Te reo maaori 1

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Te reo maaori 1

  1. 1. Te reo Māori The rise and fall and rise again of te reo Māori? The changing ecolinguistic landscape
  2. 2. The Origins of Māori <ul><li>The Polynesian ancestors of the culture that came to be called Māori arrived in NZ perhaps as early as 700 years ago carrying with them the seeds of a language and culture that would develop into and te reo Māori the Māori culture </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestors left the South China/Taiwanese homeland more than 6000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Māori arrivals in NZ the last of the great migrations of peoples, languages, and cultures of the Austronesian language family from Taiwan, to Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the Pacific </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Austronesian World Yellow area: Oceanic subgroup
  4. 4. Developing and changing <ul><li>Probably no ‘great fleet’ but independent migration that got fused together in mythology, oral history and Pakeha interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>After long distance voyaging faded away culture and language developed in isolation making it quite distinctive from other Polynesian cultures and languages </li></ul><ul><li>Regional dialects began to develop. Three broad dialect areas Eastern North, Western North, and South Island with variations within each area </li></ul>
  5. 5. Dialect differentiation <ul><li>In S.I Maori - <ng> replaced by <k> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ngai Tahu -> Kai Tahu, mātauranga mātauraka </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some Northern dialects <wh> merged with <h> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whakāro pronounced hakāro </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tuhoe <ng> -> <n> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mātauranga -> mātaurana </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taranaki <wh> -> <w>. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whakāro pronounced wakāro </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moriori? The language/dialect of the Chatham Islands </li></ul>
  6. 6. Colonial encounters/intrusions <ul><li>Since the arrival of the Europeans who would into develop NZE and Pakeha culture dramatic changes in the linguistic ecology of NZ/Aotearoa </li></ul><ul><li>Mirror to changes in other parts of Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic change from monolingual society using an Austronesian (Oceanic) language to a people nearly completely monolingual in English by mid-late C20 th </li></ul><ul><li>Period of contact Pidgin Māori and Pidgin English </li></ul><ul><li>“ As I got nearer I saw that he was crying as he said: </li></ul><ul><li>Tacoury mate Marion” </li></ul><ul><li>Tacoury die Marion Standard Māori verb first </li></ul>
  7. 7. Adapting te reo, Naylor, 2006, p.15
  8. 8. Missionaries <ul><li>Produced scripture in Māori </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries transmitted their religion through the Māori language, and taught in Mission schools the three Rs in the indigenous language …. Later industrial skills added </li></ul><ul><li>Deep spiritual attachment to the Māori Bible as Māori embraced and ado/apted Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy comes to te reo </li></ul><ul><li>1840-1860 more Māori were literate than the settlers </li></ul><ul><li>Did not passively accept literacy – embraced it and adapted it, producing texts, and readerships, Māori language newspapers produced by the government and by independent Māori groups </li></ul>
  9. 9. Development of Māori written genres <ul><li>As Maori was not a written language before the missionary period – C19 saw the development of writing and genres put to use for Māori purposes. Writing and recording of whakapapa – genealogies </li></ul><ul><li>oral traditions and oral histories became written </li></ul><ul><li>New religious movements created their own religious texts which were written down </li></ul><ul><li>Genres such as whaikōrero speechmaking adapted to such purposes as letters to the editor </li></ul>
  10. 10. Extracts from a letter to Te Manuhiri Tuarangi, 1861 <ul><li>Friend, the Governor </li></ul><ul><li>Salutations to you, and to the people who understand what is good. The ‘Manuhuri Tuarangi’ has reached me, and now I cry- “I welcome thou Manuhiri Tuarangi! It was my son who fetched you from the distant horizon, and bought you hither. Welcome! Come and sit you down in our kainga, that I may stand forth and address you: - welcome! Welcome my older brethren! Welcome on shore! …. Let me recite a song for you … [song] </li></ul><ul><li>Enough. Send this to the press. From your friend </li></ul><ul><li>HEPATA TURINGENGE </li></ul>
