In focus 2011


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Center for Khmer Studies Newsletter 2011

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In focus 2011

  1. 1. in focus no.9, 2011-201 2 The center for Khmer studiesin THis issuEWelcome to cKs 3 nATionAL MusEuM of cAMBoDiA DATABAsE PRoJEcTLois DE MEniL, PREsiDEnT KHMER LAnGuAGE & cuLTuRE sTuDY PRoGRAM ouTREAcH AcTiViTiEsDirector’s note 4-5MicHAEL suLLiVAn new Directions 19 suMMER JunioR REsiDEnT fELLoWsHiP PRoGRAMMembers & Benefactors 6-7 cKs-sRi LAnKA WoRKsHoPoLiViER BERniER, VicE-PREsiDEnT cKs LEcTuRE AnD sEMinAR sERiEsThe cKs Library 8-9 feature Article 20-23 cKs nATionAL MusEuM of cAMBoDiA inVEnToRY BonusProgram & Activities 10-18souTHEAsT AsiAn sTuDiEs cuRRicuLA DEVELoPMEnT PRoGRAM senior fellows 24-27PuBLisHinG & TRAnsLATionconfEREncE & WoRKsHoP Photo: Khmer Bronze Garuda Boat-Prow ornament, 12th century
  2. 2. Mission StatementThe Center for Khmer Studies supports research, teaching andpublic service in the social sciences, arts and humanities inCambodia and the Mekong region.CKS seeks to:•Promote research and international scholarly exchange byprograms that increase understanding of Cambodia and itsregion,•Strengthen Cambodia’s cultural and educational struc-tures, and integrate Cambodian scholars into regional andinternational exchange,•Promote a vigorous civil society.CKS is an American Overseas Research Center supported by aconsortium of educational institutions, scholars andindividuals. It is incorporated in the state of Delaware, USA.It receives partial support for overhead and Americanfellowships from the US Government. Its programs are pri-vately funded. CKS is the sole member institution of the Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC) in Southeast Asia. CKS’s programs are administered from its headquarters in Siem Reap and from Phnom Penh. It maintains a small administrative office inBoard of Directors New York and a support office in Paris, LesLois de Menil, Ph.D., President Amis du CentreAnne H. Bass, Vice-President d ’ E t u d e solivier Bernier, Vice-President Khmeres.Dean Berry, Esq., secretary and General counselGaye fugate, TreasurerProf. Michel Rethy Antelme, inALco, ParisProf. olivier de Bernon, Ecole francaise d’Extreme orient, ParisEmma c. Bunker, Denver Art MuseumProf. Kieth Rethy chhem, universities of Vienna & ulmDouglas clayton, Phnom Penh, cambodiaDarryl collins, siem Reap, cambodia children reading outside the new research centerProf. Penny Edwards, university of california, BerkeleyProf. Bion Griffin, university of Hawaii cKs sTAffProf. Anne Hansen, university of Wisconsin Michael sullivan DirectorJacques Hennessy, Rome nop sovanna finance officerProf. Kamaleswar Bhattacharya, ParisRobert Kessler, Denver, co Tith sreypich Administrative officer, siem ReapProf. Alan Kolata, university of chicago oum Daraneth Head LibrarianProf. Andrew Mertha, cornell university Mam Vannary Research LibrarianProf. John Miksic, national university of singaporesteven Pesner, Esq., new York, nY sim Puthea Administrative officer, Phnom PenhMary L. Porter, Houston, TX Yem Yoeun Publishing and iT coordinatorDr. Dawn Rooney, Bangkok, Thailand Michel Rethy Antelme Editor, Siksacakr JournalProf. son soubert, Royal university of fine Arts, cambodiaThe Hon. Benny Widyono, Ph.D., united nations (ret.)Bonnie Burnham, chairman EmeritusProf. Thak chaloemtiarana, cornell university, Trustee Emeritusselma Ertegun, new York, nY, Trustee Emeritus CKS is a member of CAORCMichael sullivan, Ph.D., Director, ex officio (council of American overseas Research centers)2 in focus
  3. 3. WELcoME To cKs! c KS was a challenge from its inception. Founded in 2000, CKS’s mission is to promote the study of Southeast enthusiastic initial seed funding, and some switched focus to other regions and goals. CKS has been able to grow and prosper with the assurance of CAORC’s access to core funding. Private contributions extended our reach to Asia at U.S. universities, and French scholars, whose traditional expertise in the area has simultaneously, to contribute to long made Paris a capital of Southeast Asian scholarship. the formidable task of rebuilding We now collaborate closely with the major French institu- Cambodia’s higher education tion in Cambodia, the renowned French School of the Far sector, which was deliberately East (EFEO) on projects and workshops, and with the destroyed during the Khmer Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales Lois de Menil, President Rouge genocide. There can be no –‘Langues- O’. A French scholar from Langues- O foundedprogress, no relief from poverty without the capacity high- and edits our annual trilingual journal, Siksacakr. Otherer education institutions provide to train intelligent, well- private contributions from the U.S. and France made possi-educated future leaders. ble a remarkable undergraduate summer program in Southeast Asian history and Khmer language forWe began by establishing research fellowships for U.S. Cambodians, Americans and French undergraduates, andscholars, using their opportune presence in Cambodia to a fellowship program for French scholars, paralleling theengage these senior scholars in leading training programs one for U.S. scholars. American and international scholarsin several key areas for Cambodian university students and meet each other under the umbrella of CKS. Youngjunior faculty. Major foundations welcomed this initiative Cambodian scholars learn how to work as research schol-with seed funding. Eleven years later, we have a substan- ars and connect with colleagues. They join enthusiastical-tial alumni group— the CKS Society of Fellows, including ly in our seminar and lecture programs.Cambodian, American and international scholars. Overtime, we also built from scratch a modern research library, The impact of the financial crisis has unfortunately result-a place of free and open inquiry. Located on the grounds ed in steep cutbacks in U.S. government funding. CKSof Wat Damnak, a Buddhist pagoda in central Siem Reap, relies increasingly on private contributions to sustain itsit is the only such library in the region and the second mission. The Department of Education responded tolargest in Cambodia. Its facilities are remarkable, its atmo- Congress’s request for cutbacks, in spring 2011, by simplysphere quiet and welcoming, amidst the dusty bustle of canceling all grants up for renewal in 2011, including thedowntown Siem Reap. It is a place open to all, to think and Higher Education Act. This affected all U.S. internationalto search, a favorite place for local young people. education programs, without distinction, including over- seas research centers and U.S. university centers.A challenge from the outset was for CKS to become part ofthe network of prestigious international research institu- CKS’s dedicated Board of Directors stepped up once againtions whose missions parallel our own, and which are to the challenge, and voted both to increase their own per-joined together in the Council of American Overseas sonal contributions and to double the target for this year’sResearch Centers (CAORC), with headquarters in annual giving and the programs it will sustain. TheseWashington. CAORC institutions promote scholarship include, among others, an intensive Khmer language pro-that ensures that there are U.S. experts who speak the lan- gram and a Southeast Asian Studies training program thatguages and understand intimately the cultures of countries prepares Cambodian junior faculty to develop a curricu-and regions around the world. They put U.S. scholars into lum for new courses on the region at their universities. Thecontact with their international colleagues and with schol- corrosive effects of regional nationalism are visible in thears from the country in which they are located. This glob- press daily, as border disputes escalate to army face-downsal effort is essential in modern society, to government as along Cambodia’s borders with neighboring Thailand andwell as to businesses, and to the quality of education and Vietnam. Never has it been more important to sensitizeculture, as those of us who lived through the grim period educated young people of the region to their common his-of the Vietnam War, with its dearth of American experts on tory and culture.Southeast Asia, well remember. Please join our Board and our young Cambodian staff inAs an American Overseas Research Center, CKS receives their commitment to CKS’s cross-border initiatives in inter-support for fellowships from the State Department’s national education. We are a place of welcome, of freeEducation and Cultural Affairs division, and has received inquiry and of hope for the future.partial support of overhead from the Department ofEducation under the Higher Education Act. Congress rec-ognizes the essential contribution of AORCs. Over time, Lois de Menil, Ph.D.major foundations slowly phased out support after their President in focus 3
