuuuu? </li></ul><ul><li>Front versus back versus central </li></ul>
  9. 9. The vowel space FRONT CENTRAL BACK heed hid head had food good caught hut f a ther
  10. 10. Lips? <ul><li>Round or spread </li></ul><ul><li>Like the voiced/voiceless distinction this creates pairs of vowels </li></ul><ul><li>On the left on IPA vowel charts is the spread vowel. Lips are flat. </li></ul><ul><li>On the right of the pair lips are rounded. </li></ul><ul><li>In English all the front vowels are spread </li></ul><ul><li>Most of our back vowels are rounded except the BARD vowel and the BUT </li></ul>
  11. 11. English vowels cot  Bard/  ɑ bat  low caught  but  bet  Mid-low a bout  bird  Mid-high put  bit  Lower High boot  beat  High Back rounded Back unrounded Central unrounded Front unrounded
  12. 12. The cardinal vowels FRONT CENTRAL BACK         Idealised vowels at the extreme points of the vowel space. All cardinal front vowels are unrounded. Back vowels are round  8  7 6  4  5  3  2  1
  13. 13. Other common distinctions <ul><li>Long vowels </li></ul><ul><li>Some linguists add : to BEAT, i.e. i: as well as the BARD< BOOT AND CAUGHT vowels to show that they are longer than the DRESS CAT BUT PUT POT Vowels </li></ul><ul><li>Not really necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>More important for languages which distinguish long vowels and short vowels where the mouth is exactly or almost exactly the same </li></ul><ul><li>Māori he ‘a/some’ he: ‘error’ </li></ul>
  14. 14. Nasalised vowels <ul><li>nasal stops block the airflow in the oral cavity but allow air out the nose in a continuous stream </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal vowels allow air through the nasal cavity as well as the oral cavity </li></ul><ul><li>In English vowels are nasalised if they are near nasal consonants but some languages have which are inherently nasal </li></ul><ul><li>Warao, Amazon </li></ul><ul><li>hiha ‘your hammock’ hĩhã ‘kind of bird’ </li></ul>

×