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143673805 1-burner-management-system

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143673805 1-burner-management-system

  1. 1. Burner Management System Introduction The function of a burner management system (BMS) is to assure safe operation of the combustion associated with boilers, ovens, kilns, process heaters and furnaces. The BMS provides a safe start-up procedure and stops fuel flow if conditions are detected that affect the safety of the unit. With the advancement of microprocessor technology, programmable systems have become the preferred solution for burner management design. When issues like documentation, configuration management, diagnostics, capabilities for operator graphics and communications to other Plantwide control systems are considered, the advantages of programmable technology over relay/solid-state technology become very significant. Since the failure modes of microprocessor technology is not readily predictable, the Australian Gas Association (AGA) and a number of other international standards and regulatory agencies (NFPA, TUV, FM, IRI) have established recommended practices and guidelines for applying this technology in burner management applications. The needs of a Burner Management System. There are strong economic reasons to ensure combustion equipment operates safely. These reasons include possible equipment losses, personnel injury and loss' and production downtime as a result of an accident. When risk analysis is combined with life cycle costing techniques, many companies realise that the financial impact of safety risk is higher than imagined. Gas & Fuel Authorities are bringing out newer, tougher requirements including requirements for approvals from independent testing agencies like TUV. The IEC61508 standard for the functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic (E/E/PE) safety-related systems has been released and the Australian version AS61508 will be fully published soon. Safe operating combustion equipment design is not becoming easier. The latest Australian Standard AS3814/AG 501 – 2000 for industrial and commercial gas-fired appliances states that for a Programmable
  2. 2. Electronic System (PES) to gain acceptance on Type B appliances the following applies as in clause 2.26.3, sections: - “If it is desired to use a PES controller to perform safety-related functions, then it shall be a redundant safety-related PES and possess a TUV safety certificate to the appropriate safety class of DIN V 19250 or some equivalent certificate. Only TUV approved "firmware" (or equivalent) is to be used in the controller.” “Like computer programs, the only true way of assessing a PES user- program to ensure that it functions the way it was designed, is to test run the program. It is not possible to inspect a PES program in its entirety by visual examination and conclude that the program does what it is required to do under all possible operating situations. Therefore in order to ensure the integrity of the PES user software, the person/company who designed the system shall have QA accreditation, and shall have adhered to the principles outlined in AS 61508. It is the designer's responsibility for the development of the program, and for test-running the program by simulating the inputs, and proving that the outputs occur at the right time and duration. A signed written statement to that effect shall be submitted to the Authority.” The NFPA 8502 standard for the prevention of furnace explosions/implosions in multiple burner boilers, 1999 edition clause 4- 3.2.1, lists the following minimum failures that must be evaluated and addressed: - (a) Interruptions, excursions, dips, recoveries, transients, and partial losses of power (b) Memory corruption and losses (c) Information transfer corruption and losses (d) Inputs and outputs (fail-on, fail-off) (e) Signals that are unreadable or not being read (f) Failure to address errors (g) Processor faults
  3. 3. (h) Relay coil failure (i) Relay contact failure (fail-on, fail-off) (j) Timer failure The new FM 7605 standard, first released in January 2000, for PLC based BMS systems also requires compliance with the IEC 61508 saying: - “The system shall conform at a specified Safety Integrity Level (SIL) to IEC 61508, Part 1, General requirements. The hardware architecture shall include self-checking firmware, external and internal watchdog systems, redundant processors, and dual I/O cards as required to achieve the specified SIL. Software architecture shall include communications drivers, fault handling, executive software, input/output functions, and derived functions as required to achieve the specified SIL. Redundant components shall be separated so as to reduce common cause failures.” This need to meet regulations and properly implement safety protection equipment adds another dimension to the trade offs that must be made by design engineers. Regardless of these requirements many control engineers are selecting programmable electronic systems for burner management applications. Advantages include ease of installation, lower false trip rate, math capability and more sophisticated logic capability - in newer generation PLCs, other benefits include IEC 61131 standard language capability, self-documenting graphical configuration and management of change functions among a growing list of other user friendly tools. With all these advantages, why not? The big problem is that solid- state components can fail in several ways, many of which may create dangerous undetectable failures. The BMS maintains safe operation of the boiler during start-up, operation, and shutdown. Both PLCs and DCSs can accommodate safety and process control in a single processor, but the National Fire Protection Association, Factory Mutual Research Corporation, and good engineering practice call for independence between burner management systems and all other control systems.
