French Language Lessons                                         by Wikibooks                                    Table of C...
Lesson 12: The Body    13.Leçon 13 : La culture       Lesson 13: Culture                       Introduction to Studying Fr...
The very best way to learn French is to get amnesia in France or another French-speaking country. Thisallows you to start ...
open: like o in nosePp     like p in pen*                               /pe/                                              ...
3. Say the words baby, and puppy like you normally would in English. Notice how the paper       moved when you said the b ...
usedacute accent                          é only         éléphant: elephant(accent aigu)grave accent                      ...
Grave accent, accent grave    •   à and ùIn the case of the letters à and ù, the grave accent (Fr. accent grave), is used ...
pas si bien/pas très bien                              not so wellcomme ci, comme ça                                     s...
"Vous" is a plural form of "you". This is somewhat equivalent to "yall", "youse", "you guys", "all ofyou", except that it ...
Grammar: Gender of Nouns | Grammaire: Genre des NomsIn French, all nouns have a grammatical gender, that is, they are masc...
ité-nne/- la fille        the girlmme/-lle    l’indienne      the Indian-nce     la balance    the scalesUnfortunately, th...
The Indefinite ArticleIn English, the indefinite articles are "a" and "an". "Some" is used as a plural article in English....
In everyday language, “on” is used, instead of “nous”, to express “we”; the verb is always used in the3rd person singular....
Avoir Audio: Ogg (100Kb)                                            avoir - to have                 French      English   ...
•     Feminine Pronunciation: intéressant, amusant, lentFor more advanced rules, see the topic: French Adjectives: Describ...
However, if you are referring to the Arabic language or Chinese language, the French would notcapitalize: larabe; le chino...
When negating in the passé composé, the ne ... pas (in this case, n... pas) are placed around theauxillary avoir.For more,...
(everything but                          hair)                          brown (exceptbrun           brune      for hair = ...
trente [deux - neuf]             32-39quarante                         40cinquante                        50soixante      ...
Il est midi.                         It is noon.Il est minuit.                       It is midnight.Il est quatre heures c...
Leçon 4 : Verbes - Lesson 4: VerbsGrammar - Regular VerbsFrench has three different types of regular verbs: -er, -ir, and ...
Grammar - Irregular VerbsGrammar - FaireThe verb faire is translated to to do or to make. It is irregularly conjugated (it...
Vocabulary for DialogQuest-ce que vous faîtes? What are you doing?faire                       to dojouer                  ...
Aller is used with the preposition à. Example: Je vais au stade.Grammar - VenirThe verb venir is translated to to come. It...
jouer (à)au baseball               baseballau basket                 basketballau football               soccer; footballa...
word Example Verb Remove Ending Add Ending Example P. Partjouer                    -er               -é               joué...
mourir      Il est mort en 1917.            He died in 1917.passer      Il est passé devant la maison. It happened in fron...
Another example:      •   Je suis monté with the direct object "mes baggages" becomes:      •   Jai monté mes baggagesYet ...
singular          plural1st person     je joue     nous jouons2nd person tu joues vous jouez3rd person il joue         ils...
Il a été mon ami.                He was my friend (and he is not my friend any more)Il était mon ami lorsque... He was my ...
vous       youles        themNotes:       •   The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel.       •   The di...
Leçon 7 : La famille - Lesson 7: FamilyVocabulary - The Familyles parents          parentsle père              fatherla mè...
Vocabulary - Schoolle professeur          teacherlétudiant             student (m)létudiante            student (f)le styl...
The Subjunctive Mood - Le subjonctifThe subjunctive mood is rarely used in English. It is used in French, we conjugate the...
AVOIRQue jaieQue tu aiesQuil/elle/on aitQue nous ayonsQue vous ayezQuils/elles aientOther irregular verbs in the subjuncti...
Leçon 9 : La nourriture et les boissons - Lesson 9: Food                        and DrinkVocabulary - Food and DrinkGenera...
la carotte              carrotles épinards            spinachloignon (m)            onionles petits pois         peasla po...
Drinks                                       les boissons - drinksla bière                beerle café                 coff...
le sel             saltle sucre           sugarSilverware, Etc.lassiette (f) platele bol            bowlle couteau        ...
tu    boisil    boitnous buvonsvous buvezils boiventThe irregular past participle for boire is bu.Grammar - VouloirThe ver...
Part. art.         unknown quantityJai mangé de la tarte. I ate some pie.In the negative construction, certain rules apply...
Vocabulary - Shopping                 French                                 Englishfaire des courses; faire du shopping t...
2nd person tu achètes       you buy         vous achetez         you buy (polite)                            he/she/it3rd ...
Bernard : Très bien - ça fait deux euros, sil vous plaîtCamille : Merci beaucoupUseful vocabulary here:"Quest-ce que vous ...
Leçon 11 : La maison - Lesson 11: The HouseVocabulary - the Household             French              EnglishLa maison    ...
faire la cuisine        to do the cookingfaire la lessive/le                        to do the laundrylingefaire le jardin ...
Tu             -ais        réussiraisIl / Elle / On -ait        réussiraitNous           -ions       réussirionsVous      ...
Le genou                   KneeLe pied                    FootLorteil (m)               ToeLoeil (m) (pl. les             ...
Accroupi       SquattedCommon sentenciesWhen you catch a cold you attrapes un rhume. When youre sick, tu es malade. When y...
un hebdomadaire a weekly magazinelactualité         news, current eventsles nouvelles       newsles faits divers    local ...
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moutamani chafik French language lessons

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moutamani chafik French language lessons

  1. 1. French Language Lessons by Wikibooks Table of ContentsIntroduction 1. Introduction to Studying French 2. Reading French - Lire le françaisLessons 1. Leçon 1 : Se présenter Lesson 1: Introducing Yourself 2. Leçon 2 : Grammaire de base Lesson 2: Basic Grammar 3. Leçon 3 : Voyager Lesson 3: Travelling 4. Leçon 4 : Verbes Lesson 4: Verbs 5. Leçon 5 : Récréation Lesson 5: Recreation 6. Leçon 6 : Le passé Lesson 6: Past Tense 7. Leçon 7 : La famille Lesson 7: Family 8. Leçon 8 : Lécole Lesson 8: School 9. Leçon 9 : La nourriture et les boissons Lesson 9: Food and Drink 10.Leçon 10 : Faire des courses Lesson 10: Shopping 11.Leçon 11 : La maison Lesson 11: The House 12.Leçon 12 : Le corps
  2. 2. Lesson 12: The Body 13.Leçon 13 : La culture Lesson 13: Culture Introduction to Studying FrenchAbout FrenchFrench is a Romance language, descended from Latin and closely related to Portuguese, Spanish,Italian, and Romanian. It is the native tongue of over 77 million people and has an additional 68 millionnon-native speakers. In medieval times and until the 19th century, it was often the language used indiplomacy, culture, administration, royal courts across Europe and also in trade, thus appropriatelybecoming the lingua franca of its time.In modern terms, it is still significantly used as a diplomatic language, being an official language of theUnited Nations, the Olympic Games, and the European Union. It is spoken in France, Belgium,Switzerland, Luxemburg, Tunisia, Morocco, Senegal, Haiti, the Ivory Coast, Madagascar, the Congo,Algeria, Niger, Mali, Burkina Faso, Togo, Gabon, the Seychelles, Burundi, Chad, Rwanda, Djibouti,Cameroon, Mauritius, and Canada (mostly in the province of Québec, where it is the primary language,but it is also used in other parts of the country - notably New Brunswick, which is the only bilingualprovince. All consumer product packages in Canada are required by law to have both English andFrench labels).French-speaking people have made incursions upon the British Isles many times in the past, mostnoticeably in the Norman Invasion of 1066. For this reason, although English is a Germanic language,at least a third of the English lexicon is derived from French.Advice on Studying FrenchFrench tends to have a bad reputation amongst English speakers as hard to learn. While it is true that itposes certain difficulties to native English-speakers, it may be noted that English is also considered tobe difficult, and yet we learnt it without the benefit of already knowing a language.Learning any new language requires some commitment, generally long-term. Remember that, like anyskill, it requires a certain amount of effort. And if you do not practice your French regularly, it is highlylikely that you will begin to forget it. Try to make it a part of your schedule; even if its not daily, atleast make it regular.Remember that you are learning a new skill. Try to master the simple stuff before moving on to themore complex. We all have to add and subtract before we can do calculus.French is a complete language. While this course can teach you to read and write in French, this is onlyhalf of the skills that make up fluency. A written document cannot teach much about listening to andspeaking French. You must train all of these skills, and they will reinforce one another. For listeningand speaking, finding a native speaker to help you once you have some skill will help you with theseskills.
