OSHA PEL > Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure LevelAmerican Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
ORIENTATION ON MSDSWELCOME TO MY PRESENTATION Prepared & Presented By: Md. Moynul Islam B.Sc. in Chemical Engineering & Polymer Science Shahjalal University of Science and Technology Sylhet Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: September 22, 2011
Training Objectives MSDS, HINTS FOR SURVIVALTo be familiar with Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)To understand the importance of MSDSTo be familiar with different MSDS formatTo be familiar with ANSI,NFPA, HMIS, HAZCOM ETC. ctTo be familiar with the safety signs about chemical hazard
CONTENTPart-A Definition of MSDS Importance of MSDS Standard Format of MSDS How to Read an MSDSPart-B Technical Terms Used in MSDSPart-C Discussion
PART-A: Definition Of MSDSA Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a well organized documentthat contains all information about a given chemical.It includes name, composition, hazards, first aid measures, fire fightingmeasures, information regarding the proper steps to take withspills, handling and storage, personal protection to be used, physical andchemical properties, and information about stability &reactivity, toxicology, disposal, transporting, and regulatory requirements.MSDS is analogous to the manual of an instrument/equipment. Just look at the manualof any household electronic item. What the manual contains? The manual contains theManufacturer Identity, Technical specification, Operating Instruction, Maintenance orTrouble Shooting Instruction, Safety Instruction etc.Every quality software must have well organized documentation or help desk which giveall information about the software. This is also analogous to the MSDS.Just press F 1 key in your keyboard. You will get help supplied by the software producer.
PART-A: Importance Of MSDSPlease observe the picture carefully, then you will get a quick overview about the importance ofMSDS. All necessary tools and guidelines are clearly defined in MSDS to response in anemergency situation
PART-A: Standard Formats Of MSDSMSDS are available in different formats. Although the appearanceare different but the contents are almost same. We will discuss onsome of them which are most extensively followed by variousindustry.OSHA FORMATANSI FORMATNFPA FORMATHMIS FORMATR & S PHRASES
PART-A: OSHA Standards For MSDSThe standards for MSDS specified by the Occupational Safety AndHealth Administration (OSHA) is organized in 9 sections. Theseare as follows:Section I : Supplier InformationSection II : Hazardous Ingredients / Identity InformationSection III : Physical and Chemical PropertiesSection IV : Fire and Explosion Hazard DataSection V : Reactivity DataSection VI : Health Hazard DataSection VII : Precautions for Safe Handling and UseSection VIII : Control MeasuresSection IX : Shipping Information
PART-A: OSHA MSDS (Example) Section I: Supplier Information Section II: Hazardous Ingredients / Identity Information Section III: Physical and Chemical Properties Section IV: Fire and Explosion Hazard Data Section V: Reactivity Data
PART-A: OSHA MSDS (Example – cont’d) Section VI: Health Hazard Data Section VII: Precautions For Safe Handling and Use Section VIII: Control Measures Section IX: Shipping Information
PART-A: ANSI Standards For MSDSThe standards for MSDS specified by the American NationalStandards Institute (ANSI) is organized in 16 sections. These areas follows:SECTION 01 : PRODUCT & COMPANY IDENTIFICATIONSECTION 02 : COMPOSITION / INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTSSECTION 03 : HAZARDS IDENTIFICATIONSECTION 04 : FIRST AID MEASURESSECTION 05 : FIRE FIGHTING MEASURESSECTION 06 : ACCIDENTAL REALESE MEASURESSECTION 07 : INFORMATION ABOUT HANDLING AND STORAGESECTION 08 : EXPOSURE CONTROL / PERSONAL PROTECTIONSECTION 09 : PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIESSECTION 10 : STABILITY AND REACTIVITYSECTION 11 : TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATIONSECTION 12 : ECOLOGICAL INFORMATIONSECTION 13 : DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONSSECTION 14 : TRANSPORT INFORMATIONSECTION 15 : REGULATORY INFORMATIONSECTION 16 : OTHER INFORMATION