  4. 4. Early automated BMS were either proprietary hardware or relay based. Since the 1980s, PLCs are preferred for their reliability, flexibility, configurability, and lower life cycle cost. With any automated electronic control-based system, the designer must pay close attention to failure modes. Safety features that can be designed into a BMS include input checking, critical output monitoring, external watchdog circuit, coil monitoring, fuse monitoring, circuit breaker monitoring, and related alarming and diagnostics. Many other processes in a power house can be controlled with PLCs to cut installed system cost, reduce spare parts requirements, speed maintenance and operator training, and ease installation and troubleshooting. Output Monitoring Output monitoring (or readback) is a technique that uses an input channel to measure an output channel's value and compares it to the value demanded by the system logic. This diagnostic can determine if the output has failed ON or failed OFF. Figure 1 shows how output monitoring is typically implemented in a PLC. Ladder logic must be written to ensure that each output is compared with its corresponding diagnostic input channel and appropriate diagnostics are generated. fig.1 Safety PLCs incorporate output monitoring into their I/0 module hardware using special circuitry and an onboard microprocessor to generate the diagnostics, as illustrated in Figure 2. This eliminates the wiring and programming required by general purpose PLCs. Furthermore, this relieves the application controller from the burden of generating these diagnostics.
  5. 5. fig.2 Output monitoring provides valuable diagnostic information. However, it can do nothing more than annunciate the problem on its own. In order to convert the potentially dangerous failure into a safe failure, an additional technique must be applied in addition to the output monitoring. Guarded Outputs Series wired trip relays could be incorporated to "protect" the monitored outputs. Figure 3 illustrates the typical addition of a trip relay to the general purpose PLC output monitoring in Figure 1. The output to the trip relay is programmed to de-energise if any of the outputs it is protecting reports a dangerous fault. This provides a secondary means of de-energising an output if for some reason, the output fails to turn-off when commanded. Additionally, a contact of the trip relay should be monitored to ensure that it is functioning properly. The trip relay must be manually reset before it can be re- energised. This can be accomplished by wiring a reset pushbutton to an input circuit or via an engineer's console. fig.3 Most safety PLCs incorporate protected or guarded outputs. Figure 4 shows the incorporation of a diagnostic cut-off relay to the typical safety PLC block diagram, which provides guarded outputs. Note that the relay is also monitored for proper function. Here, the diagnostic generated by the faulted output or relay must be manually cleared before the relay can be re-energised.