  4. 4. DiREcToR’s noTE A fter the fanfare and excitement of H.M. Sihamoni, King Cambodia’s visit in 2010, we of quickly settled down to begin the job of implementing the next phase of the Center’s development. Based on the previous year’s evaluation, we took the lessons learned and sharpened the focus of our programming and activities. We created a renewed vision of how best to meet the challenges of our threefold mission: to promote scholarly exchange, increase understanding of Cambodia and its region and help strengthen Cambodia’s cultural and educational structures. A central aspect of this vision has been the development of new ways in which we could integrate Cambodian scholars into regional and international exchange. One new direction has been the estab- lishment of a Southeast Asia Curricula Development Program for young Cambodian university lecturers. Michael sullivan, Ph.D., Director Giant puppets created by local children on the cKs lawn4 in focus
  5. 5. Research has shown that there are very few, if any, coher- Khmer language skills and cultural understanding forent Southeast Asian Studies programs currently available study and research Cambodian universities. Our program is designed tohelp fill that gap by giving young Cambodian university As well as consolidating new practical directions with ourlecturers the opportunity to learn how to design curricula programming, we have also been reflecting further on thethat situates Cambodia in the broader field of Southeast implications that the dramatic societal changes occurring inAsian Studies. The long-term goal is to facilitate the intro- Cambodia have had for the field of Cambodian Studies. Induction of coherent Southeast Asian Studies curricula into July, CKS brought together senior and junior CambodianCambodian universities, which will lead to a greater and foreign scholars for an international conference enti-understanding of the importance of regional and interna- tled Transforming Cambodia Studies: Social Change andtional educational exchange. The program was successful- Cultural Transitions Since 1979. The conference proceedingsly piloted in August 2010 and will run again this year in represented a small but important step in re-framing ques-September. tions and understandings of contemporary Cambodian Studies. This has important implications not just for loftyAnother practical and new direction we have taken is the intellectual pursuits, but also for understanding the veryimplementation of our Khmer Language and Culture real, practical world in which the Center is operating.Study Program, in collaboration with the Advanced Study Listening to the presentations and the sometimes exuber-in Khmer (ASK) program run by the University of Hawai’i, ant and lively debates, one felt a sense of optimism andMānoa. Building upon last year’s experience, a group of belief that the Center for Khmer Studies is moving in theU.S. graduate students underwent a successful and inten- right direction.sive eight-week language skills acquisition course, includ-ing a cultural immersion component, that enabled them toput into practice their newly found language skills along- Michael Sullivan, Ph.D.side the more advanced students from ASK. The program Directordemonstrates our commitment to promoting educationalexchange by helping equip individuals with the necessary cKs director and teachers with participants of the 2011 cKs Khmer Language and culture study Program in focus 5
  6. 6. MEMBERs AnD BEnEfAcToRs n ever has CKS done better: Of course, we still receive funds from a variety of sources, this is the good news. Our including notably, private donors. Thus the new library programs have proved was built thanks to gifts from members of our Board, and their worth, our students are its functioning is ensured by a generous yearly gift from going on to successful careers. one of our private supporters. Other private and institu- Indeed, last January, at a gathering tional donors make a number of our other activities possi- of former participants in the ble. Our fellowship programs continue, and the list of past Junior Faculty Training Program, recipients is an inspiring one: of those students who came it was heartening to listen to these to CKS, many have become, or are becoming, specialists in young men and women speak the field of Southeast Asian and Khmer Studies. As for thewith enthusiasm about the jobs they do now. And just as reputation of CKS among experts, it has not ceased to soar.their hard work has been rewarded, so we might expect oursuccess to bring us, financially, to a new, more secure place. Still, we now find ourselves faced with the urgent need to make up for those funds denied us and other researchThat is just what would have happened if it had not been for institutions, by the Department of Education’s arbitrarythe budget crisis in the United States and the consequent cuts. Never has the support of individual donors beencuts made in many programs. Even if these cuts had been more important to us. We practice the most thoroughgo-made rationally, we still would have done well, but they ing frugality; our budget is a model of leanness, but wewere not. The U.S. Department of Education, from whom need help. Money goes further in Cambodia than in thewe had been receiving funding, decided at the last moment United States, so that every dollar you give us does a greatnot to follow the other departments, who cut a percentage deal of good. You have supported us in the past. Now weright across the board. Instead, in a startling decision, the need you more than ever. Thanks to you, in a mere elevenDepartment of Education simply cut out the entirety of years we have built a great institution. Please help us tothose programs, which were dependent on a competition project our success into the coming year; by supporting usthat had not yet been, but was about to be, decided. This now, in this difficult moment, you will help us immeasur-competition determined the allocation of funds to American ably: even a small effort will do a great deal of good.Overseas Research Centers - CKS is one of the most success-ful of these. There is very little doubt that our three-year May we hear from you?grant would have been renewed. Instead all grants werecanceled. They would not have been if the results of thecompetition had been announced a few days earlier. Olivier Bernier, Vice PresidentJoin cKs!Participate in cKs’s growth by becoming a member. Your Annual fund Membership categories:contribution is essential to support our mission: • Director’s Circle ($35,000 and up) • Patrons ($20,000-$34,999)• support cKs’s Library fund: acquisition of books, equip- • Sponsors ($10,000-$19,999)ment and computers, and the ongoing training of our • Supporting Members ($1,000-$9,999) • Members ($100-$999)Cambodian librarians.• support important cKs public outreach: free lectures, for credit card contributions, please use the attached form, orworkshops and conferences, publications on contemporary and see our website: topics, and translation of essential educational texts for stock transfers, please call 212-980-6628into Khmer. checks should be sent to:• Help cKs train junior faculty at the universities: to rebuild Center for Khmer Studieshigher education after its deliberate destruction in the Khmer 149 East 63rd St., New York, NY 10065Rouge genocide. For email information: U.S. contributions to CKS are tax deductible.6 in focus
