Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Pluto 2015

612 views

Published on

Pluto orbiter mission using Direct Fusion Drive

Published in: Engineering
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Pluto 2015

  1. 1. 1 Pluto Orbiter Mission Direct Fusion Drive Stephanie Thomas, PSS Michael Paluszek, PSS Dr. Samuel Cohen, PPPL 2015
  2. 2. 2 Pluto Orbital Mission 10/7/13 !  Enter Pluto orbit 4 years after Earth departure !  Carry a lander -  Deliver power to the lander from the orbiter !  While at Pluto change orbits to cover the entire planet !  High power available onboard allows advanced science and communications -  Provide high bandwidth laser communications back to Earth !  Advance space propulsion and space and terrestrial power
  3. 3. 8/4/15 DFD Reactor Design KEi Nozzle
  4. 4. 4 PFRC Experiments at PPPL 8/4/15 !  Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory performing experiments with DOE funding -  Concluded PFRC-1 a, b, c in 2011 -  PFRC-2 operating now; goal is to demonstrate keV plasmas with pulse lengths to 0.3 s -  MNX studies on plasma detachment in nozzle !  Princeton Satellite Systems performing mission and trajectory design, space balance of plant studies under IR&D -  Four joint PPPL/PSS patents 3 ms pulse* 0.15 kG field* e-temp = 0.3 keV* Machine Objectives Goals/ Achievements* Plasma Radius PFRC-1 PFRC-2 PFRC-3B Electron Heating Ion Heating D-He3 Fusion 4 cm 0.1 s pulse* 1.2 kG field i-temp = 1 keV 10 s pulse 80 kG field i-temp = 50 keV 8 cm 16 cm Time Frame 2008-2011 2011-2015 2019-2020 Total Cost $2M $6M $20M PFRC-3A Heating above 5 keV 10 s pulse 10 kG field i-temp = 5 keV 16 cm 2015-2019 $20M Fuel H H D-3HeH
  5. 5. 5 DFD Components 8/4/15 Heat Engine Shielding Radiator Plasma RF Generator SynchBremss n Spacecraft Power Bus Radiator HTS Coil Blanket Coil Refrigerator SpaceRF GeneratorHelium Coolant Magnetic Nozzle Auxiliary Power UnitD 3He O 2 Electrolysis D 2 O Power Recycling Restart Gas Box 3He Injector D Injector
  6. 6. 6 Thrust Augmentation •  H or D is used as a propellant- it flows along the magnetic field lines outside of the separatrix; scrape-off layer (SOL) e- are heated by the fusion products that are ejected into the SOL; e- energy transferred to ions in plume expansion •  This reduces the exhaust velocity of the fusion products from 25,000 km/s to ~50 km/s and increases thrust to >20 N •  Thrust/Isp is adjustable based on rate that gas is injected into the gas box •  The exhaust plume is directed by a magnetic nozzle, consisting of a throat coil and nozzle coils to accelerate the flow.
  7. 7. 7 Princeton Field Reversed Configuration (PFRC) 8/4/15 !  Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) is core of DFD -  Simple geometry with fewer coils !  RF heating with odd-parity rotating magnetic fields naturally limits reactor size -  Plasma radius in range 20-40 cm -  Size of 1-10 MW which is ideal for space !  Confinement with high temperature superconducting coils !  Burns aneutronic D and 3He with beta greater than 0.8 !  Linear configuration allows for configuration as a rocket engine !  Magnetic Nozzle !  Add H or D+ to augment thrust !  Variable exhaust velocity !  50 to 20,000 km/s !  P = 0.5 TuE/η, with η ∼0.5 Gas Box Exhaust Plume SOL Heating Section Field Shaping Box Separatrix Closed Field Nozzle Coil Propellant D-He3 Fusion Coils Coil Fueling RMFo Antenna Region Shielding
  8. 8. 8 Steerable Magnetic Nozzle 8/4/15 !  Plume needs to be steered for momentum management -  1-2 degrees of deflection needed !  Seek magnetic methods as alternative to mechanical gimbals for entire engine -  Expensive and heavy !  Steering coils downstream of nozzle throat, or perhaps a tiltable plate to direct the flow
  9. 9. 9 Heat Engine 8/4/15 !  Brayton cycle shown -  Ericsson cycle would have multi-stage compressors and turbines !  Helium working fluid !  Mass is sum of heat engine components and radiators -  Brayton efficiency of 63% possible -  Ericsson 74% !  Generator -  28 V DC Generators used on aircraft "  Should be the same voltage as required by the RF generator
  10. 10. 8/4/15 Pluto Mission
  11. 11. 11 Mission Plan 8/4/15 !  Direct insertion into interplanetary orbit by a Delta IV Heavy or other launch vehicle !  20 N thrust to change the velocity by 55 km/s !  Coast !  20 N thrust to decelerate to intercept Pluto !  Spiral into polar Pluto orbit !  Map surface with altimeter !  Lander detaches and lands on surface -  Powered by laser from the orbiter -  Navigation uses maps generated during mapping phase !  Orbiter changes orbit as needed to survey the entire planet !  Possibly departs Pluto for the Kuiper belt