  6. 6. fig.4 Processor Protection Watchdog timer circuits are employed to ensure that outputs fail-safe upon detection of a processor failure. The typical implementation with a general purpose PLC is to configure one or two outputs to continually generate square wave output(s). The watchdog timer will trip if the output(s) fail to change state within the timer's specified preset. This will cause the trip relay to de-energise. Figure 5 shows the addition of a watchdog timer to the general purpose PLC application in Figure 3. There should be at least one watchdog timer monitoring every CPU in the system. Two watchdog timers are required to detect watchdog timer failure. fig.5 Safety PLCs also employ watchdog timers, however, watchdog timers are integral to the modules and usually implemented redundantly. That is, every CPU circuit is monitored by two watchdog timers, and the timers also monitor each other to detect watchdog timer failure. If either watchdog trips, the diagnostic cut-off relay is de-energised. Figure 6 depicts the addition of watchdog timers to the typical safety PLC block the diagram. As shown, the watchdog timer has direct control of the relay, de-energising it upon a watchdog time-out. fig.6 Power Monitoring The quality of output signals is only as good as the power used to drive them. To insure that outputs are not turned on when the power supply is out of tolerance, a power monitor diagnostic can be added to the general purpose
  7. 7. PLC. Figure 7 shows the addition of a signal conditioner (trip alarm), which detects if the power supply is under range or over range. To protect the outputs from damage, possible dropout, or oscillation during brownout conditions, the PLC must be programmed to de-energise the trip relay output if the power supply goes out of range. fig.7 Figure 8 shows the complete safety PLC output module block diagram with the addition of the power monitor circuit. Like the trip alarm, the power monitor circuit detects if the power supply goes over or under range and can automatically trip the diagnostic cut-off relay to protect the outputs. This circuit can also detect if the main fuse is blown. fig.8 Input Circuit Protection Input circuits can fail ON or OFF, which if left undetected, can leave a Safety System unprotected. There are multiple techniques for detecting failed ON or failed OFF outputs. They are pulse testing (automatic input testing) and redundant input circuits comparison. During the test, inputs are briefly de-energised by turning off an output that supplies power to the inputs. Programmed logic must then prove that all of the inputs successfully detected the change in state. However, additional logic must ensure that the application logic holds the inputs during the test. Some safety PLCs incorporate automatic input testing in their input modules or redundant input detection circuits for each input channel. Communication Protection Inter-module communications require diagnostics that can detect corrupted messages or a loss of communication. Cyclical redundancy checking (CRC) is a very reliable technique for confirming correct
  8. 8. transmission and receipt of data. Communication watchdog timers should also be employed by every module on a bus to detect a loss of bus activity. Safety PLCs will automatically set their outputs to a pre- determined safe state (OFF) when an I/0 module has lost communication with its control module. Redundant communications paths, standard in safety PLCs, should be considered for general PLCs for higher availability. Address Verification To insure input data is originating from the correct module and going to the correct module, the processor should incorporate some form of address verification. Safety PLCs use redundant serial data links to communicate between the processor and the I/0 modules. Serial communications allow for source and destination addressing to be embedded into messages and compared with the hardware address established by the backplane. Parallel backplane designs typically found in general purpose PLCs do not usually incorporate any address verification. Memory Corruption and Losses All programmable control system memory (RAM, ROM, and EEPROM) should be fully tested upon power-up and continuously tested on-line with background diagnostics' Volatile memory (RAM) should be battery backed and a low battery diagnostic should indicate to the operator when a battery needs to be replaced. Common Cause A "common cause" failure is defined as the failure of two or more similar components due to a single stress event (a single cause). The key word here is "stress." Stressor events include electrical events like power spikes, lightning, and high current levels. Mechanical stress includes shock and vibration. Chemical stress includes corrosive atmospheres, salt air, and humidity. Physical stress includes temperature. Heavy usage including high data rates is even a stress, especially to system software. If the stress level is high enough, two or more similar components can fail at the same time. Software may be the most significant contributor of all to the common cause failure rate. A "stress' to a software system is the combination of inputs, timing, and stored data seen by the CPU. Imagine a fault tolerant system with two or three processors where all the CPUs are running the exact same program in lock-step synchronous operation. The CPUs will all see the exact same inputs, the same stored data with
  9. 9. the same timing. The chance of simultaneous failure due to a common software bug is high. A Safety PLC can achieve “common cause strength” through a number of mechanisms: · Physical separation of redundant units. The worst implementation has redundant circuits on the same circuit board. The best implementation allows redundant circuits to be located in different cabinets. · Asynchronous operation of redundant units to reduce software common cause. The worst implementation has identical software running the same functionality in perfect synchronisation. The best implementation runs asynchronously with different operating modes between redundant units. · Diversity. The worst implementation has identical software and hardware in redundant units. The best implementation uses diverse components that respond differently to a common stress. · High strength hardware and software. Other important parameters include the overall ruggedness of the safety PLC and the use of a systematic audited software development process. BMS Safety PLC System Architectures Typically a specially designed safety PLC, provides high reliability and high safety via special electronics, special software and pre-engineered redundancy. The safety PLC has I/0 circuits that are designed to be fail-safe with built-in diagnostics. The CPU of a safety PLC has built-in diagnostics for memory, CPU operation, watchdog timer and all communications systems. I/0 module addressing is done via serial communications messages that have full automatic error checking. Figure 9 shows the architecture of a non-redundant safety PLC. The 1oo1D (one out of one with diagnostics) architecture uses the special diagnostic circuits to convert dangerous failures into safe failures by de-energising the output. This is the most cost effective safety PLC solution and meets IEC 61508 SIL 2 requirements. Figure 9. The 1oo1D architecture uses special diagnostic circuits to convert dangerous failures into safe circuits.
