Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Dr. Kamal Motawei                   HIMT                  Introduction to Anatomy (ANAT 215)Unit 8: Respiratory SystemThe ...
Dr. Kamal Motawei                        HIMT               Introduction to Anatomy (ANAT 215)2. The pharynx:It is a muscu...
Dr. Kamal Motawei                        HIMT             Introduction to Anatomy (ANAT 215)4. The TracheaIt is a midline ...
Dr. Kamal Motawei                     HIMT                   Introduction to Anatomy (ANAT 215)6. The LungsThere are two l...
Dr. Kamal Motawei                       HIMT                    Introduction to Anatomy (ANAT 215)                    Surf...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Respiratory system

572 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Respiratory system

  1. 1. Dr. Kamal Motawei HIMT Introduction to Anatomy (ANAT 215)Unit 8: Respiratory SystemThe respiratory system is concerned with gasexchange between the blood and air. That is,blood takes oxygen and gets rid of carbondioxide.The respiratory system is formed of airpassages and lungs.(A)The air passages (airways):They are classified into: a) Upper airway: Nose and pharynx. b) Lower airway: includes the larynx, trachea and bronchi.1. The Nose and Paranasal Sinuses:There are two nasal cavities, separated by the nasal septum. Each nasal cavity is linedby mucous membrane rich in mucous glands.Relations of the nasal cavity:Above: there is the cranial cavity.Below: there is the mouth cavity, separated from it by the hard palate.Laterally: there are the maxillary and ethmoidal paranasal sinusesMedially: there is the nasal septum.Anteriorly: there is the anterior nasal opening.Posteriorly: there is the posterior nasal opening which opens into the naso-pharynx.Function of the nose (and paranasal sinuses):1. Getting rid of most of the suspended materials and micro-organisms in the air.2. Adjusting the moisture of the air.3. Adjusting the temperature of the air.4. Give the voice its resonance.5. Smell. 59
  2. 2. Dr. Kamal Motawei HIMT Introduction to Anatomy (ANAT 215)2. The pharynx:It is a muscular tube that lies behind the nose, mouth and larynx.It collects air from the nose and food from the mouth, then it transfers the air to the larynxand the food to the esophagus.It is divided into three parts: 1) Naso-pharynx (behind the nose), 2) oro-pharynx (behind the mouth), and 3) laryngo-pharynx behind the larynx.☺In each lateral wall of thenasopharynx there is an opening forthe Eustachian tube (whichconnects the middle ear with thenasopharynx).☺ The lateral walls of theoropharynx show the palatinetonsils. Each tonsil lies betweentwo longitudinal folds of mucousmembrane.3. The Larynx:The larynx produces voice and acts as a valve. It is formed of cartilages and muscles.It is lined with mucous membrane which shows a fold on each side called VOCALCORD. The inlet of the larynx is directed backwards and is guarded by theEPIGLOTTIS. The epiglottis closes the inlet of the larynx during swallowing to prevententrance of food and drink into the larynx. 60
  3. 3. Dr. Kamal Motawei HIMT Introduction to Anatomy (ANAT 215)4. The TracheaIt is a midline structure, but it inclines to the rightwhile descending downwardIt is formed of rings of hyaline cartilagesconnected together by smooth muscles. Ring ofcartilage are incomplete posteriorly (to allow fordilatation of the esophagus during swallowing).It passes through the neck and thorax where itends by dividing into two bronchi.Relations: Anteriorly, it is related to: isthmus of thyroid gland, major vessels of the thorax, and base of the heart, Posteriorly, it is related to the esophagus. 5. The BronchiThe trachea ends by dividing into two main (primary)bronchi. The right bronchus is shorter and wider thanthe left bronchus. The right bronchus lies in line withthe trachea, while the left bronchus is more oblique.The primary bronchi divide in the lungs intosecondary bronchi, then tertiary and so on, until theyget very small (bronchioles). The alveoli of the lungopen into the respiratory bronchioles. 61
  4. 4. Dr. Kamal Motawei HIMT Introduction to Anatomy (ANAT 215)6. The LungsThere are two lungs, right and left. Each lung is pyramidal in shape, having apex, baseand side walls.The right lung is shorter and broader than the left lung. The left lung shows a cardiacnotch. The right lung is divided into three lobes, while the left lung is divided into twolobes.Each lung has a hilum which contains the following structures: 1) a main bronchus 2) a pulmonary artery 3) two pulmonary veins 4) Lymphatics 5) Autonomic nerves.Each lung is covered with a serous membrane called PLEURA.The pleura is a serous sac which has: 1. a parietal layer lining the thoracic wall. 2. a visceral layer covering the lung surface. 3. a cavity which contain a little amount of serous fluid. 62
  5. 5. Dr. Kamal Motawei HIMT Introduction to Anatomy (ANAT 215) Surface marking of the Pleura and LungsThis is represented by the following points:The apex of the lung: one inch above the junction of the medial and intermediate onethird of the clavicle.The anterior border: a line passing through the following points; A) Apex of lung. B) Sternoclavicular joint C) Sternal angle in the midline D) On the right side, midline at the level of 4th costal cartilage. On the left side, some distance to the left of the edge of the sternum at the level of 4 th costal cartilage. E) On the right side, midline at the level of 6th costal cartilage. On the left side, some distance to the left of the edge of the sternum at the level of 6 th costal cartilage.The inferior border of the lung: It is represented by a line passing through thefollowing points: E) 6th costal cartilage in the midline (on the right side) or to the left of the edge of sternum (to the left side). F) 6th rib in the midclavicular line G) 8th rib in the midaxillary line H)10th rib close to the vertebral column.The inferior border of the pleura: the pleura extends to a level lower than the lung bytwo ribs E) 6th costal cartilage in the midline (on the right side) or to the left of the edge of sternum (to the left side). F) 8th rib in the midclavicular line G) 10th rib in the midaxillary line H) 12th rib close to the vertebral column.The posterior border of the lung and pleura: It is represented by a line connectingpoint (H) with point (A). 63

×