Hydraulic Power Plant: hydraulic power plants are the plants where power is being generate from the moving water, where the turbine is located normally in the dam, and the water flows from the water reservoir where it has high potential energy (high pressure) and it goes to the pen stock that connects water reservoir with the turbine room, and turbine rom with the exit stream. Hydraulic power plant types can be classified according to the turbine type, and the three most common types:1- Francis Turbine.2- Kaplan Turbine.3- Pelton Wheel. The selection of the turbine type depends on the height of the dam in the first place and the flow volume, for high elevation Pelton wheel is advised, where Kaplan and Francis used for large flow and medium heights. Another classification also can be classified according to the turbine rotor shape, where it will rotate according to the impulsive force (Pelton wheel), or to the reaction force (Francis and Kaplan). Hydraulic Power plant used in the following countries:1- Turkey: in 2011 turkey produced 36849040 MWH from hydropower plants (39.91% from the total power produced). Major HEPP in turkey (HEPP wıth annual average of more than 500 GWH): Plant Name City Turbine Capacity MW Ataturk Şanlıurfa 8 Francis 2405 Keban Elazığ 8 Francis 1330 Karakaya Diyarbakır 6 Francis 1800 Gökçekaya Eskişehir 3 Francis 278 Oymapınar Antalya 4 Francis 540 Hasan uğurlu Samsun 4 Francis 500 Gezende Mersin - 159 Berke Osmaniye - 510 Kargamış Gazıantep - 652 Altınkaya Samsun 4 Francis 700 Arslantaş Osmaniye - 138 Birecik Şanlıurfa 6 Francis 672 Menzelet Kahramanmaraş 4 Francis 248 Sır Kahramanmaraş 3 Francis 284 Obruk Konya 4 Francis 203 Total 10419
2- Brazil : in brazil, HEPP is the main power source in the country, while only Itapúa dam (largest HEPP in the world) produces 25% from the power needed in the country and 78% from the power needed in Paraguay (1995). Here is the major dams and HEPP in Brazil HEPP City Turbine Capacity MW Balbina Amazon 5 Kaplan 250 Furnas Minas/Gerias 8 Francis 1216 Itapúa Foz do 20 Francis 14000 Iguaçu/Hernandarias Jirau Rondonia 44 Kaplan 3300 Porto Primavera Rosana/Sao Paulo 14 Kaplan 1540 Santo Antonio Porto Velho/Rondonia 44 Kaplan 3150 Serra da Mersa Minacu/Goias 3 Francis 1275 Sobradinho Bahia 6 Francis 1050 Tres Marias Tres Marias/ 6 Kaplan 387,6 Minas/Gerias Tucurui Tucuruı/Para 25 Francis 8125 Total 34293,63- Pakistan: Pakistan have an installed capacity of 21 000 MW. Distributed over many HEPP, in the table below we mention some of them., HEPP CITY Turbine Capacity Tarbela Tarbela 14 Francis 3478 Ghazi-Barotha Indus 5 Francis 1450 Mangla Mangla 10 1050 Neelum-Jhelum Muzaffarabad 4 Francis 969 Kalabagh Kalabagh/Mian Wali district 12 Francis 3600 Diamer-Bhasha Gilgit/Baltistan 12 Francis 4500 Total 15047 HEPP Systems and components: 1. Intake Arrangement Storage Reservoir Diversion Structure or Spillway De-silting Basin trash Rack
Gates2. Water Conductor SystemPower Channel/DuctTunnelSurge Shaft or Surge TankDrop ShaftPressure ShaftPenstock with Penstock Protection Valve (Butterfly Valve)3. Power HouseA. (Mechanical Component)Distributor / Spiral CasingSpherical Valve or Main Inlet ValveTurbineEOT CraneB. (Electrical Component)GeneratorTransformerSwitchyardTransmission LineC. (Powerhouse Auxiliaries)Cooling water systemCompressed Air SystemDe-watering SystemDrainage SystemAir Conditioning SystemControl & Monitoring SystemFire Protection System.ADVANTAGES 1. No pollution or waste produced 2. Renewable energy source 3. Very reliable energy source 4. Not expensive to maintain once the dam has been built 5. Can increase the plants production or decrease it whenever there is high or low demand 6. Water can be stored, waiting to be used in peak times
DISADVANTAGES 1. Building the dam is expensive and time taking 2. The dam will change the habitat and landscape upstream, as much more land will be submersed 3. The land below the dam is also affected as the flow of water is reduced 4. Silt can build up in the dam as the water slows down it does not have enough energy to carry the sand and silt which it was(http://library.thinkquest.org/06aug/01335/hydroelectric.htm).