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Atoms & Molecules

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Atoms & Molecules

  1. 2. <ul><li>Atom and Molecules </li></ul>Prepared By: Fahad And Arsalan
  2. 4. <ul><li>An atom is the smallest unit that maintains the characteristics of an element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus- The center of the atom, contains protons and neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron Cloud –Region surrounding the nucleus containing the electrons </li></ul></ul>ATOM
  3. 5. The Nucleus <ul><ul><li>Proton- A positively charged sub-atomic particle (+).The number of protons is the same as the atomic number </li></ul></ul>The atomic mass <ul><ul><li>Neutrons – A sub-atomic particle in the nucleus. Neutron do not have a charge (0) </li></ul></ul>Li 3 7 The atomic mass The Atomic Symbol
  4. 6. The Electron Cloud <ul><ul><li>Electrons- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The number of electrons equals the number of protons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-atomic particle with a negative charge (-) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass of an electron is negligible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons behave as if in a 3-D orbit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Valence Electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The outer most electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valence electrons are responsible for bonding </li></ul></ul>
  5. 7. Bohr Model <ul><li>The first shell can have </li></ul><ul><li>2 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>The second can </li></ul><ul><li>have 8 electrons </li></ul>
  6. 8. Shells and the Electron Cloud
  7. 9. Let’s look at a few elements… Hydrogen 1= Proton 1= electron
  8. 10. Let’s look at a few elements… Lithium 3=protons 4=neutrons 3=electrons
  9. 11. Let’s look at a few elements… Argon 18=protons 22=neutrons 18=electrons
  10. 12. Isotopes <ul><li>Atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons </li></ul>Isotopes of Hydrogen
  11. 13. Molecules
  12. 14. Molecules <ul><li>A molecule is defined as a stable neutral group of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by very strong chemical bonds . </li></ul><ul><li>It can also be defined as a unit of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Types Of bonding <ul><li>Ionic Bond : </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic bonds are formed when atoms become ions by gaining or losing electrons. </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>Covalent Bond: </li></ul>Covalent bonds form when atoms share electrons. Since electrons move very fast they can be shared, effectively filling or emptying the outer shells of the atoms involved in the bond. Such bonds are referred to as electron-sharing bonds.
  15. 18. <ul><li>Guess What its Video Time </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>The End </li></ul><ul><li>Now Please Wake Up for Clapping. </li></ul>

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