  10. 10. When high availability is important in addition to safety, a redundant architecture can be used. Two primary architectures are used, 2oo3 and 1oo2D. Figure 10 shows the 2oo3 (two out of three) architecture that was designed to provide high safety and high availability. It is typically implemented with three physical sets of electronics. Each set of electronics includes the input circuitry, a logic solver, and output circuitry. A 2oo3 system can tolerate a one-unit failure but is more susceptible to common cause than the 1oo2D. Also, because the 2oo3 architecture requires more hardware it can be a complex and expensive to implement. Figure 10. The 2oo3 architecture is designed to provide safety and availability. Figure 11 shows the loo2D (one out of two with diagnostics) architecture. It was designed to provide high safety, high availability and high common cause strength at a lower cost than a 2oo3 system. It is simple to implement with typically two physical sets of electronics. Each set of electronics includes the input circuitry, a logic solver, and output circuitry. Each circuit has special diagnostic circuitry that combines to form another logical channel. When two sets of electronics are combined together a four-channel architecture is created. Conceptually, each of the two units reads inputs, calculates, and stores outputs. The diagnostic circuits monitor proper operation and will de-energise a second series output switch if a failure is detected. Any potentially dangerous failure is converted into a safe failure if detected by the diagnostics. If the diagnostics work perfectly, the system is fail safe. High availability is achieved through the parallel combination of the two sets of electronics. If one side fails safely, the other side maintains the load and the protection function. The loo2D architecture requires good self-diagnostics. Diagnostic techniques have improved considerably; however, it is arguable that perfect self-diagnostics can be achieved. Therefore, in order to assure high safety integrity, actual implementations of the loo2D provide interprocessor communication between the logic solvers. A comparison of input data and calculation results between the two units provides complete protection in addition to the self-diagnostics. When the comparison of either unit detects a mismatch, the system is de- energised (fail-safe).
  11. 11. Figure 11. The 1oo2D architecture provides safety, via diagnostic circuits and extra series output switches, availability and common cause strength. CONCLUSION There are many aspects of a Burner Management System that contribute to its operating safety and meeting IEC 61508 and regulatory agency requirements. For example and not covered by this paper, much can be done with flame detectors, field sensors and actuators, such as voting redundant sensors, using analog transmitters in place of switch interlocks, and installing limits switches on valves. There are also now more certified field sensors becoming available that are designed to meet the standards. However, the device that controls all of the system I/O plays a major role in the operating safety of the system. Selection of the control system is just as, if not more critical, than the selection of the associated field hardware. Depending on the mix of analog and digital I/0, the cost of a modern safety PLCs will not be much higher than a conventional PLC. In addition, one significant advantage of the safety PLC is eliminating the special engineering and application level programming required in the conventional PLC. None of the special circuits shown in Figures 1, 3, 5 & 7 are needed when using a safety PLC. The installed cost of a safety PLC can be significantly lower than a conventional PLC when engineering and installation expenses are considered for burner management applications.