  3. 3. The very best way to learn French is to get amnesia in France or another French-speaking country. Thisallows you to start with a clean slate, as babies do. However, most of us are unwilling to take that step.The next best thing is immersion. If you are serious about learning French, a period of immersion(where you go to live in a Francophone culture) is a good idea once you are moderately studied. Mostcountries are in the relative vicinity of a French-speaking country.If you cant travel to a French-speaking country, then try listening to French-language programs on theradio, TV, or the Internet. Rent or buy French-language movies. Pay attention to pronunciation. Grab aFrench speaker you meet and talk to him or her in French. Listen, speak, and practice.Read French newspapers and magazines. Again, an excellent source is Googles news page, which linksto French-language news stories, which will enrich your vocabulary. Reading French - Lire le françaisThe French alphabet name inletter pronunciation French(in IPA transcription)Aa like a in father /a/Bb like b in baby* /be/ before e and i: like c in centerCc /se/ before a, o, or u: like c in catDd like d in dog /de/Ee approx. like oo in book** /ə/Ff like f in fog /ɛf/ before e and i: like s in measureGg /ʒe/ before a, o, or u: like g in get aspirated h: see note below*Hh /aʃ/ non-aspirated h: not pronounced***Ii like ea in team /i/Jj like s in measure /ʒi/Kk like k in kite /ka/Ll like l in lemon /ɛl/Mm like m in minute /ɛm/Nn like n in note /ɛn/Oo closed: approx. like u in nut /o/
  4. 4. open: like o in nosePp like p in pen* /pe/ /ky/ see uQq like k in kite for details force air through the back of your throatRr /ɛʀ/ just as if you were gargling like s in sister at beginingSs of word or with two ss /ɛs/ or like z in amazing if only one sTt like t in top /te/ Say the English letter e,Uu /y/ but make your lips say "oo".Vv like v in violin /ve/ Depending on the derivation of theWw word, /dubləve/ like v as in violin, or w in water either /ks/ in socks,Xx /iks/ or /gz/ in exitYy like ea in leak /igrək/Zz like z in zebra /zɛd/Audio: OGG (101KB)Final consonants and the liaisonIn French, certain consonants are silent when they are the final letter of a word. The letters p (as incoup), s (as in héros), t (as in chat) and x (as in paresseux), are never pronounced at the end of aword.b and pUnlike English, when you pronounce the letters b and p in French, little to no air should be expendedfrom your mouth. In terms of phonetics, the difference in the French b and p and their Englishcounterparts is one of aspiration (this is not related to the similarly named concept of h aspiré below,but is a slight extra puff of air accompanies the stop). Fortunately, in English both aspirated andunaspirated variants (allophones) actually exist, but only in specific environments. If youre a nativespeaker, say the word pit and then the word spit out loud. Did you notice the extra puff of air in thefirst word that doesnt come with the second? The p in pit is aspirated [pʰ]; the p in spit is not (likethe p in any position in French).EXERCISE 1 1. Get a loose piece of printer paper or notebook paper. 2. Hold the piece of paper about one inch (or a couple of centimeters) in front of your face.
  5. 5. 3. Say the words baby, and puppy like you normally would in English. Notice how the paper moved when you said the b and the p respectively. 4. Now, without making the piece of paper move, say the words belle (the feminine form of beautiful in French, pronounced like the English bell.), and papa, (the French equivalent of "Dad"). • If the paper moved, your pronunciation is slightly off. Concentrate, and try it again. • If the paper didnt move, congratulations! You pronounced the words correctly!Aspirated vs. non-aspirated hIn French, the letter h can be aspirated, (h aspiré), or not aspirated, (h non aspiré), depending on whichlanguage the word was borrowed from. What do these terms mean? • Ex.: the word héros, (hero) has an aspirated h, because when the definite article le is placed before it, the result is le héros, and both words must be pronounced separately. However, the feminine form of héros, héroïne is a non-aspirated h. Therefore, when you put the definite artcle in front of it, it becomes lhéroïne, and is pronounced as one word.The only way to tell if the h at the beginning of a word is aspirated is to look it up in the dictionary.Some dictionaries will place an asterisk (*) in front of the entry word in the French-English H section ifthe h is aspirated. Other dictionaries will include it in the pronunciation guide after the key word byplacing a () before the pronunciation. In short, the words must be memorized.Here is a table of some basic h words that are aspirated and not aspirated: aspirated non-aspiratedhéros, hero (le héros) héroïne, heroine (lhéroïne)haïr, to hate (je hais or habiter, to live (jhabite...)jhaïs...)huit, eight (le huit novembre) harmonie, harmony (lharmonie)EXERCISE 2 1. Grab an English-French-English dictionary, and find at least ten aspirated h words, and ten non- aspirated h words 2. Make a column of the two categories of h-word. 3. Look at it every day and memorize the columns.AccentsThere are five different kinds of accent marks used in written French. They are: accent letters examples
  6. 6. usedacute accent é only éléphant: elephant(accent aigu)grave accent fièvre: fever, là, there è, à, ù(accent grave) où: where gâteau: cake, être: to be, île: island,circumflex â, ê, î, chômage: unemployment,(accent circonflexe) ô, û dû: past participle of devoirdiaeresis Noël: Christmas, maïs: corn, aigüe: ë, ï, ü, ÿ**(tréma) acute(fem)*cedilla ç only français: French(cédille) • Note : As of the spelling reform of 1990, the diaresis indicating gu is not a digraph on words finishing in guë is now placed on the u in standard (AKA "académie française" French) : aigüe and not aiguë, cigüe and not ciguë, ambigüe and not ambiguë (acute(fem), conium, ambiguous). Since this reform is relatively recent and not known in vulgar surrounding, both spellings can be used interchangeably (you might even get a point knocked off if you write "aigüe" in a text, it happened to me!) • Note : The letter ÿ is only used in very rare words, most old town names : LHaÿ-Les- Roses (Paris surburb). Pronounced like ï.Acute accent, accent aiguThe acute accent (French, accent aigu) is the most common accent used in written French. It is onlyused with the letter e and is always pronounced /ay/.One use of the accent aigu is to form the past participle or regular -er verbs. infinitive past participleaimer, to love aimé, lovedregarder, to watch regardé, watchedAnother thing to note is if you are unsure of how to translate certain words into English from French,and the word begins with é, replace that with the letter s and you will occasionally get the Englishword, or an approximation thereof: • Ex.: • étable --> stable (for horses) • école --> scole --> school • il étudie --> il studie --> he studies • And to combine what you already know about the accent aigu, here is one last example: • étranglé (from étrangler) --> stranglé --> strangledNB: This will not work with every word that begins with é.
