Jonathan Vottsel "Transport infrastructure planning"


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Jonathan Vottsel "Transport infrastructure planning"

  1. 1. What is transit oriented development (TOD)? Mixed-use development in TOD areas ▪  The objective of transit oriented development (TOD) is to create highly livable communities around transit stations that will maximize value for the residents, employees, city government, and organizations involved in the development Last Modified 05/12/13 17:19 Russian Standard Time Successful TOD defined ▪  Transit oriented development has Printed 12/11/13 1:16 Russian Standard Time several notable characteristics: High density of TOD areas –  Located within ~800m (~10 min walk) from the mass transit station –  Moderate to high density development –  Mix of residential, office, retail and public development –  Designed primarily for pedestrians without excluding the automobile McKinsey & Company | 1
  2. 2. Transit oriented development has significant impact on the city’s livability and increases real estate prices in the area… Detailed further Economy and transport Environment ▪  ▪  ▪  ▪  ▪  ▪  Typical real estate price premiums Price/sqm without access to transit1 Premium for transit access and higher density 100% 30-60% Premium for livability, safety, etc. 15-30% Lower crime and accident rates More livable and inclusive community Price/sqm in TOD areas Reduced CO2 emissions Reduced noise levels Reduced fuel consumption Higher energy and materials usage efficiency Examples of specific price premiums: ▪  Residential housing typically increases in price by ~2,5% per floor as you move up ▪  Typical premium for close proximity to a wellmaintained park or green zone is 10-15% ▪  Pedestrian-friendly design premiums were found to be in a range of 4-15% 150-200% 1 Transit access is defined as 10 min walking proximity (~800m) to a transit station McKinsey & Company | 2 Printed 12/11/13 1:16 Russian Standard Time Society Positive effects ▪  Shorter commuting time and better access to transit ▪  Lower car usage and increased transit ridership ▪  Higher real estate prices ▪  Improved business attractiveness of the area ▪  Higher property taxes Real estate price growth is typical after ToD is implemented Last Modified 05/12/13 17:19 Russian Standard Time TOD has positive effect on all key aspects of community life
  3. 3. … reducing car usage and transportation costs Auto Walk Good transit & mixed land use Good transit only Rest of region Transit 60% 25% 75% Housing Cost 5% 10% 15% 85% 90% 2% 8% 10% 3% 2% 5% 3% 2% Transportation Cost Low 1 walkability 17% 2 19% 3 15% 25% 4 30% High walkability 5 32% 16% 16% 13% 12% Conclusions: ▪  Residents of transit-oriented development areas (with transit access, mixed land use, and walkable environment) drive less and rely more on alternative modes of transport ▪  Although they have lower transportation costs, the transportation and housing costs combined are higher for TOD areas, which reflects an overall higher quality of life enjoyed by the residents McKinsey & Company | 3 Printed 12/11/13 1:16 Russian Standard Time Rest of county Bike Share of household income spent on housing and transportation by walkability level Last Modified 05/12/13 17:19 Russian Standard Time Modal split by level of transit access and type of land use (example of Portland, Oregon)
  4. 4. There are 8 core principles supported by quantitative metrics that differentiate TOD-projects from traditional development Principles of TOD Performance objectives ▪  ▪  The development is in an existing urban area Short distances make travelling through the city convenient ▪  High-quality transit is accessible by foot ▪  Residential and job densities support high-quality transit and local services ▪  The area of land occupied by motor vehicles is minimized ▪  ▪  Trip lengths are reduced by providing diverse and complementary uses Short commutes for lower-income groups ▪  ▪  The cycling network is safe and complete Cycle parking and storage is ample and secure ▪  ▪  ▪  The pedestrian network is safe and complete The pedestrian realm is active and vibrant The pedestrian realm is temperate and comfortable Best practice level, e.g., ▪  Hammarby Sjöstad in Stockholm, Sweden ▪  Västra Hamnen in Malmö, Sweden ▪  Vauban in Freiburg im Brisgau, Germany McKinsey & Company | 4 Printed 12/11/13 1:16 Russian Standard Time Walking and cycling routes are short, direct, and varied Walking and cycling routes are shorter than motor vehicle routes Last Modified 05/12/13 17:19 Russian Standard Time ▪  ▪ 
  5. 5. Based on these metrics transit stations areas around the globe could be easily compared and improvement levers identified Last Modified 05/12/13 17:19 Russian Standard Time Printed 12/11/13 1:16 Russian Standard Time Best score in Moscow : 37 (Lubyanka station area) World best practice – ~100 (Hammarby Sjöstad in Stockholm) McKinsey & Company | 5
  6. 6. TOD metrics could be linked to core output KPIs like property value, vehicles kilometers travelled, CO2 emissions and transit ridership Th. RUR per m2 Value/Impact Average price per square meter in Moscow Comment Price based on ~40,000 property offers available for Moscow 240 Impact of building/flat related criteria 530 Building material 40 Presence of Balcony Increase in size of property (for flats larger than120 m2) Change from “Basic” to “Premium” Change from “No” to “Yes” Increase of property size by 10% 5 620 Reduction of commuting time to city center by 10% 410 Shift: Lower share of On-street Parking and Traffic Area 370 Walk: Higher share of Walkways 170 Densify: Higher Residential density 100 Transit: Access to metro Reduction of parameter by 10% Reduction of parameter by 10% Reduction of parameter by 10% Change from “No” to “Yes” Mix: Accessibility to Food 40 Change from “No” to “Yes” Mix: Access to shopping mall 30 Change from “No” to “Yes” Connect: Prioritized Connectivity (Higher Share of pedestrian/cycle inersections) 30 Reduction of parameter by 10% McKinsey & Company | 6 Printed 12/11/13 1:16 Russian Standard Time Impact of TOD/area-related criteria (selected criteria) Compact: Shorter commute Last Modified 05/12/13 17:19 Russian Standard Time Indicator PROPERTY VALUE EXAMPLE