  7. 7. Thank You to our 2010-2011 Annual Donors!Director’s circle ($35,000 and up) Kate fickle Robert GeniesseRobert and Lisa Kessler M. Gaye fugate Emmanuella HabsburgLois and Georges de Menil Goldman sachs Jeffrey Hansen s. Lawson Michael ferguson JohnsonPatrons ($20,000-$34,999) Julian Lethbridge sambo KhimAnonymous Marc and Jacqueline Leland (Leland Vera KistiakowskyAnonymous foundation) Kate MedinaAnne H Bass Benjamin de Menil Donald owlskyselma Ertegun Elizabeth De Woody felipe Proppernancy norman Lassalle Lisa Reid Joy de Menil and Laird Reedsteven and Michele Pesner susan Jeffries Edie silberMary Lawrence Porter Laurel McGee stephanie stokes Elizabeth and Richard Miller Adele and norman Taylorsponsors (10,000-$19,999) Gerard Riedel Virginia ThorsAnonymous nancy schacht A.Van ToochAnonymous Lloan and Hardwick simmons Doris Pattison Whiteolivier Bernier susan shine shiva foundationJohn and Martha Howard (close friends Mortimer stanley iii institutional supportfoundation) orest szul council of American overseas ResearchAdam Roseman Young Presidents’ organization Group centers florence Gould foundationsupporting Members ($1,000-$9,999) Members ($100-$999) u.s. Government, Department of Education,Abercrombie & Kent Group Edward Bass Title Vi ProgramBrook Berlind Marion Becker u. s. Department of state, Dept. ofRosamond Bernier Justice stephen Breyer Education and cultural AffairsW.L. Lyons Brown, Jr. charitable foundation nerou chang The Van Waveren foundationEmma Bunker Peter and Jeannette EhrenkranzMarina couloucundis Adeline frelinghausenAnne and Joel Ehrenkranz Pamela GaleWe need You!support our Library ($10,000) Help to Digitize our library ’s collection ($5,000)CKS ’s library is the largest free public library outside PhnomPenh. It offers unparalleled educational facilities to Cambodian Place your name on a Bookcase containing approximatelystudents and public, as well as to visiting scholars. 400 titles ($5,000)sponsor the Translation of Educational Texts $5-10,000 Join the Director ’s circle and place your name on a plaque inIn the absence of books in the Cambodian language, Khmer, the new library ($35,000)CKS translates and publishes key texts. A donation of $10,000will defray costs for an average 300 page book and will be send a cambodian scholar to the 2012 Meeting ofacknowledged in the publication. the Association of Asian scholars in Toronto ($3,500)Donate a new computer for our library reading room ($1,500) sponsor an overseas cambodian student for the cKs/ university of Hawaii summer in-country program ($3,500).connect CKS ’s library to the World Wide Web for 1 Year ($2,000) We are grateful for your support! in focus 7
  8. 8. THE cKs LiBRARY: REAcHinG GLoBAL fRonTiERs A monk browsing the bookshelves in the cKs libraryf or the past four years, the CKS Board and Library peaceful atmosphere. Scholars have also begun to use our Committee have been concentrating their attention on new, spacious carrel room for their research, whilst semi- our new building: choosing and discarding plans, nars and meetings take place in a bright and airy seminarselecting builders and materials, picking woods, colors, room.designs, and generally trying to make the space as usefuland pleasant as possible. A year after its opening, thebuilding can be considered a resounding success - more into The Digital Agereaders have filled the increased number of seats. We now Thanks to the generosity of Board members and friends ofhave both an official and unofficial reading room; while the the library, as well as the energy and competence of ourofficial one has almost doubled in size, the terrace of the librarians, and the hard work of the CKS staff and director,new building is often just as crowded. Its popularity has operations on the ground are going well. With the newmuch to do with the availability of WiFi and the serene building completed, we can now turn our attention fromviews of greenery and frangipani trees that enhance the bricks to bytes, as we plan to extend the reach of the library8 in focus
  9. 9. s easily accessible to more people wherever they are around the globe. It will also allow us to discover what is unique in our inventory, and thus to design an intelligent digitiz- ing program to make it more widely available. A center for Global Acquisitions While CKS does its best to reach out, sometimes it is nice to be reached for: The Library of Congress has a world- wide acquisition policy, and we are at present discussing the prospect of becoming the Library of Congress’s official agent for the area of Indochina. This has come about through our membership in CAORC, the Council of American Overseas Research Centers, and being consid- ered for this role is a tribute to CKS and our librarians. Retaining A Local Edge In its wisdom, the CKS Board decided that our next acqui- sitions should concentrate with particular energy on maps and documents that concern local history. Siem Reap is where we are headquartered. It has changed enormously since CKS was founded in 2000, and will surely change further. It is therefore an obvious subject for us to docu- ment, using all forms of media available. Some acquisi- tions have already been made; besides often being objects of beauty, maps are particularly relevant here, where, for instance, discussions between the Kingdom of Siam and the French Quai d’Orsay to establish the borders of Cambodia went on for more than fifty years - borders that are still challenged by Thailand today. With so much to look forward to, we are ready to embrace the challenge of the digital age that lies before us. Jacques Hennessy, Chairman CKS Library Committee into the ether. Our catalogue is already available online, but it stands alone, and must be consulted specifically by a researcher. Our next step would be to integrate it into a comprehensive research tool such as Webcat. This is a cat- alogue of catalogues, which can tell the user where the book he or she is searching for is available. For example, a scholar might discover that the only existing copy of the National Bank of Cambodia’s report for 1960, or twenty years of records of water levels in the Tonle Sap, both of which are absolutely necessary to finish their research, are on our shelves. Thanks to Webcat, we can expect a visit in person, or possibly a remote request for a particular item. In short, such an integration of our catalogue will make it Research Librarian, Mam Vannary in the cKs reading room in focus 9
  10. 10. Program & ActivitiessouTHEAsT AsiAn sTuDiEs cuRRicuLA DEVELoPMEnT &AcADEMic sTuDY sKiLLs PRoGRAM (A PiLoT PRoJEcT)i t has been widely recognized that no distinct Southeast Asian Studies courses are taught at Cambodian univer- sities. This lacuna in the curriculum prompted CKS todevelop a course on Southeast Asian Studies, drawing on Southeast Asian Studies, provided the training for this pio- neering course. Dr. Frieson’s fluency in Khmer, extensive experience in teaching Southeast Asian Studies, and previ- ous involvement in the Junior Faculty Training Programthe successful model of the Junior Faculty Training made her a natural choice. The course was organizedProgram (JFTP), supported by the Rockefeller Foundation. around four main themes with a practicum component,This new initiative incorporates academic materials devel- each composed of nine sessions:oped over the five years of the JFTP, together withresources produced by the young scholars participating in 1. Conceptualizing Southeast Asiathat program. 