  7. 7. Grave accent, accent grave • à and ùIn the case of the letters à and ù, the grave accent (Fr. accent grave), is used to graphically distinguishone word from another. without accent grave with accent gravea (3rd pers. sing of avoir, to have) à (preposition, to, at, et al.)la (definite article for feminine là (there)nouns)ou (conjunction, or) où (where) • èUnlike à and ù, è is not used to distinguish words from one another. The è used for pronunciation. Incareful speech, an unaccented e is pronounced /euh/, and in rapid speech is sometimes not pronouncedat all. The è is pronounced like the letter e in pet. Leçon 1 : Se présenter - Lesson 1: Introducing YourselfDialogue 1Two good friends—Marie and Jean—are meeting: • Marie: Salut Jean. Ça va ? • Jean: Ça va bien, merci. Et toi, ça va ? • Marie: Pas mal. • Jean: Quoi de neuf ? • Marie: Pas grand-chose. • Marie: Au revoir Jean. • Jean: Au revoir, à demain.Vocabulary 1Audio: OGG (353Kb)bonjour, salut hello (formal), hi (informal)Comment allez-vous? (formal),comment ça va?/ça how are you?va ? (informal)ça va bien Im doing well (lit. Im going well)merci thank youet toi ? et vous ? and you? (informal) and you? (formal)pas mal not badbien good
  8. 8. pas si bien/pas très bien not so wellcomme ci, comme ça so-soDésolé(e) Im sorry.quoi de neuf ? whats up (about you)? (lit. whats new)pas grand-chose not much (lit. not big-thing) bye (lit. with reseeing, akin to German aufau revoir Wiedersehen)à demain see you tomorrow (lit. at tomorrow)Au revoir, à demain. Bye, see you tomorrowDialogue 2Audio: Ogg (65 Kb)Two people—Monsieur Bernard and Monsieur Lambert—are meeting for the first time: • Monsieur Bernard : Bonjour. Comment vous appelez-vous ? • Monsieur Lambert : Je mappelle Jean-Paul Lambert. Et vous ? • Monsieur Bernard : Moi, je suis Marc Bernard. Enchanté. • Monsieur Lambert : Enchanté.Vocabulary 2Audio: Ogg (55Kb)Bonjour Hello; Good dayComment vous appelez-vous?/Quel est votre What is your name? (formal) (lit. how are younom? called)Tu tappelles comment? What is your name? (informal)Je mappelle... My name is... (lit. I am called...)Vous You (formal)Moi MeJe IJe suis... I am...Enchanté(e). Nice to meet you (lit. enchanted)Vous vs. tuIt is important to know when to use "vous" and when to use "tu" in French.
  9. 9. "Vous" is a plural form of "you". This is somewhat equivalent to "yall", "youse", "you guys", "all ofyou", except that it is much more formal than all but the latter example."Vous" is also used to refer to single individuals to show respect, to be polite or to be neutral. It is usedin occasions when talking to someone who is important, someone who is older than you are, orsomeone you are unfamiliar with. Note the conversation between M. Bernard and M. Lambert above asan example of this use.Conversely, "tu" is the singular and informal form of "vous" (you) in French. It is commonly usedwhen referring to a friend and a family member, and also used between children or when addressing achild. If it is used when speaking to a stranger, it signals disrespect.As a rule of thumb, use "tu" only when you would call that person by his first name, otherwise use"vous". French people will make it known when they would like you to refer to them by "tu".The French alphabetThe French alphabet is: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y zAn approximate pronounciation is: ah bay say day euh eff jhay ash ee zhee kah el em enn oh pay kuair ess tay ue vay dubl-vay eeks ee-grehk zedhAudio: OGG (101KB)In addition, French uses several accents which are worth understanding. These are: à, è, ù, (graveaccents) and é (acute accent) which only applies to e. A circumflex applies to all vowels as well: â, ê, î,ô, û. And also a tréma (French for diaerasis) for vowels: ä, ë, ï, ö, ü, ÿ and combined letters: æ and œDescribing yourselfNow that you have successfully said hello and how are you to your partner, it would be a good idea totell them a little about yourself. When stating your nationality or job, it is not necessary to say that youare un(e) whatever-it-is, only that, for example, "Je suis Australienne". This is an exception to thenormal rule.Please use the The Nations of the World Appendix to find out what your country is called in French,and its gender.Please note that there is both a masculine and feminine form of saying your nationality - for males andfemales respectively.To say where you live now, you use the verb habiter - "to live (somewhere)" and you form it using thefirst person "Je" form (I/me) present tense - "Je habite" - which truncates to "Jhabite". You thenchoose the right gender for the word "in", en, or aux.Leçon 2 : Grammaire de base - Lesson 2: Basic Grammar
  10. 10. Grammar: Gender of Nouns | Grammaire: Genre des NomsIn French, all nouns have a grammatical gender, that is, they are masculine or feminine for thepurposes of grammar only.Most nouns that express entities with gender (people and animals) use both a feminine form and amasculine form, for example, the two words for "actor" in French are acteur (m) and actrice (f).The nouns that express entities without gender (e.g., objects and abstract concepts) have only one form.This form can be masculine or feminine. For example, la voiture (the car) can only be feminine;lordinateur (the computer) can only be masculine.There are some nouns that express entities with gender for which there is only one form, which is usedregardless of the actual gender of the entity, for example, the word for person; personne; is alwaysfeminine, even if the person is male, and the word for teacher; professeur; is always masculine even ifthe teacher is female.Examples:Audio: Ogg (113 Kb)Masculinele cheval the horsele chien the dogle livre the bookle bruit the noiseSome endings that are usually used with masculine nouns are:-age le fromage the cheese le-r the teacher professeur-t le chat the cat le-isme capitalism capitalismeFemininela colombe the dovela chemise the shirtla maison the housela liberté libertySome endings that are usually used with feminine nouns are: la-ie the bakery boulangerie-ion la nation the nation-ite/- la fraternité brotherhood
  11. 11. ité-nne/- la fille the girlmme/-lle l’indienne the Indian-nce la balance the scalesUnfortunately, there are many exceptions in French which can only be learnt. There are even wordsthat are spelt the same, but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine; for example, un livre(m) means a book, but une livre (f) means a pound! Some words that appear to be masculine (like laphoto) are in fact feminine, and vice versa. Then there are some that just dont make sense; la foi isfeminine and means a belief, whereas le foie means liver. To help overcome this hurdle which manybeginners find very difficult, be sure to write vocabulary lists with the genders and learn the gendersalong with the words.Grammar: Definite and Indefinite ArticlesThe Definite ArticleIn English, the definite article is always “the”.In French, the definite article is changed depending on the nouns: 1. Gender 2. Plurality 3. First letter of the wordThere are three definite articles and an abbreviation. "Le" is used for masculine nouns, "La" is used forfeminine nouns, "Les" is used for plural nouns (both masculine or feminine), and "L " is used when thenoun begins with a vowel or silent "h" (both masculine or feminine). It is similar to english, where "a"changes to "an" before a vowel.Audio: Ogg (78Kb) the feminine la la fillesingular daughter masculine le le fils the sonsingular, starting with a l’ l’enfant the childvowel sound the les filles daughtersplural les les fils the sons les the children enfantsNote: Unlike English, the definate article is used to talk about something in a general sense, a generalstatement or feeling about an idea or thing.
