Introduction to Six SigmaMohammad Mostafizur RahmanProcess Support, COP                             March 11, 2012   1
OutlineSix Sigma history.Quality Management Quality Costs TQM.Six Sigma Definition.COPQ Vs Six Sigma.Process and Data...
Benefits achieved by Companies                                 March 11, 2012   3
Quality          March 11, 2012   4
Dimensions of Quality     Quality of a product or service is measured by eight dimensions                                 ...
Dimensions of Quality   Performance : Main features like for a car Engine HP, Gear, Speed   etc                           ...
Dimensions of Quality   Features : Supplementary features like for a car Seat Covers, Color   etc                         ...
Dimensions of Quality   Reliability : Probability of a product or service malfunction or failing   within a specified time...
Dimensions of Quality   Conformance: Meeting established standards.                                                 March ...
Dimensions of Quality   Durable: Measure of product life. Amount of time a product can be   used.                         ...
Dimensions of Quality   Serviceability: easy of repair, Availability of services, duration and   cost of to repair.       ...
Dimensions of Quality   Aesthetics: Objective dimension of quality. How a product will be   rated on the ground of persona...
Dimensions of Quality   Perceived: Perceived Quality refers to what consumers perceive to   be the quality of a product ba...
Quality Control Vs Quality Assurance                                       March 11, 2012   14
Quality Management System                            March 11, 2012   15
Quality Management System                            March 11, 2012   16
Steps in Quality Management                           Identify Quality Requirement      Plan Quality                     ...
Cost of QualityCost Incurred to prevent nonconformance to thequality over the life cycle of a product.        Internal Fai...
Cost of Poor Quality                       March 11, 2012   19
Total Quality Management (TQM)all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services and t...
Definition             March 11, 2012   21
DefinitionSix Sigma is a rigorous and a systematic methodology that utilizesinformation (management by facts) and statisti...
Definition             March 11, 2012   23
Philosophy             March 11, 2012   24
COPQ Vs Sigma Level                      March 11, 2012   25
Process          March 11, 2012   26
Data Analysis                March 11, 2012   27
Six Sigma TTDesign of Experiment       SIPOCRegression Analysis        Voice Of CustomerControl Chart                     ...
Kano ModelThe Kano Model is used to visually model the customer provided characteristics versus thelevel of satisifaction ...
Kano Model             March 11, 2012   30
FMEAA failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a procedure in productdevelopment and operations management for analysi...
FMEAFailure       The loss of an intended function of a device under stated conditions.Failure mode       The manner by wh...
FMEA       March 11, 2012   33
Example FMEA Worksheet                                                      FMEA                                          ...
Example FMEA Worksheet                                FMEA  Step 1: Occurrence  In this step it is necessary to look at th...
Example FMEA Worksheet                                                  FMEA  Step 2: Severity    failure modes are: Elect...
Example FMEA Worksheet                                       FMEA  Step 3: Detection    The assigned detection number meas...
Example FMEA Worksheet                              FMEA  Risk priority number (RPN)   After ranking the severity, occurre...
Process Definition and Improvement                               March 11, 2012   39
Process Definition and Improvement                               March 11, 2012   40
Defect opportunity and DPO                             March 11, 2012   41
Defect opportunity and DPO                             March 11, 2012   42
Six Sigma Math  Variance  Mode               Deviation                                              Range         Standard...
Calculation of Std.                      March 11, 2012   44
Calculation of Std.                      March 11, 2012   45
Calculation of Std.                      March 11, 2012   46
Calculation of Std.                      March 11, 2012   47
Calculation of Std.                      March 11, 2012   48
Probability Distribution                           March 11, 2012   49
Limits         Under Normal Distribution 99.7 %           outcome will fall under 3 Std                   Deviation       ...
Limits         March 11, 2012   51
Six Sigma Process                    March 11, 2012   52
Process Shift                March 11, 2012   53
Sigma Vs DPMO                March 11, 2012   54
Six Sigma Approach                     March 11, 2012   55
Implement Six sigma                                               Strategic planning helps us “focus”                     ...
Application Area                      Service                                    Design      Management                   ...