2. The History of Southeast Asia 3. Contemporary Southeast AsiaThis year, the course served as a pilot project with a two- 4. Curricula Development on Southeast Asian Studiespronged approach: to develop curricula for SoutheastAsian Studies courses, and to foster the skill sets required Academic study skills were incorporated into each of theto teach young Cambodian students at the undergraduate themes to address the challenges of critical thinking, logiclevel. The first objective focused on equipping lecturers and reasoning, presentation of ideas, and forming habits ofwith knowledge and skills to teach Southeast Asian academic reading, writing and interactive presentations.Studies courses in the Khmer language to fourth-yearundergraduates at Cambodian universities. The second The course sessions were enriched by the attendance ofobjective concurrently addressed the underdeveloped aca- guest lecturers. These included Prof. Lindsay French, whodemic skills that exist among university students, by incor- gave a lecture on the concept of borders and their meaningporating specific study skills lessons throughout the for the study and mapping of Southeast Asia. Prof. Judycourse. These include facilitating student-centered learn- Ledgerwood addressed the issue of rice and the concept ofing, developing analytical questioning, using reference space in Southeast Asia, as well as gender concepts insystems, learning about the perils of plagiarism, and rec-ognizing primary and secondary data sources and how touse them.Training the LecturersThe project was organized in two different phases; first, thetraining of trainers, and second, undergraduate studenttraining. The first phase of the project was thus tailored toprovide further training, with a specific focus on SoutheastAsian Studies, to a small number of lecturers who hadalready gone through the Junior Faculty Training Program.Out of twenty applicants, fifteen were selected to partici-pate in the course, based on the merit of their applicationsand commitment to teaching undergraduate students.Between August and October 2010, these participants metthree times a week at the CKS Phnom Penh center to com-plete a total of thirty-six training sessions.Dr. Kate Frieson, a Visiting Scholar specializing in Dr. Kate frieson instructing the trainee lecturers during a seminar10 in focus
  11. 11. Southeast Asia. A lecture on colonial power in Southeast twenty-seven selected students meeting for a series ofAsia was given by Prof. Eve Zucker, while Mr. Chean Men twenty-five sessions. Between November 2010 andspoke about the religious complexity of mainland February 2011, students therefore received an impressiveSoutheast Asia. fifty hours of instruction.At the end of these sessions, participants were required to The program solicited rigorous performance from both lec-create an academic curriculum for Southeast Asian Studies turers and students. In order to achieve their teachingas a model to be used for a fourth-year university course in goals, each lecturer prepared reading materials based onthe Khmer language. Each individual participant was thus their assigned topics and distributed them to studentsrequired to develop a topic chosen within a thematic prior to the lecture. They were also required to prepareframework and using a wide range of materials, before their lecture notes and presentation in Khmer, and to deliv-presenting it to their peers and to the instructor for con- er the lecture by applying interactive pedagogical meth-structive comment and feedback. ods, alternating between lecture presentation, Q & A ses- sions, and open discussion.Given that many university students do not have sufficientknowledge of English to access advanced texts, it was The student-centered design of the course was geared toimportant to select topics that were supported by reading stretching students’ learning approaches as well as aca-materials in the Khmer language. Participants were demic knowledge. Students were often asked to formencouraged to use as much as possible materials translated groups to discuss selected reading materials, debateinto Khmer, such as those produced by CKS. These important theories and concepts, and make presentationsinclude published anthologies of articles from the JFTP, A based on critical readings of the various topics they hadHistory of Cambodia by David Chandler, Southeast Asia: An covered during the course. Such techniques proved to be aIntroductory History by Milton Osborne (the main textbook new and rewarding experience for Cambodian universityfor the course), articles from Siksacakr, as well as other relat- students.ed materials available in Khmer. Student performance was measured based on a number ofTraining the fourth-Year criteria, including class attendance and participation, assignments and quizzes, a midterm exam and a final termundergraduate students paper. For this, students were required to propose a topic related to Southeast Asian Studies, and present their com-The second phase of the training was for those lecturers pleted paper to the class for feedback at the conclusion ofwho successfully completed the first stage of the course, to the course. A team of lecturers then evaluated the paperstrain fourth-year undergraduate students using the curric- according to set standards. All students passed with flyingula they had developed. To this end, students either com- colors, and were rewarded with a certificate of completionpleting their fourth year of study or recently graduated in by CKS.the social sciences, were recruited from various universi-ties based on their academic achievement. This part of thecourse was structured similarly to the first phase, with the Workshop on southeast Asian studies course and curriculum Development On December 17, 2010, CKS organized a workshop to pre- sent this pioneering pilot project to officials from the Ministry of Education, Department of Higher Education, Cambodian Accreditation Committee, and lecturers from different universities. The purpose of the workshop was to obtain feedback and recommendations from relevant par- ticipants, in order to further a common curriculum on Southeast Asian Studies for all universities, and also to establish collaboration with partner universities to expand the program in the future. The outcome of the workshop was especially positive, with all partner universities find- ing this initiative to be of utmost importance and relevance for the future of university teaching in Cambodia. It is CKS’s vision that this course help to fill the curriculum gap, and be incorporated widely at Cambodian institutions of higher learning in the near future. Participants developing new southeast Asian studies curricula during a training session in focus 11
  12. 12. PuBLisHinG & TRAnsLATionA big part of the Center’s commitment to strengthen- ing Cambodia’s cultural and educational structures has been, and continues to be its Publishing andTranslation Program. Steadily over the last few years theCenter has built a reputation for publishing high qualitytranslations and other reading materials that make impor-tant contributions to replenishing stocks destroyed duringthe Khmer Rouge period. CKS Khmer-language versionsof David Chandler’s History of Cambodia, and MiltonOsborne’s Southeast Asia: An Introductory History are stillavailable in bookstores in most major Cambodian townsand cities. Our series of seven readers, containing contem-porary Khmer translations of academic articles used dur-ing our training programs, are widely applied inCambodian universities and other institutions of learning.We also publish materials in English and French as well asKhmer, including proceedings from conferences, mono-graphs, original research and our very own trilingual,peer-reviewed academic journal Siksacakr, Journal ofCambodian Studies. Khmer-language translation of Benny Widyonos Dancing in Shadows: Sihanouk, the Khmer Rouge and the United Nations in CambodiaVoices: ith channacKs Junior fellow, 2011 My name is ith channa, a graduate of The assignments, presentations, and above all, successful comple- Royal university of Phnom Penh. since tion and defense of a research paper. This gave me a lot of graduating in June 2010, i still take time to scope to express my own ideas. Thus, both in response to the further my studies as much as possible. class requirements, and in order to succeed, i had to be active, Therefore i was very happy when, in committed, and challenge myself. november 2010, i got the chance to take a course at the center for Khmer studies if i compare my time before coming to cKs, i feel i have gained alongside another twenty-six students, so much from participating in the southeast Asian studieswhilst also completing a TEsoL course in English teaching Program. cKs didn’t just improve my knowledge; it also built upmethodology. my confidence, dedication and thinking skills. it especially guid- ed me in how to successfully