  12. 12. The Indefinite ArticleIn English, the indefinite articles are "a" and "an". "Some" is used as a plural article in English.Again, indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality. The articles"Un" and "une" literally mean "one" in French.Audio: Ogg (55Kb) feminine une une fille a daughtersingular masculine un un fils a son des filles some daughtersplural des des fils* some sons • Note : "des fils" does mean "some sons" but is an homograph: it can also mean "some threads". • Note : des is used in French before plural nouns when no article is used in English. For example, In the sentence I see people , people would be des gens and not simply gens. Remember that if you are making a statement about people in general, such as I like people, les gens would be used.Grammar: Subject pronounsFrench has six different types of pronouns: the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person singular and the 1st, 2nd, and3rd person plural.Audio: Ogg (61Kb)1st singular je Iperson plural nous we2nd singular tu youperson plural vous you il, elle, singular he, she, one3rd onperson ils, they (masculine), they plural elles (feminine)When referring to more than one person in the 2nd person, “vous” must be used. When referring to asingle person, “vous” or “tu” may be used depending on the situation; see notes in lesson 1.In addition to the nuances between vous and tu, as discussed in lesson 1, French pronouns carrymeanings that do not exist in English pronouns. The French third person "on" has several meanings, butmost closely matches the now archaic English "one". While in English, "One must be very careful inFrench grammar" sounds old-fashioned, the French equivalent "On doit faire beaucoup attention à lagrammaire française" is quite acceptable. Also, while the third person plural "they" has no gender inEnglish, the French equivalents "ils" and "elles" do. However, when pronounced, they normally soundthe same as "il" and "elle", so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the variousconjugations of the verbs following the pronoun. Also, if a group of people consists of both males andfemales, the male form is used, even if there is only one male in a group of thousands of females.
  13. 13. In everyday language, “on” is used, instead of “nous”, to express “we”; the verb is always used in the3rd person singular. For example, to say "We (are) meeting at 7 oclock", you could say either “On serencontre au cinéma à sept heures.” (colloquial) or “Nous nous rencontrons au cinéma à sept heures.”(formal).Grammar: ConjugationFrench verbs conjugate, which means they take different shapes depending on the subject. Englishverbs only have one conjugation; that is the third person singular (I see, you see, he/she sees, we see,they see). The only exception is the verb "to be", which is the only example of English verbconjugation; (I am; (thou art); you are; he/she is; we are; they are;). Most French verbs will conjugateinto many different forms.The verb êtreÊtre can be translated to “to be” in English. Here, we will look at the conjugations in the present tense,or present indicative. There is one conjugation for each of the six subject pronouns.Être Audio: Ogg (103Kb) French English French English 1st nous je suis I am we areperson sommes you you 2nd tu es are(famili vous êtes are(politeperson ar) or plural) 3rd il/elle/o he/she/on ils/elles they areperson n est e is sontExamplesJe suis avocat. I am (a) lawyer.Tu es à la banque. You are at the bank.Il est beau. He is handsome.Try to learn all these conjugations. They will become very useful in forming tenses.Grammar: The verb avoir"Avoir" can be translated as "to have".
  14. 14. Avoir Audio: Ogg (100Kb) avoir - to have French English French English 1st person jai I have nous avons we have2nd person tu as you have vous avez you have (polite)3rd person il/elle/on a he/she/one has ils/elles ont they haveExamplesJai deux stylos. I have two pens.Tu as trois frères. You have three brothers.Il a une idée. He has an idea. Leçon 3 : Voyager - Lesson 3: TravellingAdjectives - Les adjectifsJust like articles, French adjectives also have to match the nouns that they modify in gender andplurality.Regular FormationMost adjective changes occur in the following manner: • Feminine: add an -e to the masculine form • un garçon intéressant --> une fille intéressante • un ami amusant --> une amie amusante • un camion lent --> une voiture lente • Plural: add an -s to the masculine form • un garçon intéressant --> des garçons intéressants • une fille intéressante --> des filles intéressantesPronunciationGenerally, the final consonant is pronounced only when it comes before an -e. Most adjectives, such asthose above, are affected by this rule. • Masculine Pronuciation: intéressan, amusan, len
  15. 15. • Feminine Pronunciation: intéressant, amusant, lentFor more advanced rules, see the topic: French Adjectives: Describing Nouns in FrenchVocabulary: NationalitiesHere is a list of nationalities: Audio: Ogg (300Kb) Masculine Feminine Englishallemand allemande Germanaméricain américaine Americananglais anglaise Englishaustralien australienne Australianbelge belge Belgianbirman birmane Burmesecambodgien cambodgienne Cambodiancanadien canadienne Canadianchinois chinoise Chinesecoréen coréenne Koreanespagnol espagnole Spanishfrançais française Frenchindien indienne Indianindonésien indonésienne Indonesianitalien italienne Italianjaponais japonaise Japanesemalaisien malaisienne Malaysianmauricien mauricienne Mauritiannéerlandais néerlandaise Dutchphilippin philippine Filipinoportugais portugaise Portuguesesingapourien singapourienne Singaporeansuédois suédoise Swedishsuisse suisse Swissthaïlandais thaïlandaise Thaivénézuélien vénézuéliene Venezuelanvietnamien vietnamienne VietnameseNationalities are not capitalized as often in French as they are in English. If you are referring to aperson, as in an Arab person or a Chinese person, the French equivalent is un Arabe or un Chinois.
  16. 16. However, if you are referring to the Arabic language or Chinese language, the French would notcapitalize: larabe; le chinois. If the nationality is used as an adjective, it is normally left uncapitalized;un livre chinois, un tapis arabe.Grammar - NegationIn order to say that one did not do something, the ne ... pas construction must be used. The ne is placedbefore the verb, while the pas is placed after.ExamplesIl est avocat. He is [a] lawyer.Il nest pas avocat. He is not [a] lawyer.Nous faisons nos devoirs. We are doing our homework.Nous ne faisons pas nos devoirs. We are not doing our homework.Je joue du piano. I play the piano.Je ne joue pas du piano. I do not play the piano.Vous vendez votre voiture. You sell your car.Vous ne vendez pas votre You do not sell your car.voiture.When negating with the indefinite article (un, une), the indefinite article changes to de.ExamplesIl est belge. He is Belgian.Il nest pas belge. He is not Belgian.Nous lisons un livre. We read a book.Nous ne lisons pas de livre. We do not read a book.Je mange une cerise. I eat a cherry.Je ne mange pas de cerise. I do not eat a cherry.
  17. 17. When negating in the passé composé, the ne ... pas (in this case, n... pas) are placed around theauxillary avoir.For more, see Negative ExpressionsVocabulary: TravelingAudio: Ogg (Kb)il y a there is, there arel’aéroport (m.) airportl’autobus (m.) busl’avion (m.) aircraft, airplaneles bagages baggagele billet ticket (for train, airplane)le métro subway, undergroundla poste post officele taxi taxile ticket ticket (for bus, métro)le train trainla valise suitcasela voiture carVocabulary: ColorsAudio: Ogg (Kb)Masculine Feminine Englishblanc blanche whitegris grise graynoir noire blackrouge rouge redorange orange orangejaune jaune yellowvert verte greenbleu bleue blueviolet violette violetmarron marron brown
  18. 18. (everything but hair) brown (exceptbrun brune for hair = Dark Haired)rose rose pinksafran safranne saffronVocabulary: NumbersAudio: Ogg (Kb)un 1 une unité (a unity)deux 2trois 3quatre 4cinq 5six 6sept 7huit 8neuf 9dix 10 une dizaine (one ten)onze 11douze 12 une douzaine (one dozen)treize 13quatorze 14quinze 15seize 16dix-sept 17dix-huit 18dix-neuf 19vingt 20vingt et un 21vingt [deux - neuf] 22-29trente 30trente et un 31
  19. 19. trente [deux - neuf] 32-39quarante 40cinquante 50soixante 60soixante-dix 70soixante-et-onze 71soixante-[douze - dix-neuf] 72-79quatre-vingts 80quatre-vingt-un 81quatre-vingt-[deux - neuf] 82-89quatre-vingt-dix 90quatre-vingt-[onze - dix- 91-99neuf]cent 100 une centaine (one hundred)[deux - neuf] cent 200-900mille 1.000 un millier (one thousand)(un) million 1.000.000(un) milliard 1.000.000.000Things of note about numbers: • For 70-79, it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for 80- 99 • Only the first (21,31,41,51,etc) have "et un"; but past this it is simply both words consecutivly (vingt-six, trente-trois, etc) • For 100-199, it looks much like this list already save that "cent" is added before the rest of the number; this continues up to 1000 and onward.Vocabulary: TimeAudio: Ogg (Kb)In French, “il est” is used to express the time; though it would literally translate as “he is”, it is actually,in this case, equivalent to “it is” (unpersonal "il"). Unlike in English, it is always important to use“heures” (“hours”) when referring to the time. In English, it is OK to say, “It’s nine,” but this wouldn’tmake sense in French.Quelle heure est-il ? What time is it?Il est une heure. It is one o’clock.Il est trois heures. It is three o’clock.Il est dix heures. It is ten o’clock.