PART-A: ANSI MSDS (SECTION 1 - 2) SECTION 01 : PRODUCT & COMPANY IDENTIFICATION SECTION 02 : COMPOSITION / INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS
PART-A: ANSI MSDS (SECTION 14-15 ) SECTION 14 : TRANSPORT INFORMATION SECTION 15 : REGULATORY INFORMATION
PART-A: ANSI MSDS (SECTION 16 ) SECTION 16 : OTHER INFORMATION
PART-A: NFPA STANDARDS FOR MSDSNational Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has developed a system for indicatingthe health, flammability and reactivity hazards of chemical in a diamond shapedobject called NFPA hazard rating diamond. Fire Hazard Health hazard 3 Reactivity Hazard 0 2 OX Special Hazard NFPA Hazard Rating Diamond
PART-A: NFPA HAZARD RATING National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has developed a system for indicating the health, flammability and reactivity hazards of chemical in a diamond shaped object called NFPA hazard rating diamond. Colors represent kind of hazard Fire Hazard • Red = fire • Yellow = instability • BlueHealth hazard 3 Reactivity Hazard = health • White = specific hazard & personal protection 0 2 Numbers show degree of hazard • OX • 0 = Minimal 1 = Slight Special Hazard • 2 = Moderate • 3 = Serious NFPA Hazard Rating Diamond • 4 = Severe
PART-A: NFPA HAZARD RATING National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has developed a system for indicating the health, flammability and reactivity hazards of chemical in a diamond shaped object called NFPA hazard rating diamond. Fire Hazard White = specific hazard • OX = OxidizerHealth hazard 3 Reactivity Hazard • ACID = Acid • ALK = Alkali 0 2 • COR = Corrosive • W = Use no OX water Special Hazard • Other symbols: NFPA Hazard Rating Diamond
PART-A: NFPA HAZARD RATING 0 = Minimal 1 1 = Slight Health Hazard 3 3 2 = Moderate Ox 3 = Serious 4 = Severe Health Hazards4 Very short exposure could cause death or serious residual injury even though prompt medical attention was given.3 Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury even though prompt medical attention was given.2 Intense or continued exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury unless prompt medical attention is given.1 Exposure could cause irritation but only minor residual injury even if no treatment is given.0 Exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible materials.
PART-A: NFPA HAZARD RATING 2 0 = Minimal 1 = Slight Fire Hazard 1 3 2 = Moderate Ox 3 = Serious 4 = Severe Fire Hazards Will rapidly or completely vaporize at normal pressure and temperature, or is readily4 dispersed in air and will burn readily. Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient conditions.3 Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high temperature before ignition2 can occur. Must be preheated before ignition can occur.1 Materials that will not burn.0
PART-A: NFPA HAZARD RATING 2 0 = Minimal 1 = Slight Reactivity 1 3 2 = Moderate Ox 3 = Serious 4 = Severe Reactivity4 Readily capable of detonation or of explosive decomposition or reaction at normal temperatures and pressures.3 Capable of detonation or explosive reaction, but requires a strong initiating source or must be heated under confinement before initiation, or reacts explosively with water.2 Normally unstable and readily undergo violent decomposition but do not detonate. Also: may react violently with water or may form potentially explosive mixtures with water.1 Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures or may react with water with some release of energy, but not violently.0 Materials that will not burn.
PART-A: NFPA HAZARD RATING 0 = Minimal 1 1 = Slight Special Hazards 3 3 2 = Moderate 3 = Serious W 4 = Severe Special HazardsOX This denotes an oxidizer, a chemical which can greatly increase the rate of combustion/fire.ALK This denotes an alkaline material, also called a base. These caustic materials have a pH greater than 7.0COR This denotes a material that is corrosive (it could be either an acid or a base).ACID This indicates that the material is an acid, a corrosive material that has a pH lower than 7.0 W This indicates a potential hazard using water to fight a fire involving this material.
