마더세이프 - FASD 조기진단 (김고운 교수)

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마더세이프 - FASD 조기진단 (김고운 교수)

  1. 1. Early Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Goun Jeong, M.D. Department of Pediatrics 2010.04.27. Cheil General Hospital & Women’s Healthcare Center, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  2. 2. Introduction Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) – The most severe form of FASD ① Facial anomalies ② Growth retardation ③ CNS anomalies Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) – Effect of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy – Not a diagnostic term
  3. 3. Prenatal alcohol exposure is a 100% preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities.
  4. 4. Historical Background ‘You will conceive and give birth to a son Drink no wine or other fermented drink’ (Holy Bible, Judges 13:7) ‘Foolish, drunken and harebrained women most often bring forth children like morose and languid.’ (Aristotle, BC 384-322) ‘Offspring of imprisoned alcoholic women, 55.8% born dead or died before age 2.’ (Sullivan, 1899)
  5. 5. The discovery of FAS 1968, Lemoine et al. – Outcome of children of alcoholic mothers 1973, Jones and Smith – ‘Fetal alcohol syndrome’ was first introduced 1978, Clare and Smith – ‘Fetal alcohol effects’ 1996, Institute of Medicine (IOM) – replaced FAE with ARBD and ARND – New classification of FASD
  6. 6. Epidemiology Prevalence – FAS: 0.5-2.0/1000 birth in US – FASD: 9.1/1000 birth in US (1%) >4% in South Africa Economic impact – average lifetime costs for 1 FAS pt: $2.9 million – annual cost: $ 6 billion
  7. 7. The reasons for variable prevalence rates – variable poverty rates – genetic and ethnic difference: level of enzyme activity – lack of uniformly accepted diagnostic criteria – lack of knowledge, skill, training and misconceptions among primary care providers
  8. 8. Variability of adverse fetal outcomes – the amount of alcohol – genetic variation – nutrition – maternal age – socioeconomic status – the timing of exposure
  9. 9. Clinical manifestations of FASD
  10. 10. FASD related birth defects • Midface hypoplasia, Hypertelosism, High arched palate Skeletal • Micrognathia,Joint contracture, Scoliosis, Hemivertebrae, Radioulnar synostosis, Brachydactyly, Clinodactyly, Camptodactyly • Septal defects, Hypoplastic pulmonary arteries, TOF Cardiac • Pectus excavatum or carinatum • Pyelonephritis, Hydronephrosis, Dysplastic kidney Renal • Ureteral duplications, uni/bilateral hypoplasia Ocular • Strabismus, Retinal vascular anomalies Auditory • Conductive hearing loss, neurosensory hearing loss
  11. 11. CNS anomalies Cerebrum volume reduction of the cranial vault and brain – 12% compared to control – Parietal, Temporal, Inferior frontal lobe – Lt hemisphere > Rt hemisphere – white matter hypoplasia – visuospatial deficits, verbal memory, impulsiveness
  12. 12. Cerebellum – reduction in the anterior vermis (lobule I-V) – motor coordination and balance impairments Basal ganglia – caudate nucleus – connection with cortical and subcortical motor areas – control voluntary motor function – executive function, motivation, social behavior, perseverative behavior
  13. 13. Corpus callosum – role in the coordination of various functions – agenesis – thinning, hypoplasia, partial agenesis
  14. 14. Neuropsychological and Behavioral changes Overall IQ Learning and Memory Language Attention Visuospatial abilities Executive functioning Fine and Gross motor skills Adaptive and Social skills
  15. 15. Secondary Disabilities Psychiatric problem – ADHD – schizophrenia, depression, personality disorders Disrupted school experience Dependent living Trouble with the law Confinement Inappropriate sexual behavior Alcohol or drug problems
  16. 16. Diagnosis Diagnostic criteria Institute of Medicine (IOM, 1996) 4-Digit Diagnostic Coding Sytem (Astley, 2004) Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2004) Canadian FASD Guidelines (Chudley, 2005) Revised IOM Diagnostic Classification System (Hoyme, 2005)
  17. 17. Revised IOM criteria for diagnosis of FASD (Hoyme et al., 2005) I. FAS With Confirmed Maternal Alcohol Exposure (all of A–D) (A) Confirmed maternal alcohol exposure (B) Minor facial anomalies (≥2) (1) Short palpebral fissures (p10%) (2) Thin vermilion border of the upper lip (score 4 or 5) (3) Smooth philtrum (score 4 or 5) (C) Prenatal and/or postnatal growth retardation (1) Height and/or weight p10% (D) Deficient brain growth and/or abnormal morphogenesis (≥1) (1) Structural brain abnormalities (2) Head circumference p10% II. FAS Without Confirmed Maternal Alcohol Exposure IB, IC, and ID as above