  20. 20. Il est midi. It is noon.Il est minuit. It is midnight.Il est quatre heures cinq. It is five past four.Il est quatre heures et quart. It is a quarter past four.Il est quatre heures quinze. It is four fifteen.Il est quatre heures et demie. It is half past four.Il est quatre heures trente. It is four thirty.Il est cinq heures moins vingt It is twenty to fiveIl est quatre heures quarante. It is four forty.Vocabulary: DaysQuel jour sommes-nous What day is it?aujourd’hui ?Nous sommes... It is...lundi Mondaymardi Tuesdaymercredi Wednesdayjeudi Thursdayvendredi Fridaysamedi Saturdaydimanche Sundayavant-hier the day before yesterdayhier yesterdayaujourd’hui todaydemain tomorrowaprès-demain the day after tomorrowNotes: • What day is it today? is equivalent to Quel jour sommes-nous ?. • Quel jour sommes-nous ? can be answered with Nous sommes..., Cest... or On est... (last two are less formal). • Nous sommes... is not used with hier, aujourd’hui, or demain. Cétait (past) or Cest (present/future) must be used accordingly.
  21. 21. Leçon 4 : Verbes - Lesson 4: VerbsGrammar - Regular VerbsFrench has three different types of regular verbs: -er, -ir, and -re verbs. To conjugate, drop the -er, -ir,or -re to find the "stem" or "root". Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense, asdemonstrated below for the present tense. Conjugations for jouer (to play), finir (to finish), andattendre (to wait) are shown as examples. -er verbs; jouer - to playpronoun ending verbje -e jouetu -es jouesil/elle -e jouenous -ons jouonsvous -ez jouezils/elles -ent jouent -ir verbs; finir - to finishpronoun ending verbje -is finistu -is finisil/elle -it finitnous -issons finissonsvous -issez finissezils/elles -issent finissent -re verbs; attendre – to waitpronoun ending verbje (j) -s attendstu -s attendsil/elle - attendnous -ons attendonsvous -ez attendezils/elles -ent attendentNote: In all conjugations, je changes to j when followed by a vowel. Example: Jattends. Also, as arule of thumb: "h" is considered a vowel; as in "Jhabite...".
  22. 22. Grammar - Irregular VerbsGrammar - FaireThe verb faire is translated to to do or to make. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as aregular -re verb) as follows: faire - to do, to make French English French English 1st person je fais I do nous faisons we do2nd person tu fais you do vous faites you do (polite)3rd person il/elle fait he/she/it does ils/elles font they doGrammar - AvoirThe verb avoir translates to to have. It is not a regular -ir verb; it is irregularly conjugated. avoir - to have French English French English 1st person jai I have nous avons we have2nd person tu as you have vous avez you have (polite)3rd person il/elle a he/she/it has ils/elles ont they haveFor a list of all irregular verbs, see Irregular Verb Conjugations Leçon 5 : Récréation - Lesson 5: RecreationExample DialogHere is a short dialog about people planning/doing leisure activities. Besides the new vocabulary youshould also have a look at how the verbs are conjugated depending on the subject of the sentence. • Jean-Paul : Quest-ce que vous faites ? • Marc et Paul : Nous jouons au tennis. • Marie : Je finis mes devoirs. • Michel : Jattends mon ami. • Pierre : Je vais au parc. • Christophe : Je viens du stade.
  23. 23. Vocabulary for DialogQuest-ce que vous faîtes? What are you doing?faire to dojouer to playfinir to finish(mes) devoirs (my) homeworkattendre to wait (for)(mon) ami(e) (my) friendaller to gole parc parkvenir to comele stade stadiumGrammar - À and DeThe preposition à can indicate a destination, a location, a characteristic, measurement, a point in time,purpose, and several other things which will be covered later.When le follows à, the à and le combine into au. Similarly, à and les combine into aux.The preposition de can indicate an origin, contents, possession, cause, manner, and several other thingswhich will be covered later.When le follows de, the de and le combine into du. Similarly, de and les combine into des.Grammar - AllerThe verb aller is translated to to go. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -er verb)as follows:allerje vaistu vasil vanous allonsvous allezils vont
  24. 24. Aller is used with the preposition à. Example: Je vais au stade.Grammar - VenirThe verb venir is translated to to come. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -irverb) as follows:venirje vienstu viensil vientnous venonsvous venezils viennentWhen it means to come from, venir is used with the preposition de. Example: Nous venons du stade.You can also use venir with a verb to state that you have recently accomplished an action. Example: Jeviens de finir mes devoirs (Ive just finished my homework).Vocabulary - Placesla bibliothèque library (caution: a librairie is a bookshop)le parc parkla piscine swimming poolla plage beachle restaurant restaurantsalle de concert concert hallle stade stadiumle théâtre theaterGrammar - JouerThe verb jouer is a regular -er verb meaning to play. It can be used to refer to both sports andinstruments.When referring to sports, use jouer à, but when referring to instruments, use jouer de...As always, jouer must be conjugated rather than left in the infinitive.
  25. 25. jouer (à)au baseball baseballau basket basketballau football soccer; footballau football American footballaméricainau golf golfau tennis tennisau volley volleyballaux cartes cardsaux dames checkers/ draughtsaux échecs chessjouer (de)de la clarinette clarinetdu piano pianode la batterie drums (singular in French)du violon violinde la guitare guitar Leçon 6 : Le passé - Lesson 6: Past TenseGrammar - Past TensePassé composé, passé simple, imparfait and plus-que-parfait are the four most common past tenses inFrench, though passé simple is used in writing only.Passé composéIt is a compound tense--it has two parts. The first is the auxiliary verb, the second is the past participle.Every verb has one past participle that does not change (there are some exceptions, as one will learnlater).There are two auxiliary verbs: avoir and être. One must only conjugate the proper auxiliary, and thenmerely add on the past participle.To find the past participle, the stem of the infinitive must be determined. To do so, drop the -er, -ir, -oiror -re, as usual. Then, add an ending as shown in the following table:
  26. 26. word Example Verb Remove Ending Add Ending Example P. Partjouer -er -é jouéfinir -ir -i finivouloir -oir -u vouluattendre -re -u attenduHowever, the verbs avoir, être, and faire have irregular past participles.verb P. Part.avoir euêtre étéfaire faitMost verbs form the passé composé with avoir, however there are a small number of verbs that arealways conjugated with être. The most common are: verb examplealler Je suis allé au cinéma. I went to the cinema.venir I came to France. Je suis venu en france.arriver Le train est arrivé. The train has arrived.partir Elle est partie travailler. She left to go to work.rester Je suis resté à la maison. I stayed home.retourner Il est retourné au restaurant. He returned to the restaurant.tomber Je suis tombé dans la piscine. I fell into the pool.naître Je suis né en octobre. I was born in october.