PART-A: HMIS STANDARDS FOR MSDSHazardous Material Identification System (HMIS) has developed a system forindicating the health, flammability and reactivity hazards of chemical in a Color barcalled HMIS Color Bar. Rating : 0 - 4 Rating : 0 - 4 Rating : 0 - 4 Letter : A - Z HMIS Color Bar
PART-A: HMIS STANDARDS FOR MSDSHazardous Material Identification System (HMIS) specified hazard ratings are almostsimilar to that of the NFPA rating. Colors represent kind of hazard • Blue = Health • Red = Flammability • Orange =Physical Hazard Rating : 0 - 4 • White = personal protection Rating : 0 - 4 Numbers show degree of hazard • 0 = Minimal Rating : 0 - 4 • 1 = Slight • 2 = Moderate Letter : A - Z • 3 = Serious • 4 = Severe HMIS Color Bar
PART-A: HMIS STANDARDS FOR MSDSHazardous Material Identification System (HMIS) specified Personal ProtectiveEquipment (PPE) are as follows:A safety glassesB safety glasses and glovesC safety glasses, gloves and an apronD face shield, gloves and an apronE safety glasses, gloves and a dust respiratorF safety glasses, gloves, apron and a dust respiratorG safety glasses, a vapor respiratorH splash goggles, gloves, apron and a vapor respiratorI safety glasses, gloves and a dust/vapor respiratorJ splash goggles, gloves, apron and a dust/vapor respiratorK airline hood or mask, gloves, full suit and bootsL - Z custom PPE specified by employer
PART-A: R (Risk) & S (Safety) PhrasesUsing R & S phrases is another shorthand form of MSDS, where the Letter R (sayR1, R 1,12,14 etc) followed by one or more numbers specifying the Risk factor for agiven chemical and the letter S (say S2, S11,12,18 etc) followed by one or morenumber specifying the Safety guidelines for the given chemical.R (Risk) Phrase Example:R1 : Explosive When dryR12 : Extremely flammableR22 : Harmful if swallowed And so on…S (Safety) Phrase Example:S2 : Keep out of the reach of childrenS9 : Keep container in a well ventilated placeS39 : Wear eye / face protection And so on…
PART-A: Reading the MSDS ò Identity The chemical name, trade name and manufacturers name, address and emergency phone number can be found here. – Ingredients Includes: substance, % content, CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) Number, Classification, EINECS (European Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances) – Hazards Identification Dangers for humans and the environment such as: Most important hazards & Specific hazards ò First Aid gives instructions on what to do in case of eye contact, skin contact or ingestion
PART-A: Reading the MSDS(Cont’d) – Fire Fighting Suitable extinguishing media, Unsuitable extinguishing media, Special hazards in fire, Required special protective equipment for fire-fighters ò Accidental Release Measures/Spill Clean-up Personal precautions, Environmental precautions, Methods for cleaning ò Handling and Storage Exposure Controls and Personal Protection ò Information on proper PPE to use, how to store and temperature limits
PART-A: Reading the MSDS(Cont’d) – Physical and Chemical Properties Appearance, Odor, pH, Boiling point, Melting point, Flashpoint, Explosive properties, Vapor pressure, Relative density, Solubility – Stability and Reactivity Conditions to avoid, Materials to avoid, Hazardous decomposition products – Toxicology Acute toxicity, Local effects. Excessive exposure may affect human health as follows: Skin contact, Eye contact, Inhalation/ingestion. – Ecological Information Lists any dangers to the environment ò Disposal Lists any special disposal methods
PART-A: Reading the MSDS(Cont’d) ò Transport Information lists codes indicating the dangers and the type of transport which may be needed ò Regulations Lists any agency that may regulate this product – Other Information Recommendations/restrictions, Sources of key data used to compile Safety Data Sheet
PART-B: TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN MSDSMSDS is a data bank which contains numerous technical and non technicalinformation, keywords etc about a chemical. To understand the language of MSDS,one should be familiar with following basic technical terms/keywords which arefrequently used in MSDS of all formats.How chemical can enter in our body?The three ways by which chemical can enter in our body:1. Absorption (By Skin and Eye Contact): Skin and eye contact with hazardous chemicals can cause vision problems or blindness, burns, rashes, allergies, and other reactions. Some chemicals can even get into the bloodstream and poison you through the skin2. Inhalation: Inhaling hazardous chemicals can cause headaches, dizziness, nausea, unconsciousness, asphyxiation, even death. There is also a risk of damage to your lungs, throat or respiratory system.3. Swallowing / Ingestion: Swallowing hazardous chemicals can poison you to damage your internal organs. If you forget to wash up before eating or smoking, you may swallow a tiny amounts of chemicals and eventually become poisoned.
