Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Presentation Content
• Introduction
• Satellite command 101
• So you want to overtake a satellite…?
• Summary
From the Press
Presentation Purpose
• In the past year we heard a lot about hostile takeover
attempt of satellites, especially US satelli...
EUHR Ashton on Jamming by Iran and Lybia
What does a satellite Command System do ?
Very specific and predefined things!
• Reconfigures satellite or subsystems in r...
Command Functions
• Power on/off subsystems
• Change subsystem operating modes
• Control spacecraft guidance and
attitude ...
Command System RF Performance
You need professional equipment!
• Frequencies
– S-band (1.6 – 2.2 GHz)
– C-band (5.9 – 6.5 ...
Command System Block Diagram - Ground
Very specific and predefined actions (in the SW)
• GSE operator selects command mnem...
Command System Block Diagram - Space
Not “launch and forget” simple system
• Decoders reproduce command
messages and produ...
Data checked and packaged in “envelopes”

Overall structure of a command
Command Messages Fields
• Spacecraft address (unique identifier)
• Source ID
• Command type
–
–
–
–
–

Relay commands
Puls...
Command Logic Verification Process
• Receiver level Validation
– Encryption (commercial such as CARIBOU)
– Authentication
...
Prerequisites
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

RF Transmission equipment
Knowledge of command frequencies.
Knowledge of Encryption key(s)
Kn...
Is that it ? Not yet…
• RF receiving equipment
• Decoded Telemetry
– To generate correct addressing (destination) of the f...
Analyzing the risk – ESA approach
Few Observations
• Is it hard to jam or block a command channel ? Not really
– Simple hardware, relevantly low power

• Co...
Hostile Takeover Of Satellites
Hostile Takeover Of Satellites
Hostile Takeover Of Satellites
Hostile Takeover Of Satellites
Hostile Takeover Of Satellites
Hostile Takeover Of Satellites
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Hostile Takeover Of Satellites

851 views

Published on

So you think you can takeover a satellite ? well, it's not so easy as you (might) think...

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Hostile Takeover Of Satellites

  1. 1. Presentation Content • Introduction • Satellite command 101 • So you want to overtake a satellite…? • Summary
  2. 2. From the Press
  3. 3. Presentation Purpose • In the past year we heard a lot about hostile takeover attempt of satellites, especially US satellites. • The presentation will explain what are the building blocks of satellites command channel, identifying the weak links in the chain. Since Satellites are very (very) far away, the only way to get hold of one is via the remote command channel • The presentation will address only command and control channels and not hostile takeover of payload such as pirate transmissions.
  4. 4. EUHR Ashton on Jamming by Iran and Lybia
  5. 5. What does a satellite Command System do ? Very specific and predefined things! • Reconfigures satellite or subsystems in response to radio signals from the ground. • Different Command timing – Immediate – Delayed – Priority driven (ASAP) • Batched (sequenced) Commands
  6. 6. Command Functions • Power on/off subsystems • Change subsystem operating modes • Control spacecraft guidance and attitude control • Deploy booms, antennas, solar cell arrays, protective covers • Upload computer programs
  7. 7. Command System RF Performance You need professional equipment! • Frequencies – S-band (1.6 – 2.2 GHz) – C-band (5.9 – 6.5 GHz) – Ku-band (14.0 – 14.5 GHz) • BER = 10-6 • Typical transmission power: 50-100 Watt (based on large diameter antennas) • Typical transmission rate: up to 8 Kbit/sec High speed tracking antennas are required
  8. 8. Command System Block Diagram - Ground Very specific and predefined actions (in the SW) • GSE operator selects command mnemonic • Software creates command message in appropriate format and encodes it • Sequence (Batch) commands/macros • Signal Modulation: Pulse code modulation (PCM), Phase shift keying (PSK), Frequency shift keying (FSK)
  9. 9. Command System Block Diagram - Space Not “launch and forget” simple system • Decoders reproduce command messages and produce lock/enable and clock signals. • Command logic validates the command – Default is to reject if any uncertainty of validity – Drives appropriate interface circuitry
  10. 10. Data checked and packaged in “envelopes” Overall structure of a command
  11. 11. Command Messages Fields • Spacecraft address (unique identifier) • Source ID • Command type – – – – – Relay commands Pulse commands Level commands Data commands Command select • Error detection and correction • Multiple commands MBT GCS AMOS-3 Satellite, 4ºW Geostationary Belt
  12. 12. Command Logic Verification Process • Receiver level Validation – Encryption (commercial such as CARIBOU) – Authentication – Command destination • Software level Validation – – – – – Correct address EDAC Valid command Valid timing/Numbering Authenticated Several Data check Levels
  13. 13. Prerequisites • • • • • • • RF Transmission equipment Knowledge of command frequencies. Knowledge of Encryption key(s) Knowledge of Authentication key(s) Knowledge of Satellite ID Knowledge of source (Ground Facility) ID Knowledge of commands dictionary
  14. 14. Is that it ? Not yet… • RF receiving equipment • Decoded Telemetry – To generate correct addressing (destination) of the fake command – To generate correct timing (numbering) of the fake command – To generate correct context of the fake command
  15. 15. Analyzing the risk – ESA approach
  16. 16. Few Observations • Is it hard to jam or block a command channel ? Not really – Simple hardware, relevantly low power • Commercial Encryption is not good enough – Is it ? What do banks use for transactions ? What do 7.5 Million PayPal transaction every evening use ? • It will be no problem to hack into GCS computers – If you’re a smart operator, the GCS network is an isolated one without connections to the outside world • Easiest Method is…… Inside job !!

×