  27. 27. mourir Il est mort en 1917. He died in 1917.passer Il est passé devant la maison. It happened in front of the house.monter Je suis monté au sommet. I climbed to the top.descendre Il est descendu du train. He got out of the train.sortir Je suis sorti avec mes amies. I went out with my friends. Je suis entré dans maentrer I entered my room. chambre.rentre Il est rentré tôt de lécole. He came back early from school.(I recommend adding this, and dont know how to put in the circumflex). Also, reflexive or pronomialverbs must be conjugated with être under most circumstances. For example, the verb "se reflechir" isconjugated in the first person singular by je me suis reflechi.The verbs that take être can be easily remebered by the Acronym MRS. RD VANDERTRAMP: • M:monté • R:resté • S:sorti • R:revenu • D:devenu • V:venu • A:arrivé • N:né • D:descendu • E:entré • R:rentré • T:tombé • R:retourné • A:allé • M:mort • P:partiHowever, One must know that these verbs take their conjugated avoir when they areimmediately followed by a direct objectFor Example: • Je suis descendu with the direct object "mes baggages" becomes: • Jai descendu mes baggages
  28. 28. Another example: • Je suis monté with the direct object "mes baggages" becomes: • Jai monté mes baggagesYet another example but with ils instead of Je: • Ils sont sortis with direct object "leur passport" becomes: • Ils ont sorti leur passportPassé simpleUnlike English, there is a literary past tense, used when writing formally. This past tense is named thepassé simple. It is relatively simple to predict when to use this tense; for every occurrence of the passécomposé in conversational French, one simply uses the passé simple in literary French.To conjugate in this tense, one finds the stem and appends the following, as according to the table: Subject Add Ending Conjugated VerbJe -ai dansaiTu -as dansasIl / Elle / On -a dansaNous -âmes dansâmesVous -âtes dansâtesIls / Elles -èrent dansèrentIt should be noted that être, along with a few other verbs are consistent in their irregularities in thepassé simple as well.Imperfect - ImparfaitThe imparfait is used to "set the tone" of a past situation. An example in English being: "We weresinging when Dad came home." It tells what was going on when a particular action or event occured. InFrench, the above example would be: "Nous chantions quand papa est rentré."In order to conjugate the imperfect, • take the 1st person plural of the verb you want to conjugate:jouer (to play)
  29. 29. singular plural1st person je joue nous jouons2nd person tu joues vous jouez3rd person il joue ils jouent • Remove the -ons ending to find the stem, and add these endings: subject ending jouer (nous jouons) finir (nous finissons) attendre (nous attendons)je -ais jouais finissais attendaistu -ais jouais finissais attendaisil/elle/on -ait jouait finissait attendaitnous -ions jouions finissions attendionsvous -iez jouiez finissiez attendiezils/elles/ -aient jouaient finissaient attendaient • Note: The only verb that has an irregular stem (one not derived from the nous form of the present idicative) is être. The imperfect ending are added to ét___. Every other verb uses the nous form of the present indicative as its root. • Note: For more information, see Imperfect (French)Plus-que-parfaitThe plus-que-parfait is used when there are two occurrences in the past and one wants to symbolisethat one occurrence happened before the other. In English, this is used in a phrase like "I had given himthe toy before he went to sleep." In this example, there are two past tenses, but they occur at differenttimes. The plus-que-parfait can be used to indicate the occurrence of one before the other. Essentially,the past before the past.In French, the plus-que-parfait is formed by conjugating the auxiliary verb in the imparfait and addingthe past participle. So to conjugate je mange (I eat) in the plus-que-parfait, one finds the appropriateauxiliary verb (avoir), conjugates it (avais) and finds the past participle of manger (mangé). So, theconjugation of Je mange in the plus-que-parfait becomes javais mangé or, in English, I had eaten.ExamplesJai parlé français. I spoke French (on one particular occasion). I spoke French (during a period of time, and I dont speak French anyJe parlais français. more).Nous avons réussi We passed the test.lexamen.
  30. 30. Il a été mon ami. He was my friend (and he is not my friend any more)Il était mon ami lorsque... He was my friend when . . .Ils ont fait leurs devoirs. They did their homework.Il est venu. He came (and I dont need to say when)Il vint le lendemain. He came the day after.Il venait tous les jours. He came/used to come every day.Il était déjà venu. He had already come.It should be noted that these examples are making use of all the possible past tenses; not just the plus-que-parfait.Grammar - Object PronounsDirect ObjectsWhile the subject of a sentence initiates an action (the verb), the direct object is the one that is affectedby the action. A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence:Pierre mange du Pierre eats some bread.pain.Pierre le mange. Pierre eats it.The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns:me/ m mete/ t youle/ l he, itla/ l she, itnous us
  31. 31. vous youles themNotes: • The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. • The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. • When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense, a tense that uses a past participle, the direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle. For example, in te phrase Je les ai eus, or I had them, the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object, les, was referring to a masculine object, and eues if les is referring to a feminine object.Indirect ObjectsAn indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom...? or From whom...?. It is calledindirect because it occurs usually together with a direct object which is affected directly by the action:Lhomme donne du pain à The man gives some bread to Pierre.Pierre.Il lui donne du pain. He gives bread to him.The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns:me/ m mete/ t yoului he, she, itnous usvous youleur themNotes: • The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. • The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject.The bread is given by the man (direct). Pierre gets the given apple (indirect).
  32. 32. Leçon 7 : La famille - Lesson 7: FamilyVocabulary - The Familyles parents parentsle père fatherla mère motherle frère brotherla soeur sisterles enfants childrenle fils sonla fille daughterles grand-parents grandparentsle grand-père grandfatherla grand-mère grandmotherles petits-enfants grandchildrenle petit-fils grandsonla petite-fille granddaughterloncle unclela tante auntle neveu nephewla nièce niecele cousin cousin (m)la cousine cousin (f)le mari husbandla femme wifema famille my extended familyéloignée Leçon 8 : Lécole - Lesson 8: School
  33. 33. Vocabulary - Schoolle professeur teacherlétudiant student (m)létudiante student (f)le stylo penle crayon pencilla calculatrice calculatorle pupitre deskle tableau chalkboardla craie chalkle livre bookle bouquin bookle cahier notebookle papier paperla feuille de papier sheet of paperlécole (f) schoolle collège high school (grades 6-9)le lycée high school (grades 10-12)luniversité (f) universityla fac(ulté) universityla bibliothèque libraryla bourse scholarshiplexamen (m) testles devoirs homeworkla classe classintelligent(e) intelligentstupide stupidNote: • The word professeur is considered masculine at all times, even if the teacher is female. The only case when "professeur" can be preceded by feminine determinant is either when contracting it in colloquial language "la prof", or when adding a few words before : "madame/mademoiselle la/le professeur".
  34. 34. The Subjunctive Mood - Le subjonctifThe subjunctive mood is rarely used in English. It is used in French, we conjugate the verb differentlyto express: • doubt (Je doute que...) • emotion (Je crois[believe] que...) • desire (Je veux[want] que...) • other subjective expression. (Il faut que...)An example expression that uses the subjunctive: Je veux que tu viennes. meaning "I want you tocome" (literally: "I want that you come").Another common example is the "Il faut que..." phrase, meaning "It is nesesary that".The conjugation of the present subjunctive (the present tense in the subjunctive mood) is not thatdifficult. Simply remove the ent from the ils/elles form of the verb and add the appropriate endings.MANGER - Ils/Elles mangent - Stem mangQue je mangeQue tu mangesQue il/elle/on mangeQue nous mangionsQue vous mangiezQue ils/elles mangentThe ending are the same for most irregular verbs as well as ir and re verbs.FINIR - Ils/Elles finissent - Stem finissQue je finisseQue tu finissesQue il/elle/on finisseQue nous finissionsQue vous finissiezQue ils/elles finissentUnfortunately there are many verbs which are irregular in the subjunctive mood.Our good friends être and avoir are irregular in the present subjunctive as well. These are importantbecause in the past subjunctive (the passé composé in subjunctive) what is needed is the auxiliary verbsin the subjunctive.ETREQue je soisQue tu soisQuil/elle/on soitQue nous soyonsQue vous soyezQuils/elles soient
  35. 35. AVOIRQue jaieQue tu aiesQuil/elle/on aitQue nous ayonsQue vous ayezQuils/elles aientOther irregular verbs in the subjunctiveALLERQue je ailleQue tu aillesQuil/elle/on ailleQue nous allionsQue vous alliezQuils/elles allientFAIREQue je fasseQue tu fassesQuil/elle/on fasseQue nous fassionsQue vous fassiezQuils/elles fassentPhrasesPresent • Il faut que vous fassies votres devoirs. • Il faut que vous alliez à lécole. • Il faut écouter la prof. - Its nesesary to listen to the teacher-To make a general statement using "Il faut que..." that does not have a subject, you may use theinfinive. • Je crois que tu aies lu le livre. (I believe that you have read the book)-This statement is in the Passé Subjonctif. Notice how the "helping verb" is conjugated in thesubjonctif, but the Passé Composé participle is used for the verb. -Lu is the past participle for Lire, toread. • Note: For more informatiion see the topic.