PART-B: TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN MSDS (Cont’d)Acute Health Effect: An adverse effect on a human or animal body with symptoms that develop immediately and persist short to long period. As burning, sudden illness etc.Chronic Health Effect: An adverse effect on a human or animal body with symptoms that developslowly over a long time period and persist or that recur frequently. As cancer and other diseases,allergic reactions, or reproductive problems usually take a long time to develop.Acute Exposure: Exposure of short duration, usually to relatively high concentrations or amounts ofmaterial.Chronic Exposure: Continuous or intermittent exposure extending over a long time period, usuallyapplies to relatively low material amounts or concentrations.Chronic Toxicity: A materials property that produces chronic health effects (see above), usuallyresulting from repeated doses of or exposure to the material over a relatively prolonged time period.Ordinarily used to denote effects noted in experimental animals.Carcinogen: A material that either causes cancer in humans, or, because it causes cancer inanimals, is considered capable of causing cancer in humans.Cryogenic: Relating to extremely low temperatures as for refrigerant gasesCeiling Limit, C: The concentration not to exceed at any time. "An employee„s exposure [to ahazardous material] shall at no time exceed the ceiling value" (OSHA).
PART-B: TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN MSDS (Cont’d)Flash Point :Lowest temperature at which a flammable liquid gives off sufficient vapor to form an ignitablemixture with air near its surface or within a vessel and ignite momentarily but cant sustain the flameis called the flash point.Flammable:Describes any solid, liquid, vapor, or gas that ignites easily and burns rapidly. Both NFPA and DOTgenerally define flammable liquids as having a flash point below 38ºC (100ºF)Symbols for Flammable Gas or Liquids:
PART-B: TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN MSDS (Cont’d)Combustible:A term the NFPA, DOT, and others use to classify certain materials with low flash points that igniteeasily. Both NFP A and DOT generally define combustible liquids as having a flash point of 38ºC(100ºF) but below 93.3ºC (200ºF)Spontaneously Combustible:A material that ignites as a result of retained heat from processing, or which will oxidize to generateheat and ignite, or which absorbs moisture to generate heat and ignite.Symbols for Combustible and Spontaneously Combustible Materials:
PART-B: TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN MSDS (Cont’d)Oxidizer:Oxidizer. The DOT defines an oxidizer or oxidizing material as a substance that yields oxygenreadily to stimulate the combustion (oxidation) of organic matter. Chlorate (CIOI23), permanganate(Mn04), and nitrate (NO) compounds are examples of oxidizers. Note that they all contain largeamounts of oxygen (0).Symbol for oxidizer Symbols for Corrosive Symbols forRadioactiveCorrosive:A chemical that causes visible destruction of or irreversible alterations in living tissue by chemicalaction at the site of contact, or that causes a severe corrosion rate in steel or aluminum.Radioactive:Substances may cause the source of irreversible radioactive chemical reaction emitting variousharmful radiation.
PART-B: TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN MSDS (Cont’d)Irritant:A chemical, which is not corrosive, but which causes a reversible inflammatory effect on livingtissue by chemical action at the site of contact. Symbols for Irritant Symbol for Irritant Symbols for Explosive MaterialHarmful:Substances in contact with human body cause acute or chronic damage to health. Especiallycarcinogenic, teratogenic or mutagenic associated substances. There is a risk of sensitization byinhalationExplosive:A material that produces a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas, and heat whensubjected to abrupt shock, pressure, or high temperature.
PART-B: TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN MSDS (Cont’d)Toxic Substance:Any chemical or material that: 1) has evidence of an acute or chronic health hazard and 2) is listedin the NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS), provided that thesubstance causes harm at any dose level; causes cancer or reproductive effects in animals at anydose level; has a median lethal dose (LD50) of less than 500 mg/kg of body weight whenadministered orally to rats; has a median LD50 of less than 1000 mg/kg of body weight whenadministered by continuous contact to the bare skin of albino rabbits; or has a median lethalconcentration (LD50) in air of less than 2000 ppm by volume of gas vapor, or less than 20 mg/L ofmist, fume, or dust when administered to albino rats.Symbol for Toxic Substances Dangerous for EnvironmentDangerous for Environment:Substances produce various things into aquatic and non aquatic environments causing the damageto the ecosystems.