  11. 11. The decline of the people <ul><li>By the 1860s the number of settlers out-stripped the population of Māori </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases brought by settlers –influenza, measles, etc had wiped out large numbers – no natural immunity to them </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing pressures on land from the settlers, the government </li></ul><ul><li>Māori wars and the land wars </li></ul><ul><li>Severely disrupted/transformed Māori culture </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of C19 common view that Māori were passing into history </li></ul>
  12. 12. “ A noble relic of a noble race’ <ul><li>Like many Pakeha in the early twentieth century, Goldie believed the M ā ori race would either die out or be assimilated. Very few of the M ā ori in Goldie's paintings are young or active, even though at the beginning of twentieth century the M ā ori population was increasing … Many titles of Goldie's paintings also suggest a paternalistic, pitying attitude towards M ā ori: The Last of the Cannibals, A Noble Relic of a Noble Race, Weary With Years . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Population increases language declines <ul><li>after 1860s Maori population slowly increased … but bilingualism started to become the norm </li></ul><ul><li>1840s Maori had begun to see the advantages of English literacy – engage in trade, missionary boarding schools set up </li></ul><ul><li>1847 The English Ordinance Act </li></ul><ul><li>“ All schools which shall receive any portion of the government grant shall be conducted as heretofore upon the principle of religious education, industrial training and instruction in the English language” </li></ul>
  14. 14. What kind of education? Henry Taylor (School Inspector, 1862) …
  15. 15. 1876 Native Schools Act <ul><li>The native schools were secular </li></ul><ul><li>English language only </li></ul><ul><li>Land for the schools had to be provided by Māori </li></ul><ul><li>Half the cost of building and quarter the cost of teacher salaries – amend in 1876 to relieve some of these costs </li></ul><ul><li>Native School System survived into 1960s in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Focused more on practical education right to the end </li></ul>
  16. 16. The denial of te reo Selby’s research shows that Māori teachers were remembered to be some of the harshest disciplinarians
  17. 17. The end of C19 <ul><li>By the end of C19 NZ = Rural Māori zone, and Urban Pakeha zone, </li></ul><ul><li>In the rural zone te reo was the mother tongue of most Māori – but the domains of language use were already shrinking – education was in English, dealing with Pakeha, govt officials, increasingly English replacing Māori in worship </li></ul>
  18. 18. 20 th century <ul><li>The C20 saw the eventual collapse of the rural stronghold of te reo </li></ul><ul><li>World War II – Maori saw younger gen. of native speakers lost </li></ul><ul><li>Man Power Act – saw non-fighting Maori males moved into industry to support the war effort </li></ul><ul><li>-> moved to the cities to work </li></ul><ul><li>Post-war urban drift continued as Maori moved to the cities for employment </li></ul>The return of Maori Batallion, 1946 Blue Smoke
  19. 19. Maori in the cities <ul><li>Settled by pepperpot policy </li></ul><ul><li>- no ‘urban Māori areas – but sprinkled across city neighbourhoods to promote assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Te reo a language of the home, not the street, not the school </li></ul><ul><li>Serious problems with transmission of language in the home setting, (actively discouraged by some agencies such as Playcentre group in the 60s) </li></ul><ul><li>Movement to the cities – people lost contact with the home areas – hapū (subtribe) links were forgotten, tribal links erased </li></ul><ul><li>New urban M āori </li></ul>
  20. 20. 1970s – realisation and response: the Māori Renaissance <ul><li>By this decade 70 000 Maori speakers = 20% of Maori, mostly the oldest generation </li></ul><ul><li>“ If nature were left to take its course, Māori would be a language without native speakers with the passing of the present generation of Māori speaking parents” </li></ul><ul><li>(Benton, cited in Te Puni Kōkiri, 2001, 13) </li></ul><ul><li>The birth of Māori radicalism </li></ul><ul><li>Beginnings of a movement to claw back the language </li></ul><ul><li>Ngā Tamatoa – university students/non-speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Increased learning at high school, teacher training and Māori Language Week </li></ul>

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