Impairment- An abnormality or loss of function in a physical, anatomical, or psychological structure.<br />Disability- Condition that occurs when an impairment limits an individual from performing an activity in a manner normally expected for human beings<br />Handicap- A condition that arises when an individual is unable to fulfill a role due to an impairment or disability<br />
Assistive technology- devices and services when needed to achiever learning goals<br />Mainstreaming- An activity in which students with disabilities participate in selected classes in general education<br />Inclusion- Activity in which students with disabilities are included in the general education classroom.<br />
Assistive technology device- an item, piece of equipment that is used to increase maintain or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.<br />No-tech strategies include sign language, gestures, and eye gaze. Low-tech devices include digitized communication devices that store recorded messages retrieved by pushing a switch or button on the device. High-tech devices include a wide range of computerized devices featuring synthesized speech and multiple access methods such as pointing, single and dual-switch scanning, infrared pointer, and mouse/joystick.<br />Alternative keyboard- Customized keyboards created for users with special needs<br />
Joysticks-common mouse alternative<br />FM amplification system- Resource for students with hearing impairments in which the teacher wears a wireless microphone and students with auditory processing learning disabilities wear receivers that amplify the teacher’s voice and serve to focus attention<br />Optical character recognition- Software that allows text to be scanned and placed in a word processing file.<br />
Screen reader - useful for some students with very limited vision or who are blind.<br />Switch - can be used as an alternative to the keyboard. Can be activated by one or 2 movements such as pulling or squeezing, sipping or puffing, blinking, or pressing.<br />
Technology-Related Assistance Act for Individuals with Disabilities (Public Law 100-407) 1988<br /> The primary purpose of the Technology Act is to assist states in developing comprehensive, consumer-responsive programs in technology-related assistance for disabled people of all ages.<br />
Reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 1997 (Public Law 105-17)<br /> The 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) established a legal requirement to include students with disabilities in general state and district-wide assessments with appropriate accommodations and modifications in administration, if necessary.<br />
No Child Left Behind 2001<br /> This is a federal law that put in place accountability measures of all US students, teachers, and schools. It requires schools to demonstrate adequate yearly progress toward target goals as demonstrated by test scores, attendance, and other quality indicators. <br />
UDL provides a blueprint for creating flexible goals, methods, materials, and assessments that accommodate learner differences.<br />What is it?<br />
Multiple means of representation, to give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge, <br />Multiple means of action and expression, to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know, <br />Multiple means of engagement, to tap into learners' interests, offer appropriate challenges, and increase motivation.<br />What are the three parts?<br />
It is meant to underscore the need for multiple approaches to meet the needs of diverse learners.<br />How can UDL be used with technology to insure all students have the opportunity to learn?<br />
Technology Integration for Special Education Students<br />
Mild Disabilities<br /><ul><li>Reading: Use reading skill software, text-to-speech products, and interactive storybooks.
Mathematics: Use graphing software, drills, games, and tutorials.</li></ul>For individuals with mild cognitive disabilities: <br />
Moderate and Severe Disabilities<br /><ul><li>Software helps teach/reinforce functional skills (e.g., money management, daily living, employability).
Videos enhance acquisition, maintenance, and transfer of functional and community-based behaviors.</li></ul>For individuals with moderate to severe cognitive disabilities:<br />
Sensory Disabilities<br /><ul><li>Use canes and sensor technologies to assist movement.
Use text-to-Braille converters.</li></ul>For individuals who are blind: <br />
At-Risk Behaviors/Situations<br /><ul><li>Locate software and websites that provide powerful and motivating opportunities to engage in learning activities.
Utilize electronic quizzes and other instructional materials that provide immediate feedback on performance.</li></li></ul><li>Gifts and Talents<br />Provide tools for engaging in self-directed research<br />