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Lungs 
Anatomy I (MSAT 213) 
For PT & RC 
Lecture (9) 
Prepared by: 
Dr. Kamal Motawei
Lungs 
The lung is a soft and 
spongy organ 
It is very elastic; so if the 
pleural cavity is opened, it shrinks 
to 1/3 i...
Lungs 
Shape: each lung is 
conical in shape, having: 
Apex 
Base 
2 surfaces: 
Mediastinal 
surface 
Costal surface 
3 bo...
Lungs: shape 
Apex of the lung: 
It is blunt 
It projects in the neck; about 
one inch above the clavicle 
It is covered w...
Borders of the lungs: 
Anterior border of the lung: 
– It is Sharpe 
– It lies in the costomediastinal 
recess of the pleu...
Surfaces of the lungs: 
1) Costal surface of the lung: 
– It is convex 
– It faces the costal wall (ribs, costal cartilage...
Surfaces of the lungs: 
2) Mediastinal surface of the lung: 
– It is concave 
– It is molded to the mediastinal structures...
Lung: Hilum 
Hilum of the lung: 
It is the site where structures pass 
to and from the lung. 
It is situated on the middle...
Lung: Root 
Root of the lung: 
It is the structures connecting the 
lung to the mediastinum. 
Contents of the root of lung...
Fissures of the Lungs: 
Oblique fissure: it runs from 
the inferior border upward and backward 
across the medial and cost...
Lobes of the lungs: 
The right lung is 
divided by the 
oblique and 
transverse fissures 
into: 
– Upper lobe 
– Middle lo...
Bronchopulmonary segments of the lungs: 
A bronchopulmonary segment is 
a functionally and structurally 
independent unit ...
Bronchopulmonary segments of the lungs: 
Bronchopulmonary segment of 
the right lung: 
– Superior lobe: 
1) Apical, 2) pos...
Blood supply of the Lungs: 
Bronchial arteries: 
They are branches of the descending aorta. 
They supply: 
1)The bronchial...
Lymph drainage of the lungs 
Deep lymph plexus (around the 
bronchi  pul. vessels) drains into 
the pulmonary L.N. close t...
Nerve supply of the lungs 
Pulmonary plexus: in 
the root of the lung 
receives branches 
from the sympathetic 
trunk and ...
Pleura  lung 
Surface marking
Lungs: surface anatomy
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Lec.8 lungs pt&rc

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Anatomy course for Physical Therapy and Respiratory Care under graduate students

