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Mod 4 ocd


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Mod 4 ocd

  1. 1. Psychopathology
  2. 2. O.C.D. The specification: • The biological approach to explaining and treating O.C.D: genetic and neural explanations; drug therapy.
  3. 3. Biological explanations: O.C.D • You need to know the behavioural, emotional and cognitive characteristics of OCD. • You need to be able to outline these characteristics. • You need to be able to identify them in a description of someone’s behaviour.
  4. 4. O.C.D
  5. 5. O.C.D.
  6. 6. O.C.D.
  7. 7. Biological explanations: O.C.D • The basic assumptions of the biological approach are: • Genes. • Neural structures. • Neurochemistry.
  8. 8. Biological explanations: O.C.D • The application of the biological approach to mental disorders is known as the medical model. • Mental disorders are just like physical illnesses. • Abnormal biological processes cause abnormal psychological processes.
  9. 9. Biological treatments: O.C.D • A physical illness requires a physical treatment. • Drugs.
  10. 10. Biological explanations: Genes • O.C.D is caused by: • Genes • Some people inherit genes that make them vulnerable to the development of O.C.D.
  11. 11. Biological explanations: Genes • Twin studies. • Twin studies have found: • O.C.D. has a genetic basis.
  12. 12. Biological explanation: genes
  13. 13. Biological explanation: genes
  14. 14. Biological explanations: Genes • Twin studies use a statistical technique to calculate a concordance rate. • One identical twin has O.C.D. the other identical twin has O.C.D. • The concordance rate from twin study research varies significantly but suggests that inherited genes are a significant cause of O.C.D.
  15. 15. Biological explanations: Genes • This research has attempted to identify the specific genes that cause O.C.D. • This research has been inconclusive. • O.C.D has a ‘polygenic’ basis.
  16. 16. Genes: evaluation • No twin study has found a 100% concordance rate. • Genes can’t be the only cause of O.C.D.
  17. 17. Genes: evaluation • The diathesis-stress model. • Some people inherit genes that make them vulnerable to developing O.C.D.
  18. 18. Genes: evaluation
  19. 19. Genes: evaluation • This genetic vulnerability interacts with that person’s environment. • Physical environment. • Social environment. • Trauma.
  20. 20. Genes: evaluation • The environment can activate or trigger inherited genes. • The vulnerable person develops O.C.D. • Genome = genes inherited. • Phenotype = the environment.
  21. 21. Biological explanations: Genes Read p.37 - 38 of the psychopathology booklet: Genetic Explanations and complete the genetic explanation table.
  22. 22. Key words • Serotonin: neurotransmitter that regulates mood. May cause some of the symptoms of O.C.D. • Dopamine: neurotransmitter that plays an important role in regulating motivation and reward. May cause some of the symptoms of O.C.D. • Polygenic: more than one gene. • Concordance rate: the match expressed in % that one twin diagnosed with O.C.D. is diagnosed with O.C.D.
  23. 23. Neural explanations • Abnormal brain structures. • Abnormal brain function. • Abnormal brain structures cause abnormal brain function.
  24. 24. Neural explanations: abnormal brain function • Serotonin is a neurotransmitter. • It regulates mood. • When levels are normal you feel: • Happier • Calmer • More focussed • Less anxious
  25. 25. Neural explanations: abnormal brain function • When levels of serotonin are abnormal you feel: • Anxious • Unfocussed • Can’t concentrate • Not in control of your thoughts
  26. 26. Neural explanations: abnormal brain function • Abnormally low levels of serotonin are linked to the symptoms of O.C.D. • One cause of O.C.D. may be the abnormal production and processing of serotonin.
  27. 27. Neural explanations: abnormal brain structures
  28. 28. Parahippocampul gyrus
  29. 29. Abnormal brain function: evaluation • Research has identified two abnormalities in the human serotonin transporter gene in DNA samples of people with O.C.D. • These abnormal genes cause low levels of serotonin in the brain.
  30. 30. Abnormal brain function: evaluation • Drugs that raise levels of serotonin in the brain reduce the symptoms of O.C.D. • Anti-depressants. • SSRI’s • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
  31. 31. Abnormal brain structures: evaluation • Research has not identified specific brain structures or specific brain systems that are responsible for O.C.D. • Brain abnormalities may be caused by O.C.D. • The brain abnormality may not cause O.C.D.
  32. 32. Biological treatment: drugs • The main biological treatment for O.C.D. is drug therapy. • Drugs that raise levels of serotonin in the brain are prescribed. • Anti-depressants are prescribed.
  33. 33. SSRI’s
  34. 34. Biological treatment: drugs • SSRI’s. • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. • SSRi’s block the reabsorption of serotonin back into the brain cell that has released it. • Over time levels of serotonin rise in the brain.
  35. 35. Biological treatment: drugs • Other types of anti-depressants may be prescribed: • SNRI’s • Tricyclic’s
  36. 36. Biological treatment: drugs • Other types of drugs may be prescribed: • Anti-anxiety drugs. • Benzodiazapines.
  37. 37. Drugs: evaluation • Drugs work. • They reduce the symptoms of O.C.D. • A meta-analysis (2009) found that SSRI’s were effective in reducing the symptoms of O.C.D.
  38. 38. Drugs: evalaution Drugs are cheap.
  39. 39. Biological treatment: drugs Drugs have side effects.
  40. 40. Biological treatment: drugs • Negative results are not published. • Researchers only send reports of research that find positive results to academic journals.