PART-B: TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN MSDS (Cont’d)Asphyxiant:A vapor or gas that can cause unconsciousness or death by suffocation (lack of oxygen). Mostsimple asphyxiants are harmful to the body only when they become so concentrated that theyreduce (displace) the available oxygen in the air (normally about 21%) to dangerous levels (18% orlower). Examples of simple asphyxiants are carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen, and helium.Chemical asphyxiants like carbon monoxide (CO) reduce the bloods ability to carry oxygen, or likecyanide, interfere with the bodys utilization of oxygen.Symbol for Asphyxiant Symbols for Carcinogen Symbol for MutagenCarcinogen:A material that either causes cancer in humans, or, because it causes cancer in animals, isconsidered capable of causing cancer in humans.Mutagen:A substance or agent capable of altering the genetic material in a living cell.
PART-B: TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN MSDS (Cont’d)PEL (Permissible Exposure Limit or OSH PEL):Established by OSHA. The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit for exposure of anemployee to a chemical substance or physical agent. This may be expressed as a time weighted average(TWA) limit, short-term exposure limit (STEL), or as a ceiling exposure limit. A ceiling limit must never beexceeded instantaneously even if the TWA exposure limit is not violated. OSHA PELs have the force of law.Note that ACGIH TLVs and NIOSH RELs are recommended exposure limits.TWA : Time Weighted Average is the average exposure over a specified period of time, usually a nominal eight hours.STEL : Short-Term Exposure Limit is one that addresses the average exposure over a 15-30 minute period of maximum exposure during a single work shift.CL : Ceiling Limit is one that may not be exceeded for any period of time, and is applied to irritants and other materials that have immediate effects.AL : Action Level is the exposure level (concentration in air) at which OSHA regulations to protect employees takes effect (29 CFR 1910.1001-1047)PPE (Personal protective equipment):Devices or clothing worn to help insulate a worker from direct exposure to hazardous materials. Exampleinclude gloves and respirators.TLV (Threshold Limit Value):A term used to express the airborne concentration of a material to which most workers can be exposedduring a normal daily and weekly schedule without adverse effects. ACGIH expresses TLV s in three ways: 1)TLV TWA, the allowable time weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour workday or 40-hour week;2) TLV STEL, the short-term exposure limit or maximum concentration for a continuous exposure period of 15minutes (with a maximum of four such periods per day, with at least 60 minutes between exposureperiods, and provided that the daily TLV- TWA is not exceeded); and 3) Ceiling (C), the concentration not toexceed at any time.
PART-B: TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN MSDS (Cont’d)Exposure Limit :The concentration in workplace air of a chemical deemed the maximum acceptable. This means that mostworkers can be exposed at given levels or lower without harmful effects. Exposure limits in common use are:1) TLV-TWA (threshold limit value-timeweighted average); 2) STEL (short-term exposure limit); and 3) C(ceiling value).ACGIH TLVs :Established by OSHA. The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit for exposure of anemployee to a chemical substance or physical agent. This may be expressed as a time weighted average(TWA) limit, short-term exposure limit (STEL), or as a ceiling exposure limit. A ceiling limit must never beexceeded instantaneously even if the TWA exposure limit is not violated. OSHA PELs have the force of law.Note that ACGIH TLVs and NIOSH RELs are recommended exposure limits.TLV (Threshold Limit Value):A term used to express the airborne concentration of a material to which most workers can be exposedduring a normal daily and weekly schedule without adverse effects. ACGIH expresses TLV s in three ways: 1)TLV TWA, the allowable time weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour workday or 40-hour week;2) TLV STEL, the short-term exposure limit or maximum concentration for a continuous exposure period of 15minutes (with a maximum of four such periods per day, with at least 60 minutes between exposure periods,and provided that the daily TLV- TWA is not exceeded); and 3) Ceiling (C), the concentration not to exceed atany time.