  36. 36. Leçon 9 : La nourriture et les boissons - Lesson 9: Food and DrinkVocabulary - Food and DrinkGeneralla cuisine kitchenla salle à manger dining roomle restaurant restaurantavoir faim to be hungryavoir soif to be thirstymanger to eatboire to drinkprendre to takevouloir to wantle repas the mealle petit-déjeuner breakfastle déjeuner lunchle dîner dinnerCanadian and Belgian French has an off-by-one behaviour with meals : breakfast is called déjeuner,lunch is called dîner and dinner is souper.Fruits and Vegetables les fruits fruitsla banane bananala cerise cherryle citron lemonla fraise strawberrylorange (f) orangela pomme applele raisin grape les légumes vegetables
  37. 37. la carotte carrotles épinards spinachloignon (m) onionles petits pois peasla pomme de terre potatola tomate tomatoMeat and Seafood la viande meatlagneau (m) lambla dinde turkeyle jambon hamle porc porkle poulet chickenle boeuf beefla saucisse sausage les fruits de mer (m pl) shellfish, seafoodLa coquille Saint- scallopJacques(f) le poisson fishles anchois (m pl) anchoviesle saumon salmonlanguille (f) eelDairy Products les produits laitiers - dairy productsle beurre butterle fromage cheesele lait milkle yaourt/le yogurtyoghurt
  38. 38. Drinks les boissons - drinksla bière beerle café coffeele chocolat chaud hot chocolatela limonade lemonadeleau (f) waterle jus juicele jus dorange orange juicele jus de pomme apple juicele jus de raisin grape juicele jus de tomate tomato juicele thé teale vin wineDesserts le dessert - dessertle bonbon candyle chocolat chocolatele gâteau cakela glace ice creamla mousse moussela tarte pieOther Foodsla confiture jamles frites "French fries"la mayonnaise mayonnaisela moutarde mustardle pain breadle poivre pepperle riz rice
  39. 39. le sel saltle sucre sugarSilverware, Etc.lassiette (f) platele bol bowlle couteau knifela cuillère spoonla fourchette forkla serviette napkinla tasse cuple verre glassGrammar - MangerThe verb manger is translated to to eat. It is a regular -er verb that is stem changing. Stem changingverbs have slight changes in the stem, but use endings employed in conjugating other regular verbs.For manger and all other regular -ger verbs, the stem change is adding an e after the g. This onlyapplies in the nous form. In this case, the change is made to preserve the soft g pronunciation ratherthan the hard g that would be present if the e were not included. manger - to eatje mangetu mangesil mangenous mangeonsvous mangezils mangentGrammar - BoireThe verb boire is translated to to drink. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -reverb) as follows: boire - to drinkje bois
  40. 40. tu boisil boitnous buvonsvous buvezils boiventThe irregular past participle for boire is bu.Grammar - VouloirThe verb vouloir is translated to to want. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -irverb) as follows: vouloir - to wantje veuxtu veuxil veutnous voulonsvous voulezils veulentGrammar - Partitive ArticleThe partitive article de indicates, among other things, the word some. As learnt earlier, de and lecontract (combine) into du, as de and les contract into des. Also, instead of du or de la, de l is used infront of vowels.When speaking about food, the partitive article is used at some times while the definite article (le, la,les) is used at other times, and the indefinite article (un, une) in yet another set of situations.When speaking about preferences, use the definite article:Jaime la glace. I like ice cream.Nous préférons le steak. We prefer steak.Vous aimez les frites You like French fries.When speaking about eating or drinking an item, there are specific situations for the use of each article. Def. art. specific/whole itemsJai mangé la tarte. I ate the (whole) pie. Ind. art. known quantityJai mangé une tarte. I ate a pie.
  41. 41. Part. art. unknown quantityJai mangé de la tarte. I ate some pie.In the negative construction, certain rules apply. As one has learnt in a previous lesson, un or unechanges to de (meaning, in this context, any) in a negative construction. Similarly, du, de la, or deschange to de in negative constructions.Nous avons mangé une tarte. We ate a pie.Nous navons pas mangé de tarte. We did not eat a pie/ We did not eat any pie.Nous avons mangé de la tarte. We ate some pie. We did not eat some pie/ We did not eat anyNous navons pas mangé de tarte. pie.Note : Now you should understand better how that "Quoi de neuf?"(whats new?) encountered in thevery first lesson was constructed... "Quoi de plus beau?!" (what is there prettier?)Grammar - En & YNote how we say Je veux du pain to say I want some bread ? But what happens when we want to say Iwant some without specifying what we want? In these cases, we use the pronoun en. As well, en canmean of it when it is not specified. For instance, instead of saying Jai besoin de largent, if the ideaof money has already been raised, we can just say Jen ai besoin. This is because what en does isreplace du, de la or des when there is nothing after it.Like with me, te and other pronouns, en (meaning some) comes before the verb.Tu joue du piano? Non, je nen joue pas Do you play piano? No, I dont play it.Vous prenez du poisson? Oui, jen prends. Are you having fish? Yes, Im having some.Vous avez commandé de leau? Oui, nous en avons Did you order some water? Yes, we orderedcommandé. some.The other pronoun that works like this is y. Just as en replaces du, de la, and des when there is no nounspecified, y replaces au, à, and aux when there is no noun specified. It mostly means there.Tu vas à lécole? Oui, jy vais. Do you go to school? Yes, I go there.Vous êtes allées au nouveau café? Non, nous ny Did you go to the new cafe? No, we didnt gosommes pas allées. there.Ils jouent au foot? Oui, ils y jouent. Do they play football/soccer? Yes, they play it. She thinks about boys. Yes, I think about itElle pense aux garçons. Oui, jy pense aussi. (them) as well.For more detailed information, see French Pronouns Leçon 10 : Faire des courses - Lesson 10: Shopping
  42. 42. Vocabulary - Shopping French Englishfaire des courses; faire du shopping to go shoppingfaire du lèche-vitrine to go window shoppingacheter to buypayer to payvendre to sellle magasin shop; storele supermarché supermarketle hypermarché hypermarket; big supermarketle grand magasin department storela boucherie butcher shop 1la boulangerie bakery 2le dépôt de pain a place that sells bread 2la charcuterie delicatessen 3lépicerie grocery 4le marché outdoor marketla pâtisserie pastry shopla pharmacie pharmacy; chemist 1. French butchers do not sell pork, pork products, nor horsemeat. For these products, go to a charcuterie. 2. In France, bakeries only sell fresh bread. Places where they sell bread that is not fresh are called dépôt de pain. 3. Charcuteries sell things besides pork products, including pâte, salami, cold meats, salads, quiches and pizzas. 4. An alternative to an épicerie is an alimentation générale (a general foodstore).Grammar - AcheterThe verb acheter translates to to buy. It is a regular -er verb, but, like manger, it is stem changing.Unlike manger, the stem change applies to all forms except nous and vous. The stem change, whichapplies in all verbs with an e in the second-to-last syllable, involves adding a grave accent ( ` ) over thee in the stem, as shown in the following table: acheter - to buy French English French English 1st person jachète I buy nous achetons we buy
