Innovations in textiles for footprint reduction


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presented at Textile Association of India International seminar, December 2013

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Innovations in textiles for footprint reduction

  1. 1. KITL Innovations in Textiles for “Footprint” Reduction 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 1
  2. 2. KITL Kothari InfoTech Limited Since 2001, from Surat, India to provide Solutions for Digital Printing on various substrates Inks Division: Water based high density Charu™ inks and Disha™ pre-coatings for Textile substrates(Cotton ,Viscose, Linen, Silk, Wool, Nylon and Polyester) Textile Machinery Division: Sales and after sales service for “Ichinose” printing machines(both conventional and digital) “Rimslow” Loopager for Inkjet textile printing. “DTG Digital” for garment printing. “DigiEye” for non contact colour measurement and QC Software: Print Pro™, world class software, for Colour Separation, Colour Correction, Device calibration, Half-toning, Large image data handling, Digital Imaging, Textile coloration, Image composing and Printing. These applications are targeted towards , label printing as well as Wide/Large format digital printing for graphic arts, photography, and Textiles(fabric and garments). 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 2
  3. 3. KITL Water and Energy in Textile processing UF P SO ‘s 2 NO x CO2 CH4 emission e is no products raw material water work place waste Soil contamination waste water energy ground-water contamination 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 3
  4. 4. KITL Carbon Footprint A Carbon Footprint is a measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of green house gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 4
  5. 5. KITL Global warming Global warming refers to the increase in average temperature of the Earths near-surface, air and oceans in recent decades The global average air temperature near earths surface rose 0.74 ± 0.18°C during last 100 years. 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 5
  6. 6. KITL 20th December 2013 Global Warming Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 6
  7. 7. KITL 1 Trillion Kilowatt hours used every Year by the global Textile Industry 20th December 2013 Global Warming = Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 10% of the total Carbon Impact 7
  8. 8. KITL Water Footprint The water footprint of an individual, community or business is defined as the total volume of freshwater used to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual or community or produced by the business. Water use is measured in water volume consumed (evaporated) and/or polluted per unit of time. A water footprint can be calculated for any well-defined group of consumers (e.g., an individual, family, village, city, province, state or nation) or producers (e.g., a public organization, private enterprise or economic sector). 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 8
  9. 9. KITL Environmental impacts of the textile Industry Chemicals •25% of the chemicals produced worldwide are used for textiles » Environmental impact Water •Growing of cotton: 8’000 – 40’000 L / kg cotton •Finishing of textiles: up to 700 L freshwater / kg textile •Waste water in production: up to 600 L / kg textile » Mostly drinking water quality Energy •High energy consumption in production, transport, retail and use » Contribution to global warming 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 9
  10. 10. KITL Definition of a Pollutant Pollutant is a substance present in the wrong place at the wrong time and in the wrong quantity 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 10
  11. 11. KITL Hazardous Chemicals Textile wet processing • Accounts for 17-20% of Industrial water pollution • 72 Toxic Chemicals originate solely from Dyeing 30 of which cannot be removed 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 9 Trillion litres of fresh water is used annually to produce 60 billion kg of fabric 11
  12. 12. KITL 20th December 2013 Fresh water availability Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 12
  13. 13. KITL 20th December 2013 Effect of Pollution Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 13
  14. 14. Definition KITL “Invention” can be defined as the creation of a product or introduction of a process for the first time. “Innovation” on the other hand, occurs if someone improves on or makes a significant contribution to an existing product, process or service. 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 14
  15. 15. KITL Shaping Innovations 1. Institutions – which are often neglected but are where the innovations happen. 2. Markets – where the demand and the finance comes from and 3. Technologies – which go hand in hand with innovations “Innovation is about the smart application of knowledge to solve problems more imaginatively than we have in the past.” 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 15
  16. 16. KITL Change Agents Ecology Legislation Cost New Substrate New Process Speed for economics Fashion and advertisement Productivity constraint Sustainability 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 16
  17. 17. KITL Theory of Evolution It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent But the most responsive to change Charles Darwin 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 17