write a research paper. AlthoughBefore i began my studies at cKs, i received a copy of the aca- only a relatively small task, i feel that writing a research paper,demic program, which informed me about what classes i could something i had never done before, was one of my biggestlook forward to. i was so surprised after i realized that we would achievements.receive instruction on an impressive fourteen topics, taught bytwelve different lecturers, even though the course would only run now i work as a translator and reporter for DAP news center.for three months. Having had the opportunity to be a part of this program, i would like to say a big thank you to cKs for giving me the chance toBy participating in this program, i noticed some dramatic differ- broaden my knowledge and research skills. in addition, i wouldences from my experiences at university. in particular, the teach- like to thank the cKs lecturers and facilitators for their immenseing methods at cKs inspired students to feel motivated to study. help, which inspired me to become a successful student.i not only came to listen and take notes, but i was also encour-aged to use my thinking skills and share ideas. We wereassigned with a variety of activities, such as group discussions,12 in focus
  13. 13. Recent ProjectsIn keeping with our commitment to publishing materials Cambodians, who have limited access to books in thein the Khmer language, in May 2011 we launched our lat- Khmer language that deal with this recent period ofest book translation project, Dancing in Shadows: Sihanouk, Cambodian history.the Khmer Rouge and the United Nations in Cambodia (origi-nally published by Rowman & Littlefield). With permis- CKS chose the Royal University of Phnom Penh as thesion from the author and the original publishers of the venue for the book launch. It was encouraging to see soEnglish language version, CKS began the project in March many young Cambodian students eager to get their hands2010. A specialized team was assembled, including two on a copy. Many young Cambodians have very faint rec-translators, Mr. Touch Soputhy and Thol Dina, editors Mr. ollections, or no personal memories of UNTAC at all. ForVong Sotheara and Ms. Chea Bunnary, the project supervi- these students, the book provides a particular viewpointsor Mr. Chean Rithy Men and publishing coordinator Mr. that allows them to think critically about a momentous andYem Yoeun. highly contentious period of their country’s history.The book, written by Prof. Benny Widyono, is a personal Interest in the book was not only confined to Cambodianmemoir of his experiences as a senior member of the students. A couple of days after the official book launch,United Nations Transitional Authority (UNTAC) - respon- the author, accompanied by the CKS director, was invitedsible for organizing multiparty democratic elections in to present copies of the book to the Cambodian PrimeCambodia between 1992-3 - and his later role as the United Minister, Hun Sen. The P.M. was very appreciative, andNations Special Representative for Political Affairs in thanked CKS for the good work it is doing in the field ofCambodia between 1994-7. As a memoir, the book was translations. New and exciting translation projects arewritten in a very accessible style, allowing the translation already in the pipeline, and will begin to complete the project in a little over twelve months.The book generated a great deal of interest amongVoices: Touch sokhacKs Junior fellow, 2011 Early in the fourth year of my Bachelor of new experiences, as well as earn priceless feedback and advice History degree, i had the chance to join a from qualified professionals, thus improving my future research three-month training program run by cKs endeavors greatly. As a result of this experience, i was able to in southeast Asian studies. This very inter- earn runner up position for a research paper writing competition. esting course greatly enriched my universi- ty studies, which were also focused on the Attending the southeast Asian studies Program has been one of theme of southeast Asia at the time. The the best opportunities and experiences i’ve encountered. course provided me with the valuable nowadays i work for an nGo as a writer. As such, conductingopportunity to acquire new ideas from professional lecturers. research and interviews are essential elements to fulfilling myMoreover, cKs supplied many kinds of study materials to stu- writing goals. it is true that i learnt such skills from my lecturersdents before the start of the course, making me well prepared, at university, but it is also greatly thanks to the cKs southeastand equipping me with many ideas to discuss in class. Asian studies Program. it broadened my ideas and encouraged me to become more deeply involved in social affairs.During the program, students were encouraged to work in furthermore, cKs not only expanded my knowledge, it also guid-groups and hold discussions on academic topics that i had never ed me in a new way of thinking. Before i attended the course, iencountered before. This technique allowed me to take part in had only wished to pursue my Master’s degree. However, now ivaluable debates where i could express my ideas. As a result, i feel it essential that i pursue it, as what i encountered was agrew as a confident individual, who dared to share ideas in a plethora of knowledgeable people who i have come to regard asgroup setting - something i had never done before. furthermore, my role models. My future success can undoubtedly be attribut-the course taught me how to properly carry out research, and ed in part to cKs, after all, the center has guided me in the rightgave me the task of completing a small research topic. Even direction.though it was small, it was an academic one. Professional lec-turers evaluated my research paper, commenting on it carefully.consequently, the program afforded me the opportunity to gain in focus 13
  14. 14. confEREncEo n the morning of July 7, 2011 over one hundred peo- ple gathered together in the CKS conference hall eagerly awaiting the first day of the CKS conferenceto begin: Transforming Cambodia Studies: Social Change and Gender, Transforming Community through Technology and Migrations and Transformations. Each of the panels and topics generated a good deal of inter-Cultural Transitions since 1979. The conference was orga- est from the audience; the question and answer sessions andnized by CKS in collaboration with senior scholars from subsequent discussions were lively and engaging. The dis-the Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois cussions were guided by questions related to the impactUniversity, the Consortium of Southeast Asian Studies at these transitions are having in Cambodia, especially inthe University of California, Berkeley, and the Center for terms of power relations, communal organization, identitySoutheast Asian Studies, University of Wisconsin, formation and rural, urban and transnational migrations. conference attendees enjoying refreshments in the cKs gardens Board member Prof. Anne Hansen addressing the conference participantsMadison. Within the field of Cambodia Studies, a confer- Overall, this conference succeeded in reviving dialogueence that attempted to examine the multiple and dramatic among a broad, multinational and multidisciplinary com-social, political, economic and cultural transitions that munity of scholars, and will help to further stimulateCambodian society has undergone since 1979, from multi- debate and scholarly research in this field.disciplinary points of view, was long overdue. The pur-pose was to bring together both younger and seniorCambodian and overseas scholars to begin a process ofdialogue and exchange of views, in an effort to gauge theways and extent to which Cambodia Studies has been, andis being transformed.To that end, the conference was organized into several dis-tinct panels over three days. Altogether, nineteen paperswere presented by an international host of junior andsenior scholars from Cambodia, Thailand, Japan, andSouth Korea, as well as Australia, United Kingdom,Sweden, Germany and the United States. A variety of newperspectives were offered on topics that included:Aesthetics and Politics of Memory, Transforming Meaningsand Media in Religion, Rights and Laws, Transitions in Participants attending a presentation in the cKs conference hall14 in focus
