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 Sharks are cartilaginous fish
◦ Meaning their skeleton is made mainly of cartilage
 Belong to the class Chondrichthyes
...
 Basic anatomy
 5 major fins.
 Dorsal
 Pectoral
 Pelvic
 Anal
 Caudal (Tail)
 Dorsal fins – stabilizing
 Pectoral fins – lift and steering
 Pelvic fins – stabilizing (clasping in males)
 Anal fin...
 Most sharks have heterocercal tails
 The upper lobe is larger than the lower lobe
 And they use a carangiform swim mot...
 Most male cartilaginous fish, including
sharks, have a modified pair of pelvic fins
called the claspers
 The claspers, ...
 Most sharks have 5 gills,
though some have seven
 Unlike bony fish, shark
gills are not protected by
any covering
 The...
 When sharks are on the ocean floor they are
able to breathe using spiracles
 Spiracles are a pair of openings just behi...
 Sharks have very thick skin covered in dermal
denticles which gives it the feel of sandpaper
 These dermal denticles re...
 The skin of female sharks is usually 3-4
times thicker than that of male sharks
 Most forms of mating involve biting, s...
 The skin usually demonstrates
countershading
◦ Coloring with a dark dorsal side and a light ventral
side
◦ Aids in camou...
 Shark teeth are embedded in the gums, not
directly attached to the jaw
 Shark teeth are constantly replaced and are
pro...
 Shark teeth come in many different forms
 The shape directly reflects the common prey
of that shark species
 Sharks have well-adapted
eyes
 Unlike bony fish, sharks
can dilate and constrict
their pupils
 They also have Tapetum
...
 Sharks also use their ampullae of Lorenzini to
detect predators and prey, and to aid in
navigation
 The ampullae of Lor...
 Sharks are able to detect pressure changes in
the water, like all fish, by using their lateral
line
 Each pore (neuroma...
 Sharks have a strong
sense of smell, enables by
nostrils
 Their olfactory sensors
are located in the short
duct between...
 Sharks have the ability to determine the
direction of a given scent based on the timing
of scent detection in each nostr...
 Sharks have a sharp
sense of hearing
 A small opening on
each side of the
head leads directly
to an inner ear
 Final external structure is the cloaca
 The cloaca is an opening near the posterior
end of the shark
 It is the openin...
 Sharks have a 3 loved liver filled with an oil
called squalene that helps them stay afloat
 Sharks’ circulatory systems are powered by a
two chambered hearts
 Sharks have a complete digestive tract;
beginning at the mouth and ending at the
cloaca
 Many sharks have the unique ab...
 Inside the intestine is a specialized structure
called a spiral valve, which helps with
digestion by increasing surface ...
 The spleen of the shark is triangular in shape
and located near the posterior end
 The spleen is part of the circulator...
 The shark has a small pancreas located on
the under side of the spleen
 The pancreas should consist of two lobes
 It p...
 The reproductive organs are located near the
anterior end of the shark
 They occur in pairs; testes in males, ovaries
i...
Shark basics
Shark basics
Shark basics
Shark basics
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Shark basics

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Shark basics

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Shark basics

  1. 1.  Sharks are cartilaginous fish ◦ Meaning their skeleton is made mainly of cartilage  Belong to the class Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish)  Subclass Elasmobranchii (Elasmobranchs)
  2. 2.  Basic anatomy
  3. 3.  5 major fins.  Dorsal  Pectoral  Pelvic  Anal  Caudal (Tail)
  4. 4.  Dorsal fins – stabilizing  Pectoral fins – lift and steering  Pelvic fins – stabilizing (clasping in males)  Anal fins – stabilizing  Caudal fins – forward momentum (propulsion)
  5. 5.  Most sharks have heterocercal tails  The upper lobe is larger than the lower lobe  And they use a carangiform swim motion
  6. 6.  Most male cartilaginous fish, including sharks, have a modified pair of pelvic fins called the claspers  The claspers, or intromittent organs, are used to deliver sperm from the male to the female
  7. 7.  Most sharks have 5 gills, though some have seven  Unlike bony fish, shark gills are not protected by any covering  They allow for gas exchange in the water ◦ Allow sharks to breathe
  8. 8.  When sharks are on the ocean floor they are able to breathe using spiracles  Spiracles are a pair of openings just behind the fish's eyes that allow it to draw oxygenated water in from above.  The spiracles aid the fish in breathing even when it is lying on the ocean bottom or buried in the sand
  9. 9.  Sharks have very thick skin covered in dermal denticles which gives it the feel of sandpaper  These dermal denticles reduce turbulence when sharks are in motion
  10. 10.  The skin of female sharks is usually 3-4 times thicker than that of male sharks  Most forms of mating involve biting, so the thicker skin is necessary to protect the internal organs
  11. 11.  The skin usually demonstrates countershading ◦ Coloring with a dark dorsal side and a light ventral side ◦ Aids in camouflage
  12. 12.  Shark teeth are embedded in the gums, not directly attached to the jaw  Shark teeth are constantly replaced and are produced in rows ◦ Most sharks have 3 rows ◦ Teeth are replaced on at a time, not a whole row at a time
  13. 13.  Shark teeth come in many different forms  The shape directly reflects the common prey of that shark species
  14. 14.  Sharks have well-adapted eyes  Unlike bony fish, sharks can dilate and constrict their pupils  They also have Tapetum Lucidum, a lining in the back of the eye that helps detect light in dim or dark areas
  15. 15.  Sharks also use their ampullae of Lorenzini to detect predators and prey, and to aid in navigation  The ampullae of Lorenzini are small electroreceptors located on the underside of the rostrum
  16. 16.  Sharks are able to detect pressure changes in the water, like all fish, by using their lateral line  Each pore (neuromast) contains a neuroreceptor used to detect motion/pressure changes
  17. 17.  Sharks have a strong sense of smell, enables by nostrils  Their olfactory sensors are located in the short duct between the anterior and posterior nasal openings  Some species can detect as little as one part per million of blood in seawater
  18. 18.  Sharks have the ability to determine the direction of a given scent based on the timing of scent detection in each nostril  Similar to how mammals hear
  19. 19.  Sharks have a sharp sense of hearing  A small opening on each side of the head leads directly to an inner ear
  20. 20.  Final external structure is the cloaca  The cloaca is an opening near the posterior end of the shark  It is the opening for the digestive (solid waste), excretory (liquid waste) and reproductive system (gametes)
  21. 21.  Sharks have a 3 loved liver filled with an oil called squalene that helps them stay afloat
  22. 22.  Sharks’ circulatory systems are powered by a two chambered hearts
  23. 23.  Sharks have a complete digestive tract; beginning at the mouth and ending at the cloaca  Many sharks have the unique ability to completely regurgitate their food
  24. 24.  Inside the intestine is a specialized structure called a spiral valve, which helps with digestion by increasing surface area
  25. 25.  The spleen of the shark is triangular in shape and located near the posterior end  The spleen is part of the circulatory system  It is involved in the production, degradation, and storage of red blood cells and is integral to the shark’s immune system
  26. 26.  The shark has a small pancreas located on the under side of the spleen  The pancreas should consist of two lobes  It provides secretions needed for digestion
  27. 27.  The reproductive organs are located near the anterior end of the shark  They occur in pairs; testes in males, ovaries in females  Connective tubes allow the reproductive cells to travel from the organs to the cloaca

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