  18. 18. KITL Innovations pertaining to • Products and processes • Water Consumption • Sustainable Fibres • Coloration without dyes 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 18
  19. 19. KITL Natural colours  Natural dyes derived from plant material do not have the problems associated with synthetic yes ,like banned amines ,PCB,PAH etc, however they cannot be used on polyesters O OH O OH OH O CH3CH2I + KI, H2O KOH, DMSO O alizarin 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone 20th December 2013 O 1-hydroxy-2-ethylanthraquinone Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 19
  20. 20. KITL • Colours Reactive dyes having a quartenary nicotinate • Cationic Reactive Dyes • Avitera™ • Pigments for Polyesters • Dyestone™ 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 20
  21. 21. KITL Auxiliaries • Use of Sugars in Sulphur dyeing •Pre-treatment of cellulose with cationic, nucleophilic polymers to enable reactive dyeing at neutral pH without electrolyte addition •Enzymes for polyester and also for imparting hydrophilicity oligomer removal 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 21
  22. 22. Processes KITL Fabric E control™, Pad-Sizeox™ Garments A blend of “color” and “softener” Enzyme with tint Provides ONE STEP stone-wash and tinting effect, abrasion, surface polishing, de-pilling, and body softness on Indigo denim garments. Enzymatic single bath desizing-bleaching-dyeing process for cotton fabrics 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 22
  23. 23. KITL 20th December 2013 PrimaGreen® Process from Genecor Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 23
  24. 24. KITL G2 Process from Jeanologia Air Aged garments Plasma Air from the atmosphere is transformed into a blend of active oxygen and ozone called Plasma, which is used to age garments.The plasma is transformed back into purified air before being returned to the atmosphere 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 24
  25. 25. KITL 20th December 2013 Coloured Silk Cocoons Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 25
  26. 26. KITL 20th December 2013 Waterless dyeing Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 26
  27. 27. KITL 20th December 2013 Supercritical COO Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 27
  28. 28. SCOO - Machines KITL A fabric roll in the chamber Control panel 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat Pressure storage vessel, pumps and pipework 28
  29. 29. KITL 20th December 2013 SCOO - Process Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 29
  30. 30. Process KITL 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 30
  31. 31. Process KITL 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 31
  32. 32. KITL 20th December 2013 Cotton Art-Transfer printing of Natural fabrics- German Dutch Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 32
  33. 33. KITL 20th December 2013 Ink Jet Printing Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 33
  34. 34. KITL The Digital Advantage • Advantages • Disappearing Disadvantages • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Speed • Cost • Replication of screen prints No minimums On demand manufacturing Efficient sampling No repeat size No limit on colors No color kitchen No screen engraving No screen warehousing No limit on design size Flexible design possibilities Reduced waste Reduced manpower Environmentally Friendly 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 34
  35. 35. Printers KITL Durst Printer Classification Class 1 4-12 metres per hour Class 2 18-90 metres per hour Class 3 90-730 metres per hour Class 4 Key Features Ability to transport wide variety of fabrics through printer Able to deliver variety of textile ink chemistries through print head D-Gen Digitex DTG-Digitex Ichinose Konica Minolta Kornit La Meccanica Mimaki Either open or closed system for ink and software 65-75 metres per minute MS Mutoh Osiris Reggianni Roland Zimmer 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 35
  36. 36. KITL Heads Ricoh RIPs Variables Inks Print Pro- KITL Kothari Info Tech- KITL Epson Ergosoft DuPont Xaar (solvent) DP innovations Nazdar Kyocera Caldera Spectra DGS Konica Minolta Inedit Fuji Diamatix Wasatch Huntsman Jaysynth DyStar Sawgrass Solunaris/ Jay Chemicals Nippon Kayaku HP Scitex Stork Seico Printek Fuji Sericol 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 36
  37. 37. KITL 20th December 2013 How Green is the Process Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 37
  38. 38. KITL Washing Processes • 170 gms Cotton T shirt LCA • 2653 litres water ( 45% is in the usage- 1193 litres • 90 gm fertilizer • 45 gm pesticide • 540 gm fossil fuel 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 38
  39. 39. KITL Washing of garments • Ozone laundry systems • Replacement of water with polymers • Self cleaning 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 39
  40. 40. KITL 20th December 2013 Ozone laundry systems Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 40
  41. 41. KITLReduction in water during usage Xeros 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 41
  42. 42. KITL Problem of Microplastic in Waterways Microplastic= Plastic debris <1mm Shorelines at 18 sites across 6 continents contaminated Forensic evaluation revealed that the microplastic resembled PES and acrylic fibres used in clothing, mainly those sites which receive sewage effluent PES (67%), Acrylic(17%) and Polyamide(16%) 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 42