  15. 15. ARcHEoMETALLuRGY WoRKsHoP Mr. it sopheaps bronze workshop near Vat Thmei, siem Reap, courtesy of Brice Vincenti n March 2011, the Center was delighted to be able to col- laborate with the École Française d’Extrême-Orient (EFEO), and the Authority for the Protection andManagement of Angkor and the Region of Siem Reap senters talked about all aspects of archeometallurgy in Cambodia, including survey and excavation of metal pro- duction sites, material science analyses, metal conserva- tion, and ethno-archaeological fieldwork. The purpose of(APSARA), with support from the Friends of Khmer such presentations was to highlight recent studies in theCulture (FOKC), in organizing the first ever archeometal- field of Cambodian archeometallurgy and stimulate futurelurgy workshop in Cambodia. Recent developments in the research and collaborations, with a view to enhance andoverseas laboratory analyses of ancient metal artifacts from propagate this new, emerging discipline.Cambodia have coincided with the broader undertaking offield archeometallurgy and metal conservation withinCambodia. This has resulted in a significant number ofCambodian and foreign scholars working concurrently inthe field of Cambodian archeometallurgy. Up until nowhowever, these scholars had not joined forces as a unifiedsub-discipline, thereby limiting communication betweenthem. The workshop organizers recognized that the com-bined potential of such studies to new generations ofCambodian archaeologists and cultural heritage managerscould thus be lost.In an effort to remedy this, the workshop aimed to bringtogether experts, colleagues and students who share acommon interest in Cambodian metallurgy, from prehisto-ry to the historical period. Over a packed few days, pre- Archeometallurgy workshop, cKs conference hall in focus 15
  16. 16. nATionAL MusEuM of cAMBoDiA DATABAsE PRoJEcTW ith the completion, in 2010, of the first CKS/Leon Hiring a company from outside Cambodia would have Levy Foundation project to develop a thorough been far from ideal, given the amount of work that needed digital inventory of the National Museum of to be done. Hence, after another lengthy search, and muchCambodias collections, the next step was to complement to everyone’s relief, in May, a local company Khmer-Devthis with a searchable database that could provide interac- Inc., headed by software engineer Matthieu Lagier, wastive digital access. Not long after the completion of the contracted to do the job. By June, all elements were ininventory project, National Museum Director, Madame place: there were new terminals and hardware, an appro-Oun Phalline and former director H.E. Hab Touch (now priate software system installed, and a dedicatedDirector General for Cultural Heritage in charge of the database team composed of museum staff. This con-General Department of Heritage), began discussing the cluded the first preparatory phase.possibility of creating a database with CKS Boardmembers Emmy Bunker and Darryl Collins. Work on the database is expected to takeThose discussions resulted in a CKS grant pro- another two years before it can be tried, test-posal to the Leon Levy Foundation, which had ed and become fully operational. Thispreviously funded the Collection Inventory lengthy but necessary process will beProject, and which again generously time well spent. An accessibleagreed to support the database database is essential to maxi-project. mize the use of the excellent work of the inventoryPreparatory work began in project. ImprovingJanuary 2011. Darryl Collins access to the entiretook on the responsibility of museum collection willorganizing and coordinating benefit many aspectsthe project. The first phase of the museum’s dailyinvolved replacing old com- work. Preparation ofputers, updating necessary exhibitions, conserva-hardware and identifying tion of artifacts, pho-software capable of meeting tography and researchthe needs of the muse- of works for publication,um. This entailed as well as publicensuring that require- enquiries will allments such as Khmer reap thefonts, Unicode compliance rewards of thisand open-source software groundbreakingfor trilingual entries were project.met. Recruiting staff withthe required levels ofcomputer skills to oper-ate and manage thedatabase was also Bronze 13th century Ganesha, national Museum of cambodiaessential.Sourcing suitable software was far from straightforward, Thanks to the Museum collection inventory initiative,given the special requirements of the museum’s collection. the Ganesha featured above was displayed togetherAfter a lengthy search, involving numerous meetings anddiscussions with museum staff, local software designers, with other Angkorian bronze sculptures at the interna-Harvard University Art Museum and the Freer Sackler tionally acclaimed exhibition, Gods of Angkor: BronzesMuseum at the Smithsonian, a ‘Collective Access’ software from the National Museum of Cambodia. After its debutsystem was settled upon. The next difficult step was to at the freer and sackler Galleries, the exhibition recent-find in-country software engineers capable of adapting the ly concluded its tour in August 2011 at the GettyCollective Access system to the needs of the museum. Museum.16 in focus
  17. 17. KHMER LAnGuAGE& cuLTuRE sTuDYPRoGRAMT he 2011 CKS Khmer Language and Culture Study Program, organized in collaboration with the University of Hawai’i, Mānoa’s Advanced Study inKhmer program (ASK) got underway in June. This was thesecond year the Center ran its intensive eight-week-longbeginners program. This year, eight participants, mainlygraduate students from a variety of universities across theUnited States, engaged in Khmer language skills acquisi-tion during morning sessions, followed by cultural activi- Khmer Language Program participants visiting Angkor Watties in the afternoon, where they put their newfound skillsto the test. In addition to field visits to local organizations, but balanced and museums, participants spent one week inhomestays in Kampong Chhnang province. Staying with Based on participant feedback, the program structure ishost families gave them invaluable insights into what life is judged to be effective in maximizing overall learning expe-really like in a typical, rural Cambodian setting. Such a rience and skills acquisition. All participants stressed thecombination of challenging classroom language study, importance of using what they had been taught in regularcoupled with engagement and interaction with local exchanges with native speakers. They also described howCambodians stands the participants in good stead, as they the activities outside of the classroom, especially the home-prepare to conduct in-country academic research. stays, deepened their knowledge of the country and its people. They further pointed out that the CambodiansCollaboration with the University of Hawai’i benefited the they engaged with also benefited from these exchanges, asCKS participants by enabling them to apply for summer they gained some insights into the lives and interests ofstudy abroad course credits. Part of the course require- people from outside Cambodia. In this way, the programments for receiving credit involves the completion of a fulfills its broader purpose in promoting and facilitatingsmall research project related to the participant’s broader educational exchange, as well as equipping participantsresearch interests. At the end of the program, participants with the tools necessary to conduct their research. We looksit an exam where their knowledge is tested in a rigorous forward to running the program for a third time in 2012. cKs and AsK 2011 Khmer Language Program participants in focus 17