  43. 43. 2nd person tu achètes you buy vous achetez you buy (polite) he/she/it3rd person il/elle achète ils/elles achètent they buy buys[edit]Grammar - PayerThe verb payer translates to to pay. It is a regular -er verb, but, it is also stem changing. Like acheter,the stem change applies to all forms except nous and vous. The stem change, which applies in all verbsending in -yer, involves changing the y to an i, as shown in the following table: payer - to pay French English French English 1st person je paie I pay nous payons we pay2nd person tu paies you pay vous payez you pay (polite)3rd person il/elle paie he/she/it pay ils/elles paient they payGrammar - VendreThe verb vendre is a regular -re verb: vendre - to sell French English French English 1st person je vends I sell nous vendons we sell2nd person tu vends you sell vous vendez you sell (polite) he/she/it3rd person il/elle vend ils/elles vendent they sell sellsPractise ConversationsLets practise some of these words and verbs in some everyday shopping talk:1. À la boulangerie (At the bakery)Bernard (le boulanger) : Bonjour madameCamille (la cliente) : Bonjour monsieurBernard : Quest-ce que vous voulez ?Camille : Je voudrais acheter une baguette, sil vous plaîtBernard : Cest tout ?Camille : Non, je voudrais deux croissants aussi
  44. 44. Bernard : Très bien - ça fait deux euros, sil vous plaîtCamille : Merci beaucoupUseful vocabulary here:"Quest-ce que vous voulez ?" - What would you like?"Je voudrais..." - I would like . . ."Cest tout ?" - Is that all?"Ça fait deux euros" - Thatll be two eurosRemember your verb - acheter (to buy).Note of a frenchman :"Quest-ce que vous voulez ?" is a little abrupt. We use mostly "Que voulez-vous ?" or "Que désirez-vous ?".Same for "Cest tout ?", we use most of the time "Ce sera tout ?" (future tense) or "Et avec ceci ?" (andwith this?).2. Au marché (At the market)Marie (la marchande) : Bonjour monsieurClément (le client) : Bonjour madameClément : Quest-ce que vous avez à vendre ?Marie : Jai un grand choix de fruits et légumesClément : Très bien. Est-ce que vous avez des cerises ?Marie : Oui... elles coûtent deux euros le kiloClément : Bon, je voudrais trois kilos, sil vous plaîtMarie : Très bien, monsieur. Alors, pour trois kilos il faut payer six euros, sil vous plaît.Useful vocabulary here:"Quest-ce que vous avez... ?" - What do you have?"Un grand choix" - A large range"Des cerises" - Some cherries"Elles coûtent deux euros le kilo" - They (feminine) cost two euros per kilo"Il faut" - One must/You need toRemember your verbs - vendre (to sell) and payer (to pay).
  45. 45. Leçon 11 : La maison - Lesson 11: The HouseVocabulary - the Household French EnglishLa maison House/HomeLappartement(m) Flat/ApartmentLa pièce RoomLe plafond CeilingLe sol GroundLa cave BasementLe grenier AtticLa cuisine KitchenLa salle à manger Dining roomLa salle de bain BathroomLa chambre à coucher BedroomLes toilettes (f) (no Water-closetsingular)La porte DoorLa fenêtre WindowLe toit RoofLe mur WallLescalier (m) StairLétage (m) LevelLe rideau CurtainLa chaise ChairLa table TableLarmoire (f) CupboardLe lit BedLe tapis CarpetVocabulary - Houseworkle ménage the housework
  46. 46. faire la cuisine to do the cookingfaire la lessive/le to do the laundrylingefaire le jardin to do the gardeningfaire le lit to make the bedfaire le ménage to do the houseworkfaire la vaiselle to do the dishesfaire les carreaux to do the windowsfaire les courses to do the shopping/errandsfaire le repassage to do the ironingmettre le couvert to set the tablepréparer un repas to prepare a mealFuture and Conditional TensesThere are three versions of the futur tense in French, the futur simple the futur composé, and the futurantérieur(future perfect). The futur composé is formed by inserting the present form of aller before theinfinitive, e.g. elle va réussir (she will pass, or she is going to pass) is the futur composé of elle réussitTo conjugate a verb in the futur simple, one takes the infinitive and appends the following, asaccording to the table: Subject Add Ending Conjugated VerbJe -ai réussiraiTu -as réussirasIl / Elle / On -a réussiraNous -ons réussironsVous -ez réussirezIls / Elles -ont réussirontTo conjugate a verb in the Conditional, one takes the infinitive and appends the following, as accordingto the table: Subject Add Ending Conjugated VerbJe -ais réussirais
  47. 47. Tu -ais réussiraisIl / Elle / On -ait réussiraitNous -ions réussirionsVous -iez réussiriezIls / Elles -aient réussiraientExercisesTry to describe your house or bedrooom using the vocabulary. Dont forget prepositions.You may also wish to talk about what housework you do. Leçon 12 : Le corps - Lesson 12: The BodyBody partsHere is the vocabulary to speak about body parts : French EnglishLa tête HeadLe corps BodyLe bras ArmLa jambe LegLa poitrine ChestLe ventre BellyLépaule (f) ShoulderLe coude ElbowLe poignet WristLa main HandLe doigt Finger
  48. 48. Le genou KneeLe pied FootLorteil (m) ToeLoeil (m) (pl. les Eyeyeux)La bouche MouthLa dent ToothLe nez NoseLoreille (f) EarLe cou NeckLa langue TongueLes cheveux HairLongle (m) NailLe poumon LungLestomac (m) StomachLe coeur HeartLe foie LiverLinstestin (m) IntestineLos (m) BoneLe crâne SkullLe muscle MuscleLe cerveau BrainLa rate SpleenLutérus WombLe nombril Navel, belly buttonBody positionAnd here is the vocabulary for body positions : French EnglishDebout StandingAssis SeatingCouché Laying downÀ genoux Kneeling
  49. 49. Accroupi SquattedCommon sentenciesWhen you catch a cold you attrapes un rhume. When youre sick, tu es malade. When you wish to saythat parts of your body are sore, you say "Jai mal à [body part] ...". Example: Jai mal à la tete. (I havea headache); Jai mal aux dents (My teeth hurt).Exercises • Point to different parts of the body and recite its name in French par cœur. Leçon 13 : La culture - Lesson 13: CultureVocabulary - CultureFrench Lifela religion religionle musulman MuslimChrétien ChristianLIslam Islamlathée (m.) athiestLe Père noël Santa Clauselr 14 june Bastille Dayla langue languagele fromage cheeselagglomération (f.) urban areaHexagone France (borders)News and Current Eventsun quotidien a daily newspaper
  50. 50. un hebdomadaire a weekly magazinelactualité news, current eventsles nouvelles newsles faits divers local news itemsse tenir informé(e) to stay informedla une the frontpageFrench Social Problemsle cambrioleur burglarun voleur a thieflincendie (f.) firele vanalisme vandalismlacte de terrorisme (m.) terrorismla criminalité crimeLes loisirs - Leisure Activitesle cinéma cinemala musique musicle baladeur walkmanune sortie going outun spectacle a showle théâtre the theaterle repos restle vacancier a vacationerla danse danceallumer/éteindre to turn on/turn offla télévision televisionle(la) televisiontéléspectateur(trice) viewerle sport sport

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