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Lec.8 lungs pt&rc

  1. 1. Lungs Anatomy I (MSAT 213) For PT & RC Lecture (9) Prepared by: Dr. Kamal Motawei
  2. 2. Lungs The lung is a soft and spongy organ It is very elastic; so if the pleural cavity is opened, it shrinks to 1/3 in volume. The rt. lung is larger, broader & shorter than the left lung. Color: pink (in children) to dark and mottled (in adults) Position: the lungs lie on either side of the mediastinum, surrounded by the pleura
  3. 3. Lungs Shape: each lung is conical in shape, having: Apex Base 2 surfaces: Mediastinal surface Costal surface 3 borders: Anterior border Posterior border Inferior border
  4. 4. Lungs: shape Apex of the lung: It is blunt It projects in the neck; about one inch above the clavicle It is covered with the cervical pleura and the suprapleural membrane. Base of the lung: It is concave and rests on the corresponding dome of the diaphragm.
  5. 5. Borders of the lungs: Anterior border of the lung: – It is Sharpe – It lies in the costomediastinal recess of the pleura. – In the left lung: it shows cardiac notch and lingula. Posterior border of the lung: – It is blunt and huge (it may be called posterior surface) – It occupies the paravertebral gutter. Inferior border of the lung: – Sharpe and occupies the costodiaphragmatic recess during inspiration.
  6. 6. Surfaces of the lungs: 1) Costal surface of the lung: – It is convex – It faces the costal wall (ribs, costal cartilages intercostal spaces).
  7. 7. Surfaces of the lungs: 2) Mediastinal surface of the lung: – It is concave – It is molded to the mediastinal structures. – At its middle, it shows the hilum of the lung through which the main bronchus and neurovascular bundle pass to the lung representing the root of the lung.
  8. 8. Lung: Hilum Hilum of the lung: It is the site where structures pass to and from the lung. It is situated on the middle of the mediastinal surface of the lung The hilum is the site where the parietal pleura is reflected on the root of the lung as a cuff to be continuous with the visceral pleura. This cuff of pleura is redundant inferiorly, in the form of double layers of pleura called pulmonary ligament.
  9. 9. Lung: Root Root of the lung: It is the structures connecting the lung to the mediastinum. Contents of the root of lung: – Main bronchus (usually the right one divides before entering the rt. lung) – Bronchial vessels – Pulmonary artery – 2 Pulmonary veins – Pulmonary nerve plexuses – Bronchopulmonary lymph nodes and lymphatics
  10. 10. Fissures of the Lungs: Oblique fissure: it runs from the inferior border upward and backward across the medial and costal surfaces until it cuts the posterior border 2 ½ inches below the apex. The horizontal fissure: It follows the fourth intercostal space from the sternum until it meets the oblique fissure as it crosses rib V. It is present in the rt. lung only.
  11. 11. Lobes of the lungs: The right lung is divided by the oblique and transverse fissures into: – Upper lobe – Middle lobe –– Lower lobe The left lung is divided by the oblique fissure into: – Upper lobe – Lower lobe Each lobe has a secondary bronchus.
  12. 12. Bronchopulmonary segments of the lungs: A bronchopulmonary segment is a functionally and structurally independent unit . It is pyramidal in shape with the apex towards the root of the lung and base towards the lung surface. Each bronchopulmonary segment has: tertiary (segmental) bronchus, branch of the pul. art, pul. veins, lymphatics and autonomic nerves. Each bronchopulmonary segment is surrounded by connective tissue.
  13. 13. Bronchopulmonary segments of the lungs: Bronchopulmonary segment of the right lung: – Superior lobe: 1) Apical, 2) posterior, 3) anterior – Middle lobe: 4) lateral, 5) medial –– Inferior lobe: 6) superior, 7) medial basal, 8) anterior basal 9) lateral basal, 10) posterior basal Bronchopulmonary segment of the left lung: – Superior lobe: 1) Apical, 2) posterior, 3) anterior 4) Superior lingular, 5) inferior lingular – Inferior lobe: 6) superior, 7) medial basal, 8) anterior basal 9) lateral basal, 10) posterior basal
  14. 14. Blood supply of the Lungs: Bronchial arteries: They are branches of the descending aorta. They supply: 1)The bronchial tree, 2) the connective tissue stroma , 3) visceral pleura Bronchial veins: They drain into the azygos and hemiazygos veins Pulmonary arteries: Each lung receives one pulmonary artery. Its terminal branches supply the aveoli with deoxygenated blood Pulmonary veins: After oxygenation of the blood in the alveolar capillaries, oxygenated blood leaves the lungs via two pulmonary veins. The tributaries of the pulmonary veins pass through the intersegmental septa.
  15. 15. Lymph drainage of the lungs Deep lymph plexus (around the bronchi pul. vessels) drains into the pulmonary L.N. close to the hilum, then to the bronchopulmonary L.N. in the hilum, then bronchomediastinal lymph trunk, then right lymph trunk or thoracic duct. Superficial lymph plexus (under the visceral pleura) drains into the bronchopulmonary L.N.
  16. 16. Nerve supply of the lungs Pulmonary plexus: in the root of the lung receives branches from the sympathetic trunk and the vagus nerve.
  17. 17. Pleura lung Surface marking
  18. 18. Lungs: surface anatomy

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