  18. 18. coMMuniTY ouTREAcHSiem Reap Giant Puppet ProjectA s part of our effort to reach beyond established aca- demic programs and into the local community, the Center played host to the annual Siem Reap GiantPuppet Project. The Giant Puppet Project is a local com-munity children’s arts initiative that provides a creativeoutlet for disadvantaged children. As well as helping todevelop a variety of skills, the project aims to foster inde-pendence and confidence in the children, while at the sametime building a sense of community spirit and cohesion.The children create giant puppets from scratch; each pup-pet creation represents and symbolizes a variety of uniqueeducational, cultural or environmental themes, such asroad safety, endangered species, hygiene, local culturalappreciation and environmental awareness. The childrenare guided and taught by student artists from PharePonleu Selpak Art School in Battambang province, the pro- cambodias endangered birds was one of the themes for this years puppet project. jects Artistic Director, Jig Cochrane and Project Director and co-founder Stuart Cochlin. In February, over five hundred children participated in workshops designed to stimulate the children’s imagina- tion and creativity. The workshops focused on traditions and skills that were almost completely lost to a young gen- eration of Cambodians. Through the Phare Ponleu Selpak Art School, along with the many NGOs that work with them in Siem Reap, the project aims to bring these crafts back to the forefront of society. Given the huge size of the puppets, the CKS lawn and conference hall provided ideal spaces for the workshops. Each morning for two weeks, the children would energetically gather together their materials and begin to create their puppets; the results were big, bold and spectacularly colorful. This year, the United States Ambassador to Cambodia, Carol Rodley, happened to be visiting the Center when these workshops were underway. She was surprised and delighted by the children’s energy and creativity, not to mention the puppets themselves. At the end of the project, the children paraded the puppets around Siem Reap in a fun-packed, light-filled and highly exciting evening of cel- ebration, bringing the center of Siem Reap to a virtual standstill. Hundreds of spectators lined the route to cheer them. The event is becoming so popular that international tour groups now mark the event in their tour calendars. festive Khmer dance and music accompanied the Giant Puppet Parade through CKS is proud and privileged to contribute to such a worthy siem Reap and unique project.18 in focus
  19. 19. summer Junior Resident fellowship Program 2012 s ince 2004, CKS has been proud to support over ninety undergraduate Junior Fellows from Cambodia, France and the United States, with the generous backing of the Henry Luce and Florence Gould Foundations. Next year, with our own annual fund sup- port, CKS will continue to host American, Cambodian and French Junior Fellows for six weeks during the summernew Directions months. Based in Siem Reap, participants will attend daily lectures, volunteer in local service programs, and take a field trip to Phnom Penh. The Cambodian authorities will also make available free passes to the Angkor monuments. While living and studying together, Jr. Fellows will also conduct a short individual research project focusing on a topic ranging from Angkorian history and politics, to art, culture or religion. cKs-sri Lanka Workshop, January 2012 In an effort to extend CKSs outreach in Southeast Asian Studies, the Center submitted a joint proposal with the American Institute for Sri Lanka Studies (AISLS) to CAORC, requesting support for a collaborative workshop in January 2012, entitled Colonial Legacies and Contemporary Scholarship in Sri Lanka and Cambodia. Its aim is to juxtapose and contextualize the two countries’ shared experiences of colonial rule and their lingering effects on society. The Center is also considering a proposal to hold a further workshop, in May 2012, entitled, Gender Issues in Southeast Asia, with the University of Cambodia. The CKS website will be updated with further details. www.khmerstud- cKs Lecture and seminar series Following our successful lecture and seminar series in Phnom Penh, CKS plans to expand this program to its Siem Reap headquarters in 2012, where CKS Fellows, invit- ed scholars, as well as a broader network of Cambodian and international researchers from the fields of Cambodian and Southeast Asian Studies will present their work and lecture on their field of expertise. These lectures will be open to the general public. in focus 19
  20. 20. fEATuRE ARTicLE:cKs nATionAL MusEuM of cAMBoDiAinVEnToRY BonusEmmy Bunker20 in focus
  21. 21. Emmy is a Research Consultant in the Asian Art Department, Denver Art Museum and aCKS board member. She is also co-author of a recent book with Douglas Latchford onKhmer Bronzes.T he Center for Khmer Studies Collection Inventory p.103). Instead, its regal appearance and hand positions Project of the National Museum of Cambodia (NMC), could indicate the embodiment of a significant royal per- initiated by Shelby White and funded through the sonage, such as has been suggested for the enigmatic gild-Leon Levy Foundation, has become an essential tool for the ed male figure in The Metropolitan Museum, tentativelystudy of Khmer metallurgy. Its success, largely thanks to described as a “deified king” by Lerner (Bunker andthe careful oversight of CKS Board member Darryl Collins, Latchford 2011: 238-239, figs. 7.14 a, b).enabled some 8454 metal artifacts to be identified andrecorded in digitalized form; each piece is accompanied bycomments from resident French scholars of the past, andmore recent visiting scholars, providing valuable informa-tion related to provenance and date.Until recently, Khmer sacred bronzes have had limitedscholarly attention compared to architecture and stonesculpture. Although many bronze NMC artifacts have notbeen scientifically excavated, they can still serve as cultur-al documents if we can only learn to read and interpret thevisual information they provide, especially foundry ear-marks. Particular casting characteristics displayed by somebronzes reveal technical features that may suggest a moreprecise provenance, production date and often an image’soriginal appearance before its various clothing appendageshad been lost.For example, one impressive piece that came to light dur-ing the inventory project is the late Baphuon-style bronzemale image from Phnom Bayang, Takeo Province (fig.1).This bronze displays unusual casting features that suggesta production site located in the Korat region, accepted forseveral other technically related Baphuon-style figures(Bunker and Latchford 2011: figs 7.22a,b).The Phnom Bayang figure was first published by Boisselierin 1955 in a rather poor frontal photograph (pl. 107 A. Ga2993). Martin Lerner noted the similarity of style betweenthe Bayang figure and a Baphuon kneeling female image inthe Asia Society collection that was found in the Koratregion, suggesting that the Bayang figure may have origi-nally been cast in the Korat region, possibly even the samefoundry (Felton and Lerner 1988: 226, no. 10).1 The PhnomBayang figure has recently been published with betterillustrations in the Gods of Angkor (Cort and Jett 2010: 103-5, fig. 51) and Khmer Bronzes: New Interpretations of the Past(Bunker and Latchford 2011: figs. 7.22a, b), making thestyle and technical features more easily understood.It has been suggested that the Bayang image was intendedto represent Shiva, but the lack of a third eye makes theidentification questionable (Cort and Jett 2010: 50, fig. 20; fig.1. standing male image, gilded bronze, h. 57 cm., national Museum of cambodia, Ga 2993. in focus 21