  12. 12. 12 Spacecraft 8/4/15 !  Fits within Delta IV Heavy fairing !  Within the mass allowance for the Delta IV !  Dual radiators !  Dual JPL Deep-Space Optical Communication System (DSOC) units !  Lander mounted on the front
  13. 13. 13 Trajectory to Pluto 8/4/15 !  July 2028 departure date !  Red line on second plot is the Delta IV Heavy payload into interplanetary orbit !  4 year transfer shown below -  Blue circle is Earth orbits !  110 km/sec Delta-V !  Nearly straight line !  No gravity assists
  14. 14. 14 GN&C 8/4/15 !  Optical navigation used throughout mission -  Developed under NASA SBIR -  Uses articulated camera shown to the right and a new sun radiance/chord sensor !  Attitude control uses RCS system and DFD magnetic nozzle steering
  15. 15. 15 GN&C 8/4/15
  16. 16. 16 Lander 8/4/15 !  ECAPS 220 N engine !  4 m2 solar panels for orbital laser power system !  Begins descent from 15 km !  Optimal guidance law switches to combination bang-bang/linear controller for final descent
  17. 17. 17 Laser Lander Power System 8/4/15 !  Beam power by fiber laser at 1080 nm -  Same as Navy LaWS !  Standard solar cells to receive the power -  30 kW transmitted power -  0.4 m mirror -  4 m2 solar cells on lander -  2 DOF steerable array !  31.9 Wh per pass -  Store in batteries Princeton Satellite Systems Power Per Pass = 31.9 Wh Wavelength 1080.0 nM 0 5 10 15 20 25 Power(kW/m 2 ) 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time (min) 0 5 10 15 20 25 Distance(km) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
  18. 18. 18 High Power Communications with Earth 8/4/15 !  JPL Deep Space Optical Communications System (DSOC) !  Compatible with the laser power system !  135 Mbps from Pluto with 30 kW
  19. 19. 19 Work Plan 8/4/15 !  Ion heating experiment at PPPL (DOE Funding) !  Magnetic nozzle research at PPPL (DOE Funding) -  Magnetic nozzle steering !  Mission analysis for the Pluto mission -  Optimize power, thrust and exhaust velocity for different launchers -  Optimize trajectory -  Science payloads !  Spacecraft design -  System design -  Detailed designs "  Fuel tanks "  DFD engine design "  Radiator system "  GN&C "  Communications !  Lander Design -  GN&C -  Propulsion -  Power -  Science payloads
  20. 20. 20 Conclusions 8/4/15 !  The Pluto Orbital Mission would be a new class of exploration missions -  Cannot be achieved with any other technology !  Would expand on the knowledge gained by the New Horizons mission !  The propulsion and power system would be applicable to a wide range of missions and applications -  Human missions to Mars -  Robotic missions to the gas giants -  Interstellar missions -  Space and terrestrial power generation
  21. 21. 21 For More Information 8/4/15 Stephanie Thomas sjthomas@psatellite.com Michael Paluszek map@psatellite.com Dr. Samuel Cohen scohen@pppl.gov Princeton Satellite Systems 6 Market St. Suite 926 Plainsboro, NJ 08536 (609) 275-9606 http://www.psatellite.com 21
  22. 22. 22 References 8/4/15 Papers/Conferences !  Y. Razin et al., A direct fusion drive for rocket propulsion, Acta Astronautica, Vol. 105, Issue 1, December 2014, pp. 145-155 !  M. Paluszek et al, Direct Fusion Drive for a Human Mars Orbital Mission , 65th INTERNATIONAL ASTRONAUTICAL CONGRESS, Sept. 29-Oct. 3, 2014 !  Joseph B. Mueller et al, Direct Fusion Drive Rocket for Asteroid Deflection, 33rd International Electric Propulsion Conference, October 6–10, 2013 !  G. Pajer, Y. Razin, M. Paluszek, A. H. Glasser, S. Cohn, Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine, Space Propulsion 2012, May 2012 !  Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine for an Alpha Centauri Mission, M. Paluszek, S, Hurley, G. Pajer, S. Thomas, J. Mueller, S. Cohen, D. Welch, DARPA 100 Year Starship Conference, September 2011. Patents !  M. Buttolph, D. Stotler and S. Cohen, “Fueling Method for Small, Steady-State, Aneutronic FRC Fusion Reactors,” 61/873,651, filed September 4, 2013 !  M. Paluszek, E. Ham, S. Cohen and Y. Razin, “In Space Startup Method for Nuclear Fusion Rocket Engines,” 61/868,629, filed August 22, 2013. !  S. Cohen, G. Pajer, M. Paluszek and Y. Razin, “Method to Produce High Specific Impulse and Moderate Thrust From a Fusion-Powered Rocket Engine,” PCT/US2013/40520, filed May 10, 2013. !  S. Cohen, G. Pajer, M. Paluszek and Y. Razin, “Method to Reduce Neutron Production in Small Clean Fusion Reactors,” PCT/US13/33767, filed March 25, 2013.

×