PART-B: TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN MSDS (Cont’d)Toxicity Dose Terms LD50 and LC50:In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for “Lethal Dose, 50%”), LC50 (LethalConcentration, 50%) or LCt50 (Lethal Concentration & Time) of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen is thedose required to kill half the members of a tested population after a specified test duration. LD50figures are frequently used as a general indicator of a substances acute toxicity. Route of Exposure Conclusion / RemarksInhalation Toxicity (Rat): LC50 > 5000 Minimally Toxic. Based on test data for structurally similar materials. mg/m³ Negligible hazard at ambient/normal handling temperatures. Based on assessment of Irritation: Data available. the components.Ingestion Toxicity (Rat): LD50 > 2000 Minimally Toxic. Based on test data for structurally similar materials. mg/kgSkin Toxicity (Rabbit): LD50 > 2000 Minimally Toxic. Based on test data for structurally similar materials. mg/kg Negligible irritation to skin at ambient temperatures. Based on test data for Irritation: Data available. structurally similar materials.Eye Irritation (Rabbit): Data May cause mild, short-lasting discomfort to eyes. Based on test data for structurally available. similar materials.
PART-B: TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN MSDS (Cont’d) Other Commonly Used Toxicity Dose Terms: LLD01 : Lethal dose for 1% of the animal test population D100 : Lethal dose for 100% of the animal test population LDLO :The lowest dose causing lethality TDLO : The lowest dose causing a toxic effectToxicity Comparison:In general, the smaller the LD50 value, the more toxic the chemical is. The opposite is also true: the larger the LD50 value,the lower the toxicity. The LD50 gives a measure of the immediate or acute toxicity of a chemical in the strain, sex, andage group of a particular animal species being tested. Changing any of these variables (e.g., type animal or age) couldresult in finding a different LD50 value. The LD50 test was neither designed nor intended to give information on long-termexposure effects of a chemical. Once you have an LD50 value, it can be compared to other values by using a toxicityscale. The two most common scales used are the "Hodge and Sterner Scale" and the "Gosselin, Smith and HodgeScale". It is also important to know that the actual LD50 value may be different for a given chemical depending on theroute of exposure (e.g., oral, dermal, inhalation)For example, some LD50s for dichlorvos, an insecticide commonly used in household pesticide strips, are listed below:Oral LD50 (rat) : 56 mg/kgDermal LD50 (rat) : 75 mg/kgIntraperitoneal LD50 : (rat) 15 mg/kgInhalation LC50 (rat) : 1.7 ppm (15 mg/m3); 4-hour exposureOral LD50 (rabbit) : 10 mg/kgOral LD50 (pigeon) : 23.7 mg/kgOral LD50 (rat) : 56 mg/kgOral (mouse) : 61 mg/kgOral (dog) : 100 mg/kgOral (pig) : 157 mg/kg
PART-C: Hodge and Sterner ScaleTable 1: Toxicity Classes: Hodge and Sterner Scale Routes of Administration Oral LD50 Inhalation LC50 Dermal LD50 Exposure of SingleToxicit Rats application to Probable Lethal Commonly y single dose to for 4 hours skin of rabbits Dose Used TermRating rats for Man (mg/kg) (ppm) (mg/kg) 1 grain (a taste, a1 Extremely Toxic 1 or less 10 or less 5 or less drop)2 Highly Toxic 1-50 10-100 5-43 4 ml (1 tsp)3 Moderately Toxic 50-500 100-1000 44-340 30 ml (1 fl. oz.)4 Slightly Toxic 500-5000 1000-10,000 350-2810 600 ml (1 pint)5 Practically Non-toxic 5000-15,000 10,000-100,000 2820-22,590 1 litre (or 1 quart)6 Relatively Harmless 15,000 or more 100,000 22,600 or more 1 liter (or 1 quart) Back