  18. 18. III. Partial FAS With Confirmed Maternal Alcohol Exposure (all A-C) (A) Confirmed maternal alcohol exposure (B) Minor facial anomalies (≥2) (1) Short palpebral fissures (p10%) (2) Thin vermilion border of the upper lip (score 4 or 5) (3) Smooth philtrum (score 4 or 5) (C) One of the following other characteristics: (1) Prenatal and/or postnatal growth retardation (a) Height and/or weight p10% (2) Deficient brain growth or abnormal morphogenesis (≥1) (a) Structural brain abnormalities (b) Head circumference p10% (3) Complex pattern of behavioral or cognitive abnormalities IV. Partial FAS Without confirmed Maternal Alcohol Exposure IIIB and IIIC, as above
  19. 19. V. ARBD (all of A-C) (A) Confirmed maternal alcohol exposure (B) Minor facial anomalies (≥2) (1) Short palpebral fissures (p10%) (2) Thin vermilion border of the upper lip (score 4 or 5) (3) Smooth philtrum (score 4 or 5) (C) Congenital structural defect (≥1) if the patient displays minor anomalies only, X 2 must be present) cardiac/skeletal/renal/eyes/ears/minor anomalies VI. ARND (both A and B) (A) Confirmed maternal alcohol exposure (B) At least 1 of the following: (1) Deficient brain growth or abnormal morphogenesis (≥1) (a) Structural brain abnormalities (b) Head circumference p10% (2) Complex pattern of behavioral or cognitive abnormalities
  20. 20. Physical examination Palpebral fissure length
  21. 21. Lip-Philtrum Guide unaffected most severe
  22. 22. Approach to the diagnosis 1. Screening for maternal alcohol consumption 2. Biomarkers for in utero alcohol exposure 3. Meconium FAEE screening 4. Hair FAEE screening
  23. 23. Screening Questionnaires TWEAK (≥ score 3, heavy or problem drinker) T How many drinks does it take before you begin to feel the first effects of (tolerance) alcohol? (3 or more drinks = 2 points) W Have close friends or relatives worried or complained about your (worried) drinking in the past year? (yes = 2 points) E Do you sometimes take a drink in the morning when you first get up? (eye-opener) (yes = 2 points) A Has a friend of family member ever told you about things you said or (amnesia) did while you were drinking that you could not remember? (yes = 1 point) K Do you sometimes feel the need to cut down on your drinking? (kut-down) (yes = 1 point)
  24. 24. Timeline followback calendar: TLFB SUN MON TUE WED THU FRI SAT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 소주 3잒 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 와인 1잒 25 26 27 28 29 30
  25. 25. Biomarkers GGT (gamma-glutamyl transferase) ↑ MCV (mean corpuscular volume) <98 fL HAA (hemoglobin-associated acetaldehyde) ↑ CDT (carbohydrate deficient transferrin) ↑ FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters)
  26. 26. FAEE Non-oxidative metabolites Esterification of ethanol FAEE synthase, AEAT in all human tissue Produced by the fetus itself from the ethanol
  27. 27. Meconium as a matrix Discarded material: noninvasive and easy collection Cumulative matrix from 13th week GA until birth Wider window of opportunity for detection Detected in the meconium of neonates born to both drinking and non-drinking mothers
  28. 28. FAEE accumulation in hair Neonatal hair grows at the 4th week of fetal life Collected up to 3 months Accumulation in hair is dose-dependent Long-term biomarker
  29. 29. Further evaluation Neurocognitive function test Brain MRI Functional Brain imaging Digital photography EEG
  30. 30. Bayley III 베일리 발달척도는 대표적인 발달평가 도구로, 영유아를 대상으로 전반적인 발달 상태 및 정상적인 발달 상태로부터의 이탈 정도를 평가하기 위해 개발되었음 1969년 초판이 개발된 이후, 1993년에 개정판이 나왔고, 2004년 3판이 나온 상태이며, 아직 국내 표준화는 되어있지 않음 Bayley-III (Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third edition) 인지, 언어, 운동, 사회-정서, 적응적 행동의 총 5개 하위 영역으로 구성
  31. 31. Bayley Content (1) 인지(Cognitive) : 외부 세상에 대해 생각하고, 반응하고, 학습하는 정도 언어(Language) : 수용성 언어와 표현성 언어로 구성 – 수용성 언어: 소리를 인식하고 단어와 지시를 이해하는 정도를 평가 – 표현성 언어: 소리, 몸동작, 단어를 사용해 의사소통 하는 정도를 평가 운동(Motor) : 소근육 운동과 대근육 운동으로 구성됨 – 소근육 운동(Fine Motor) : 손과 손가락을 움직이고 사용하는 정도를 평가 – 대근육 운동(Gross Motor) : 싞체를 움직이는 정도를 평가 위의 인지, 언어, 운동은 과제를 이용하여 평가자에 의해 이루어짐
  32. 32. Bayley Content (2) 사회-정서(Social-Emotional) – 연령에 따라 정상적으로 도달해야 하는 사회-정서적 측면을 평가 적응적 행동(Adaptive Behavior) – 적응적 행동 영역은 일상생활에서 주어지는 다양핚 요구에 적응하는 능 력을 평가함 – 10개의 소영역으로 구성되어 있음 – 의사소통, 기초학습(단어 인식과 수 세기), 자기지도(스스로를 통제, 지시 따르기), 놀이, 사회관계(사람들과 어울리기), 외부활동, 가정생활(갂단핚 집안일 돕기, 개인 소지품 관리), 건강/안전(기본적인 건강 및 안전 행동), 자기관리(먹기, 배변, 씻기 등), 운동기능(움직임과 도구 다루기) 등 – 적응적 행동의 소영역은 유아의 연령에 따라 해당되지 않는 영역이 있을 수 있음 위의 사회-정서, 적응적 행동은 보호자의 보고에 의해 이루어짐 보조적인 평가를 위함
  33. 33. Report example 원점수 척도 점수 표준 점수 백분위 척도 분류 (raw score) (scaled score) (composite score) (percentile) 인지 48 9 95 37 평균 수용성 언어 19 10 100 50 평균 표현성 언어 20 10 소근육 운동 32 9 79 8 경계 대근육 운동 39 4 사회-정서 87 9 95 37 평균 인지, 언어, 운동 등의 영역에서 원점수를 통해 척도점수(10점이 50p)가 산출되고, 최종적으로 표준점수(100점이 50%ile) 및 백분위가 산출됨 표준점수에 따라 [발달지연, 경계, 평균 하, 평균, 평균 상, 우수, 최우수] 등으로 분류됨
  34. 34. Thank you for your attention

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