  43. 43. KITL Microplastic- the future A single garment when washed in a machine can shed >1900 fibres per wash Designers of clothing and washing machines should consider the need to reduce the release and develop methods to remove microplastic from sewage. 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 43
  44. 44. KITL Self cleaning fabrics Minicor Catalytic clothing 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 44
  45. 45. KITL 20th December 2013 Sunlight Washing, Clothes Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 45
  46. 46. KITL Fibres • Eco viscose Modal Edelweiss™ • Soya • Bamboo Sustainable, natural, anti bacterial, breathable and cool 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 46
  47. 47. KITL Fibres • PLA, Ingeo®, Sorona® • >Mooo® 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 47
  48. 48. KITL Eco Friendly Garments • • • • Organic Cotton farming requires 25% less water than traditional cotton. Bamboo: No pesticides required and the fabric is soft to touch Lycoell: Solvent is recovered/recycled. It is an alternate to Rayon. Ingeo: This is a man-made fiber by converting corn into a polymer to make bio- degradable material. It is breathable and has insulation properties of high-performing synthetic material. Requires 68% less energy than polyester and is biodegradable. • Hemp: A pound of hemp fiber needs a fraction of water needed for a pound of cotton. It does not require pesticides. • Soy: Soy fabrics use a by-product of Soy Products, namely Soy Milk, Soybean Oil to create a material with a feel and look similar to silk. 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 48
  49. 49. Eco Friendly ? ! KITL 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 49
  50. 50. KITL How green is my T-Shirt  Cotton is cheaper and takes less energy to manufacture than synthetic fibres.But over its lifetime , a cotton T- Shirt requires more than twice the energy than is necessary to manufacture and maintain a polyester blouse. The main difference: polyester garments can be washed at a lower temperature, can hang dry and need no ironing. Energy used over the life time of the garment, in kilowatt hours.* Raw Material Cotton T-Shirt Polyester Blouse Manufacturing 4 Transportation 7 9 2 3 Use 18 1 2 Use assumes 25 washes per garment. The cotton T-Shirt is washed at 140 degrees Fahrenheit, followed by tumble-drying and ironing. The polyester blouse is washed at 104 degrees Fahrenheit, hung dry and not ironed. The energy of one kilowatt hour will operate a 40-watt light bulb for a full day or a 19” color television for about four hours. 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 50
  51. 51. KITL Fermentation Fashion Microbe garments 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 51
  52. 52. KITL 20th December 2013 Bio couture Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 52
  53. 53. KITL Monster Silk - Spider Silk Kraig Biocraft Laboratories, the leading developer of advanced spider silk based fibres, has this month delivered the first shipment of its Monster Silk™ recombinant spider silk fibre to Warwick Mills. 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 53
  54. 54. KITL 20th December 2013 Invisibility Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 54
  55. 55. KITL Coloration without colorants Morpho rhetenor butterfly Peacock feather 3µm 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 55
  56. 56. KITL MORPHOTEX® Teijin Fiber Corporation Multilayer Optical Interference 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 56
  57. 57. KITL Fibres imitating Margaritaria Nobilis Harvard University and University of Exeter,UK 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 57
  58. 58. KITL Coloration without colours Plixel Color Printing* * A Star Exploit Technologies 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 58
  59. 59. KITL Dangers of Prediction “I think there is a world market for maybe five Computers” Thomas Watson, Chairman of IBM, 1943 “Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tonnes” Popular Mechanics, 1949 “There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home” Ken Olson, Present, Chairman and Founder of Digital Equipment Corp, 1977 “640k [of RAM] ought to be enough for anybody” Bill Gates, Chairman of Microsoft,1981 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 59
  60. 60. KITL Endangered species extinction of business Do not merely react to change Anticipate and initiate change Equilibrium is extinction 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 60
  61. 61. KITL 20th December 2013 Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 61
  62. 62. Hidden cost of Food Hypothetical carbon footprint calculation of Red wines sold in New York Grammes of Carbon dioxide per bottle Manufactured in Cultivation Fermentation Winery Containers Transportation TOTAL Lore Valley France 210 109 132 479 447 1371 Napa Valley California 214 109 132 633 1425 2515 Emissions are released by using energy to manage the land.Organi c methods in France reduce this slightly Carbon dioxide is a byproduct of the chemical reaction that creates alcohol, a process that begins wityh grape crushing Energy used for lights, cooling tanks and pumps all result in carbondioxi de emmissions Glass for bottles and wood for barrels-often purchased in Francerequire energy to make and fuel to import The napa wine is trucked to New York while the French wine is shipped for most of the trip and then trucked Friday, December 6, 2013 Understanding Environmental Requirements Dr. Sanjiv Kamat 62