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Achieving Urban Food Security Policy Issues


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Achieving Urban Food Security Policy Issues

  1. 1. Achieving Urban Food Security: Policy issues Boipelo Freude Economic Governance Program Tshwane Hunger Summit Kutlwanong Conference Center Pretoria 14-15 July 2009 idasa
  2. 2. Achieving Urban Food Security: Policy issues • explain the need for policies aimed at improving urban food security. • describe the main features of urban food security policies- in relation to the four main pillars of food security. idasa
  3. 3. Introduction Concern for eliminating food insecurity stems from both humanitarian and economic development reasons. • Chronic undernutrition results in devastating losses of human life and also drains a country's productive capacity, thus limiting its chances for economic growth. • A lack of access to food results in individuals or families having low energy reserves and poor health, reducing their capacity for work and income generation. • In children, undernourishment contributes to a slowing of physical and mental development, thus jeopardizing the productive capacities of future generations. idasa
  4. 4. Urban Food Security Issues: • Reduced breastfeeding leading to kwashiorkor and diarrheal diseases • Increased consumption of white bread and polished rice leading to reduced vitamin B intake and problems of beriberi. • Shifts in consumer tastes towards wheat, rice, and maize, and away from more traditional staples such as sorghum and millet. • Increased preference for more highly milled, but less- nutritious grain. • More food eaten outside of the household (e.g. roadside stands). • Greater preference for foods which are easy and quick to prepare. idasa
  5. 5. Typical approaches to designing Food Security Policies: • Incorporating FSP issues Food Security into other urban /national Policies development policies and strategies. Food Security Policy • Preparing a special Food Security Policy document. idasa
  6. 6. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR FOOD SECURITY POLICIES Physical AVAILABILITY of food Economic and physical ACCESS to food Food Security Food UTILIZATION STABILITY of the other three dimensions over time Food insecurity exists if even one of Food Insecurity these conditions is not met. idasa
  7. 7. Policy Implementation Types of Policy measures: 1. Regulatory type - Rules, regulations and procedures to be set by public authorities and applied in policy implementation. 2. Programme type - Policy measures which are implemented through programme and project type approaches by government or non-governmental actors. Sometimes there is a combination of the regulatory and programme types of policy measures idasa
  8. 8. Policies to increase food supplies (availability) Sources of food supplies: • Urban and Peri-urban food production; and • Food trade with areas surrounding urban centers Food availability can be increased by: • Increasing food production by promoting urban and peri-urban agriculture. • Promotion of food marketing, food trade. idasa
  9. 9. Policies to improve access to food - poverty alleviation Access refers to capacity of households and individuals to obtain the food they need. FS and poverty alleviation policies will have to focus on:  urban employment and income generation, cash/food for work  enhancing productive employment for the urban poor • Public transfers / social safety nets of vulnerable groups idasa
  10. 10. Policies to improve utilization Effective utilization = ability to utilize food maintaining its nutritive quality and making it available to the consumer. It can be inhibited by: • lack of knowledge about proper food preparation; • lack of knowledge about nutritional requirements; • diseases and poor health; • lack of hygiene, sanitation, safe drinking water. idasa
  11. 11. Policies to improve utilization Policy measures to improve utilization: • improving food preservation and preparation technologies; • establishment of proper food standards; • improving public health; • provision of safe drinking water; • improved sanitation; and • hygiene and nutrition education. idasa
  12. 12. Policies to ensure stability of food supplies Instabilities in access and availability can result from: • seasonal variations of food supplies as a result of inefficient urban food marketing systems; • rising food prices as result of inflation, depreciation in the exchange rate •Acute food shortages, as a result of natural or man made disasters idasa
  13. 13. Policies to ensure stability of food supplies Relevant policy measures for preventing temporary supply shortfalls are related to establishing a system of disaster preparedness and response, including a EWS and a set of measures to ensure food stability. idasa
  14. 14. strategic principles 1. Adopt an approach that is consultative, participatory, open-minded, alliance-seeking, and technically sound and involves the private sector; 3. Promote competition and reduce the influence of large intermediaries; 5. Leave to the private sector facilities and services that can best be run as businesses; 7. Encourage effective development that lowers the cost of living and stimulates employment growth in the city. idasa
  15. 15. Conclusion • Relevant and effective policies will emerge from a system of governance that connects the needs of the poor to a politically responsive local government that has the technical and institutional capacity to act.  Programs therefore should work to strengthen the poor’s ability to organize, make demands and affect local authorities and to strengthen the municipality’s understanding of its responsibility to respond. idasa