PART-C: Gosselin, Smith and Hodge ScaleTable 2: Toxicity Classes: Gosselin, Smith and Hodge Probable Oral Lethal Dose (Human)Toxicity Rating or Class Dose For 70-kg Person (150 lbs) Less than 56 Super Toxic 1 grain (a taste - less than 7 drops) mg/kg5 Extremely Toxic 5-50 mg/kg 4 ml (between 7 drops and 1 tsp)4 Very Toxic 50-500 mg/kg 30 ml (between 1 tsp and 1 fl ounce)3 Moderately Toxic 0.5-5 g/kg 30-600 ml (between 1 fl oz and 1 pint)2 Slightly Toxic 5-15 g/kg 600-1200 ml (between 1 pint to 1 quart)1 Practically Non-Toxic Above 15 g/kg More than 1200 ml (more than 1 quart) Back
PART-C: Gosselin, Smith and Hodge ScaleHazard Communication(HAZCOM):Requires chemical manufacturers and importers to assess the hazards associated with the materials in theirworkplace (29 CFR 1910.1200). Material safety data sheets, labeling, and training are all results of this law.Engineering Controls:Engineering control systems reduce potential hazards by isolating the worker from the hazard or by removingthe hazard from the work environment. Methods include substitution, ventilation, isolation, andenclosure. This is preferred over administrative controls and personal protective equipment.Incompatible:Describes materials that could cause dangerous reactions and the release of energy from direct contact withone another.Chemical Compatibility Chart:A chart which give instruction about chemical storage system. This chart contains possible reaction/effectwhile mixing two or more chemical. Back
PART-C: Chemical Compatibility Chart Chemical Group1 Acids, Mineral, Non-ox idizing 1 Acids, Mineral, Ox idizing Md. Moynul Islam2 2 CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY CHART3 Acids, Organic G,H 3 Chemical Engineer4 Alcholos, Gly cols H H,F H,P 4 Modified from: EPAs Chemical Compatibility Chart, April, 1980,5 Aldehy des H,P H,F H,P 5 A Method for Determining the Compatibility of Chemical Mixtures, H6 Amides H GT 6 EPA-600/2-80-076. H Please Not e: This char is int ended as an indicat ion of t he some hazards t hat can be expect ed on mixing chemical wast es. B ecause of t he dif f ering act ivit ies of7 Amines, Aliphatic and Aromatic H GT H H 7 t housands of compounds t hat may be encount ered. It is not possible t o make any chart def init ive and all inclusive. It can not be assumed t o ensure compat ibilit y H of wast es because wast es are not classif ied as hazardous on t he chart , nor do any blanks necessarily mean t hat t he mixt ure can not result in a hazardous8 A zo, Diazo Compounds & Hydrazines H,G GT H,G H,G H 8 occuring. Det ailed inst ruct ions as t o hazards involved in handling and disposing of any given wast e should be obt ained f rom t he originat or of t he wast e. H9 Carbamates H,G GT H,G 9 CODE & CONSEQUENCE10 Caustics H H H H H,G 10 H :H eat Generation11 Cy anides GT GT GT G 11 F :F ire GF GF GF H,F H,F H,GT GT G :Innocuous non-flmmable gas generation12 Dithiocarbamates GF GF GF GF U H,G 12 GT:T oxic G as formation13 Esters H H,F H,G H 13 GF:F lammable G as formation14 Ethers H H,F 14 E :E xplossion15 Fluorides, Inorganics GT GT GT 15 P :Violent P olymerization16 Hy drocarbons, Aromatics H,F 16 S :S olubilization of toxic substance H H,F H H17 Halogenated Organics GT GT GT H,G GF H 17 U :May be hazardous, but U nknown H,F H,P18 Isocy anates H,G GT H,G H,P H,P H,G G H,G U 1819 Ketones H H,F H,G H H 19 GT H,F20 M ercaptans & Other Organic Sulfides GF GT H,G 20 H H,GF H21 M et als, A lkali & A lkaline Eart h, Element al H,F GF H,F H,F GF GF H,F GF H,F GF H GF H GF H GF H GF H GF GF GT GF H,E H GF H GF H GF 21 Met als, Ot he Element al & Alloys as powder s H,F H,F H,F H H H,F22 Vapor s or sponges GF GF G,F GT U GF H,E GF GF 22 M et als, Ot he Element al & A lloys H,F H,F H,F23 sheet s, GF GF G H,F 2324 M et als & M et als Compounds, Toxic S S S S S S 24 H,F H,F H H,E H H H H H H H25 Nitrides GF E GF GF GF U H,G U GF GF GF GF U GF GF E 25 H,GT H,F H26 Nitriles GF GT H U H,P S GF 26 H,F H,E H,E27 Nitro Compounds, Organic GT H H,E GF GF 2728 Hydrocarbons, A liphat ic, Unsat urat ed H H,F H H,E 2829 Hydro carbo ns, A liphatic, Saturated H,F 29 H H,F H,F H,E H,F H,F H,E H,P30 Peroxides & Hydroperoxides, Organic H, G H,E H,F H,G GT E GT GT GT H,E H E GT H,E H,G H,G GF GT H,P 30 H H31 Phenols and Cresols H H,F H,G H,P GF GF H 31 Organophosphat es, Phosphot hioat es H H H32 Phosphodiot hioat es GT GT U H,E GF U 32 GT H,F H33 Sulfides, Inorganic GF GF GT H E H GT 3334 Epox ides H,P H,P H,P H,P U H,P H,P H,P H,P U H,P H,P H,P H,P H,P H,P H,P U H,P 34 Combust ible and Flammable Mat er ials H,F H,F H,F H,F35 Miscellaneous H,G GT G GF GT 3536 Ex plosiv es H,E H,E H,E H,E H,E H,E H,E H,E H,E E E H,E H,E H,E H,E H,E 3637 Poly merizable Compounds P,H P,H P,H P,H P,H P,H U P,H P,H P,H P,H P,H P,H P,H P,H P,H 37 H H H,F H,F H,F H,F H,E H,F H H,F H,F H,F H,F H,F H,F H,F H,F H,F H,F H,F38 Ox idizing Agents, Strong GT GT H,F GF GT GT H,E GT GT GT H,F H,F H,F GT GT H,F GT E E H,F E GT H,E H,F H,F H,G H,F GT GT G G H,E GT 38 H H,F H H,F H,F H H H,F H H H H H H, GT H H,P H,F39 Reducing Agents, Strong GF GT GF GF GF GF H,G GT H,F E H,E GF GF GF GF H,E H,E GF GF H GF H,E GF E 39 H H H GT GT40 Water and Aqueous Mix tures H H G H,G GF GF S GF GF GF 4041 Water Reactive Substances <<<<<<Extremely Reactive - Do Not Mix With Any Chemical! - Extremely Reactive>>>>> 41 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41
PART-C: LD50 and LC50 Test ProcedureIn nearly all cases, LD50 tests are performed using a pure form of the chemical. Mixtures arerarely studied.The chemical may be given to the animals by mouth (oral); by applying on the skin (dermal); byinjection at sites such as the blood veins (i.v.- intravenous), muscles (i.m. - intramuscular) or intothe abdominal cavity (i.p. - intraperitoneal).The LD50 value obtained at the end of the experiment is identified as the LD50 (oral), LD50 (skin),LD50 (i.v.), etc., as appropriate. Researchers can do the test with any animal species but they userats or mice most often. Other species include dogs, hamsters, cats, guinea-pigs, rabbits, andmonkeys. In each case, the LD50 value is expressed as the weight of chemical administered perkilogram body weight of the animal and it states the test animal used and route of exposure oradministration; e.g., LD50 (oral, rat) - 5 mg/kg, LD50 (skin, rabbit) - 5 g/kg. So, the example "LD50(oral, rat) 5 mg/kg" means that 5 milligrams of that chemical for every 1 kilogram body weight of therat, when administered in one dose by mouth, causes the death of 50% of the test group.If the lethal effects from breathing a compound are to be tested, the chemical (usually a gas orvapour) is first mixed in a known concentration in a special air chamber where the test animals willbe placed. This concentration is usually quoted as parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubicmetre (mg/m3). In these experiments, the concentration that kills 50% of the animals is called anLC50 (Lethal Concentration 50) rather than an LD50. When an LC50 value is reported, it should alsostate the kind of test animal studied and the duration of the exposure, e.g., LC50 (rat) - 1000 ppm/ 4hr or LC50 (mouse) - 5mg/m3/ 2hr.
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