  22. 22. The Phnom Bayang figure has also been tentatively associated with the Mahidharapura family from the upper Mun Valley. Such an association would explain the late Baphuon style, if the image had been commissioned after 1080, when Jayavarman VI, the first Mahidharapura ruler, gained the Khmer throne (Cort and Jett 2010: 50). The Bayang region had been Shaivite since its foundation in the seventh cen- tury and, according to a stele inscrip- tion dated 1107, the name of the village where this image was discovered was Shivapura, confirming a local Shaivite association (Bruguier et al 2009: 155- 56). The Phnom Bayang figure is clothed in a characteristic Baphuon-style dress: a low-riding sampot chang kben, consist- ing of a cloth sampot wrapped around the waist with one end twisted, pulled (chang) through the legs (kben), and tucked in at the back, where an elabo- rate butterfly-shaped bow completes the appearance. A careful examination reveals that the bow, the chignon-cover, and the diadem were all cast separately and attached mechanically. At some point in time, the bow was removed and reattached upside down, an error that has been corrected here in an enhanced photograph (fig. 2) (Bunker and Latchford 2011: fig. 7.22 b). The arms are also separately cast, and slot- ted into the shoulders where they are secured by pins, all production meth- ods that evolved during the later eleventh century and continued in the twelfth. The figure also displays a wide mouth, enhanced by a moustache with promi- nent turned up tips. The whole figure is cast integrally with its base that has a pendant tang that fits into a larger base. The addition of pendants hanging from the back of the pectoral necklace as well as in front is a late eleventh post- Baphuon-style characteristic, indicat- ing that the Baphuon style extended beyond 1080 into the beginning of the fig. 2. Reverse of figure 1. Angkor Wat period, as already sug-22 in focus
  23. 23. gested by Lerner (Felton and Lerner 1988: 226, no.9). In terms of casting, the Phnom Bayang figure is lost wax cast with a core, supported by an iron armature. An x-ray of the head reveals extensions of the armature that secure the separate conical hair cover on top (fig. 3). Another extension of the iron armature supports the diadem at the back of the head, and appears as a small iron protuberance on the heads of several Baphuon images, that are recorded as having been found in the Korat region, such as the Shiva image in the National Museum of Australia; the dvarapala in The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fig. 4); and the “dei- fied king” in The Metropolitan Museum of Art (Bunker and Latchford 2011: figs. 7.3, 7.4 and 7.15 a & b respective- ly). The presence of an iron protuberance on the back of any Baphuon-style head indicates that the image original- ly wore a diadem that would have changed their appear- ance significantly from the way they look today minus the diadem. The fact that these images were also found in the Korat region suggests that they may represent a local Korat foundry tradition rather than one that was practiced in temple foundries in the Angkor region.2 fig. 3. X-ray of the head of figure 1, taken from the back, couresty of Paul Jett These new ideas have been made possible by the rediscov- ery of the Phnom Bayang male figure through the CKS Collection Inventory Project, the identification of the fig- ure’s complex armature system through an X-ray by Paul Jett of the Freer and Sackler Galleries, and confirmation of an iron protuberance on images in their respective collec- tions by Donna Strahan of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Sarah McHugh of the National Museum of Australia in Canberra. It is such scholarly cooperation that allows this kind of reinterpretation of the past today. Special thanks to John Stevenson for editing this article. Endnotes 1 For illustrations of the Rockefeller kneeling female, see Emma Bunker and Douglas Latchford, Adoration and Glory: The Golden Age of Khmer Art, Bangkok, 2004, pp. 238-240, no. 82. 2 For a discussion of temple foundries and Khmer casting tradi- tions, see Bunker and Latchford 2011, pp. 117-121, and 234, 240. References 1. Bunker, E and Douglas Latchford, Khmer Bronzes: New Interpretations of the Past, Bangkok, 2011. 2. Boisselier, J. L’art khmere et son evolution, Saigon, 1955 3. Felton, Wolfgang and Martin Lerner, Thai and Cambodian Sculpture from the 6th to the 14th centuries, Stuttgart, 1988. 4. Louise Cort and Paul Jett, eds. Gods of Angkor, 2010. 5. Bruguier, Bruno and Juliette Lacroix. Phnom Penh et les Provinces Meridionales. Phnom Penh, 2009, 155-56.fig. 4. standing Dvarapala, h. 50.2 cm. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, L 1994.48 (after Bunker and Latchford 2011, fig. 7.4 a, b) in focus 23
  24. 24. cKs sEnioR fELLoWs 2011-2012French Fellows receive support through a grant from the Florence GouldFoundation. U.S. Fellows are supported by a grant from the U.S. Department ofState, Bureau of Economic and Cultural Affairs, through the Council of AmericanOverseas Research CentersMatthew Jagel is conducting Ph.D. research in theDepartment of History at Northern Illinois University. Hisproject, entitled Son Ngoc Thanh, The United States, and theTransformation of Cambodia, seeks to address the compara-tively less explored period leading up to DemocraticKampuchea, and the key players of that era. In particular,Matthew is researching U.S. – Khmer relations with one ofCambodia’s modern heroes, Son Ngoc Thanh, as the cen-terpiece. The research will attempt to answer how SonNgoc Thanh influenced the creation of an independentCambodian state, and what his role was in the years lead-ing up to the Communist Revolution. By analyzing thisman, this period in time, and America’s role with respect tothis newly autonomous nation, a better understanding ofthe geopolitical considerations that influenced Americanforeign policy can be sought. To achieve this, both exten-sive archival research and interviews will be employed.Kosal Path is a lecturer in the Department of International classical dance at a Phnom Penh restaurantRelations and Political Science at the University ofSouthern California. His research project is entitled sical dance helps Cambodians cope with the painful expe-Survival after Genocide in Cambodia: A study of Social rience of the Khmer Rouge. Celia uses a variety of researchAdaptation in a Fragmented Society. This research aims to methods, including ethnographic fieldwork, long-termprovide insights into how the identity orientations of for- participant observation, interviews and archival researchmer Khmer Rouge cadres and survivors reflect and impact across multiple sites in Cambodia. She explores the impor-reconciliation efforts currently pursued alongside the tance of classical dance for Cambodian cultural reconcilia-ongoing trials of five surviving Khmer Rouge leaders in tion, as well as economic growth through embodied expe-Cambodia. Both qualitative and quantitative methods will rience. This research also addresses the importance ofbe employed, including in-depth interviews with former international support for Cambodian dance, the realities ofKhmer Rouge personnel as well as survivors, to contribute life for dancers, and how the transmission of this culturalto a better understanding in the field of transitional justice knowledge creates embodied memories that allow for cer-in a post-genocidal society. In addition, it will expose the tain kinds of adaptation of survivors and perpetrators who coex-ist in conditions of social alienation. Ultimately, this Pamela Corey is conducting doctoral research in theresearch will also provide the basis for policy recommen- Department of History of Art, Archaeology and Visualdations as to how to put a broken society back together Studies at Cornell University. Her research project title isafter genocide. The Art of Place: Visuality and Urbanism in Contemporary Vietnam and Cambodia. Her research will investigate howCelia Rosta is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of south Vietnamese and Cambodian contemporary artistsAnthropology at the University of California, Riverside. perceive and represent their rapidly changing cityscape. ItHer project is entitled, Survival of an Art: The Revitalization will also investigate how they resource spaces of the city,of Classical Dance in Cambodia. This research examines how and in turn play a role in communal discourses and under-and why the interaction between tourism and globaliza- standings of locational identity. Using a comparativetion, preservation and development has led to this particu- framework, Pamela will draw on the contemporary effectslar form of classical dance becoming the symbol of of key events and cultural turning points in the histories ofCambodian culture. Furthermore, it illuminates how clas- Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam and Phnom Penh in24 in focus