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Seminar2012 mothter safe


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Seminar2012 mothter safe

  1. 1. Human EmbryologyHuman Embryology 제일병원 병리과 전이경
  2. 2. Critical periods of development for various organ systems and the resultant malformations
  3. 3. First week of development: ovulation to implantation blastocyst morule
  4. 4. 4.5 days 6 days
  5. 5. Second week of development: bilaminar germ disc Week of twosWeek of twos • Inner cell mass (embryoblast) – Epiblast – Hypoblast • Trophoblast – Cytotrophoblast – Syncytiotrophoblast • Extraembryonic mesoderm – Somatopleuric mesoderm – Splanchnopleuric mesoderm • Two cavities – Amniotic cavity12 days Amniotic cavity
  6. 6. Day 13
  7. 7. Third week of development: Trilaminar germ disc Gastrulation • Bilamelar germ disc is converted into a trilamelar germ – Ectoderm – Mesoderm – Endoderm • Primitive streak – Thickened linear band of epiblast – 15- to 16-day embryo: clearly visible
  8. 8. Epiblast -> 1.ectoderm 2.mesoderm 3.endoderm 18-day embryo 1.25 mm in length
  9. 9. Derivatives of the ectodermal germ layer 1. Central nervous system 2. Peripheral nervous system 3. Skin, including hair and nails 4. Sensory epithelium of ear, nose, and eye 5. Pituitary, mammary, and sweat glands and enamel of the teeth
  10. 10. Derivatives of the mesodermal germ layer • Connective tissue, cartilage, bone and striated and smooth muscles • heart, blood and lymph vessels and cells • kidney, ovary and testis, genital ducts, serous membranes lining, spleen, and adrenal cortex
  11. 11. Derivatives of the endodermal germ layer 1. Epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and urinary bladder 2. Parenchyma of the thyroid, parathyroid, liver and pancreas 3. Epithelial lining of the tympanic cavity and auditory tube
  12. 12. Fate of the primitive streak • intraembryonic mesoderm 을 4 주말까지 만들다가 감소 • insignificant structures in the sacrococcygeal region of the embryo • Sacrococcygeal teratoma
  13. 13. Teratogenesis associated with gastrulation • The beginning of the third week of development, when gastrulation is initiated, is a highly sensitive stage for teratogenic insult. • At this time, fate maps can be made for various organ systems, such as the eyes and brain anlage, and these cell populations may be damaged by teratogens. • For example, high doses of alcohol at this stage kill cells in the anterior midline of the germ disc, producing a deficiency of the midline in craniofacial structures and resulting in holoprosencephaly.
  14. 14. Caudal dysgenesis (sirenomelia) • Insufficient mesoderm in the lumbosacral region of the embryo − Hypoplasia and fusion of lower limb − Vertebral abnormalities − Renal agenesis − Imperforate anus − Anomalies of the genital organs
  15. 15. Formation of the notochord B C
  16. 16. Notochord: 1. Primitive axis of the embryo 2. Induction - neural plate (future nervous system) Fate of the Notochord: – Regress in the vertebral bodies – Intervertebral disc: persist as the nucleus pulposus
  17. 17. 20 days Neurulation includes the formation of the neural plate (day 18-19), neural folds (day 20-21), and the neural tube (day 22-26); the latter will develop into the future brain and spinal cord
  18. 18. Final closure Anterior neuropore: 25th day Posterior neuropore: 27th day
  19. 19. Neural tube defectsNeural tube defects • Most common CNS malformation, 1/1000 births • Primary non-close of the neural tube • Spectrum – Anencephaly – Meningocele – Meningoencephalocele – Meningomyelocele
  20. 20. AnencephalyAnencephaly • Absence of scalp, calvarium, and normal brain -> “frog’s face” • Area cerebrovasculosa • Hypoplastic adrenal glands with absent fetal zone • Recurrence rate: 3-5% • DDx: amniotic disruption sequence Amnion disruption consequence Anencephaly
  21. 21. HoloprosencephalyHoloprosencephaly 4th week, 4mm, 3 vesicle stage 5th week, 8 mm, 5 vesicle stage
  22. 22. LissencephalyLissencephaly • “Smooth brain” • Severity : the absence (agyria) to reduction (pachygyria) of normal gyral pattern. • Classic L./cobblestone L. • Onset : no later than the 12th–16th week of gestation • DDx: immature GA (until 27-28W) •GA 31 wks •46, XX, del(17)(p13) •“Miller-Dieker” syndrome
  23. 23. Formation and migration of neural crest cells in the spinal cord
  24. 24. Neural crest cells • Vulnerable cell population • Easily killed by compounds such as alcohol and retinoic acid. • Deficient in superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes that are responsible for scavenging free radicals. • Neural crest derivativesNeural crest derivatives  Connective tissue and bones of the face and skull  Dermis in face and neck ☞ Severe craniofacial malformations ☞ Treacher-Collins' Syndrome, DiGeorge anomaly...  Conotruncal septum in the heart ☞ cardiac anomalies including persistent truncus arteriosus, TOF and TGA  Cranial nerve ganglia, spinal ganglia, sympathetic chain and preaortic ganglia, parasympathetic ganglia of the gastrointestinal tract, glial cells, schwann cells, adrenal medulla, C cells of the thyroid gland, arachnoid and pia mater, melanocytes, odontoblasts
  25. 25. Neural crest cells in conotruncal region
  26. 26. MIGRATION PATHWAYS OF NEURAL CREST CELLS from forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain regions into their final locations (shaded areas) in the pharyngeal arches and face Skeletal structures of the head and face. Mesenchyme for these structures is derived from neural crest (blue), lateral plate mesoderm (yellow), and paraxial mesoderm (red).
  27. 27. Treacher-Collins' Syndrome / mandibulofacial dysostosis • Characterized by malar hypoplasia due to underdevelopment of cheek bones, mandibular hypoplasia, down-slanting eyes and malformed external ears • Normal development and intelligence • AD with variable penetrance • 60% as new mutation
  28. 28. Velocardiofacial Syndrome/DiGeorge anomaly • 22q11.2 deletion • “CATCH 22” – Cardiac defects – Abnormal face – Thymic hypoplasia – Cleft palate – Hypocalcemia • Abnormal development of neural crest cells • Specific facial features – low-set ears, wide-set eyes, a small jaw, and a short groove in the upper lip • Etiology – Genetic causes, exposure to retinoic acids, alcohol, and maternal DM
  29. 29. Limb growth and development A. 5-week embryo B. 6-week embryo C. 8-week embryo The hindlimb buds are less well developed than those of the forelimbs. The most sensitive period for teratogen-induced limb malformations is the fourth and fifth weeks of
  30. 30. Nasal pit Lateral nasal prominence Medial nasal prominence 5 주 10 주7 주 6 주
  31. 31. A.B. 6.5-week embryo The palatine shelves are in the vertical position on each side of the tongue. C.D. 7.5-week embryo The tongue has moved downward, and the palatine shelves have reached a horizontal position. E.F. 10-week embryo The two palatine shelves have fused with each other and with the nasal septum. C D FE
  32. 32. A, day 18 B, day 20 C, day 21 D, day 22* Heart tube
  33. 33. Atrial Septation (4-6 weeks) Septum primum ostium primum Interventricular foramen
  34. 34. ostium secundum Septum secundum 35 days
  35. 35. Development of conotruncal ridges and closure of the interventricular foramen 6 weeks Beginning of 7 weeks
  36. 36. End of 7 weeks
  37. 37. Third to eighth week: The embryonic period • Period of organogenesis • Each of three germ layers gives rise to its own tissues and organs. • Major features of the external body form recognizable by the end of the second month