Trainings            March 11, 2012   58
Q&A      March 11, 2012   59
Six sigma
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Six sigma

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Six sigma

  1. 1. Introduction to Six SigmaMohammad Mostafizur RahmanProcess Support, COP March 11, 2012 1
  2. 2. OutlineSix Sigma history.Quality Management Quality Costs TQM.Six Sigma Definition.COPQ Vs Six Sigma.Process and Data analysis.Six Sigma Tools and Techniques.Process Define and Improve.Defects and DPMO.Six Sigma Math.Specification and Control Limits.Sigma Vs DPMO.Six Sigma Belts. March 11, 2012 2
  3. 3. Benefits achieved by Companies March 11, 2012 3
  4. 4. Quality March 11, 2012 4
  5. 5. Dimensions of Quality Quality of a product or service is measured by eight dimensions March 11, 2012 5
  6. 6. Dimensions of Quality Performance : Main features like for a car Engine HP, Gear, Speed etc March 11, 2012 6
  7. 7. Dimensions of Quality Features : Supplementary features like for a car Seat Covers, Color etc March 11, 2012 7
  8. 8. Dimensions of Quality Reliability : Probability of a product or service malfunction or failing within a specified time period. March 11, 2012 8
  9. 9. Dimensions of Quality Conformance: Meeting established standards. March 11, 2012 9
  10. 10. Dimensions of Quality Durable: Measure of product life. Amount of time a product can be used. March 11, 2012 10
  11. 11. Dimensions of Quality Serviceability: easy of repair, Availability of services, duration and cost of to repair. March 11, 2012 11
  12. 12. Dimensions of Quality Aesthetics: Objective dimension of quality. How a product will be rated on the ground of personal choice. How it feels, Sounds, Smells etc. March 11, 2012 12
  13. 13. Dimensions of Quality Perceived: Perceived Quality refers to what consumers perceive to be the quality of a product based on image, advertising, and brand name reputation March 11, 2012 13
  14. 14. Quality Control Vs Quality Assurance March 11, 2012 14
  15. 15. Quality Management System March 11, 2012 15
  16. 16. Quality Management System March 11, 2012 16
  17. 17. Steps in Quality Management Identify Quality Requirement Plan Quality Define Standards. Audit Quality Requirement.Perform Quality Ensure Appropriate Quality StandardsAssurance are used Monitoring , recording result of Perform Quality Control execution. Recommend necessary change. March 11, 2012 17
  18. 18. Cost of QualityCost Incurred to prevent nonconformance to thequality over the life cycle of a product. Internal Failure Cost Rework. Scrap. External Failure Cost Prevention Cost Liabilities. Training. Warranty work. Doc Processing. Lost of business. Equipment. Time to do right. Appraisal Costs Testing. Inspection. March 11, 2012 18
  19. 19. Cost of Poor Quality March 11, 2012 19
  20. 20. Total Quality Management (TQM)all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services and theculture in which they work.management approach to long–term success through customer satisfaction. A core concept in implementing TQM is Deming’s 14 points, a set of management practices to help companies increase their quality and productivity: Create constancy of purpose for improving products and services. Adopt the new philosophy. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. End the practice of awarding business on price alone; instead, minimize total cost by working with a single supplier. Improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production and service. Institute training on the job. Adopt and institute leadership. Drive out fear. Break down barriers between staff areas. Eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets for the workforce. Eliminate numerical quotas for the workforce and numerical goals for management. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship, and eliminate the annual rating or merit system. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement for everyone. Put everybody in the company to work accomplishing the transformation. March 11, 2012 20
  21. 21. Definition March 11, 2012 21
  22. 22. DefinitionSix Sigma is a rigorous and a systematic methodology that utilizesinformation (management by facts) and statistical analysis to measureand improve a companys operational performance, practices andsystems by identifying and preventing defects in manufacturing andservice-related processes in order to anticipate and exceed expectationsof all stakeholders to accomplish effectiveness. March 11, 2012 22
  23. 23. Definition March 11, 2012 23
  24. 24. Philosophy March 11, 2012 24
  25. 25. COPQ Vs Sigma Level March 11, 2012 25
  26. 26. Process March 11, 2012 26
  27. 27. Data Analysis March 11, 2012 27
  28. 28. Six Sigma TTDesign of Experiment SIPOCRegression Analysis Voice Of CustomerControl Chart Kano ModelRan Chart Technological AdvancementSensitivity Analysis Rewarding and RecognitionCause and Effect DiagramHistogram, Pareto ChartFlow ChartProcess AnalysisBenchmarking March 11, 2012 28
  29. 29. Kano ModelThe Kano Model is used to visually model the customer provided characteristics versus thelevel of satisifaction each characteristic delivers. It is used after gathering the Voice of theCustomer (VOC) phase. It is often used in A DFSS project and works with Quality FunctionalDeployment (QFD).Objective:Gather all the customer to deliver the most satisfying product, process, or service.•Dissatisfying - annoying features - avoided characteristics•Mandatory expectations - basics - must have characteristics•Customer needs - reasonable expectations - performing features•Delighters - surprise - innovators - unexpected featuresIt is a graphical model that shows the relationship between each characteristic to the levelof customer satisfaction.It is used to organize and prioritize activities to design and/or improve. March 11, 2012 29
  30. 30. Kano Model March 11, 2012 30
  31. 31. FMEAA failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a procedure in productdevelopment and operations management for analysis of potential failure modeswithin a system for classification by the severity and likelihood of the failures. Asuccessful FMEA activity helps a team to identify potential failure modes basedon past experience with similar products or processes, enabling the team todesign those failures out of the system with the minimum of effort and resourceexpenditure, thereby reducing development time and costs. It is widely used inmanufacturing industries in various phases of the product life cycle and is nowincreasingly finding use in the service industry. Failure modes are any errors ordefects in a process, design, or item, especially those that affect thecustomer, and can be potential or actual. Effects analysis refers to studying theconsequences of those failures. March 11, 2012 31
  32. 32. FMEAFailure The loss of an intended function of a device under stated conditions.Failure mode The manner by which a failure is observed; it generally describes the way the failure occurs.Failure effect Immediate consequences of a failure on operation, function or functionality, or status of some itemIndenture levels An identifier for item complexity. Complexity increases as levels are closer to one.Local effect The failure effect as it applies to the item under analysis.Next higher level effect The failure effect as it applies at the next higher indenture level.End effect The failure effect at the highest indenture level or total system.Failure cause Defects in design, process, quality, or part application, which are the underlying cause of the failure or which initiate a process which leads to failure.Severity The consequences of a failure mode. Severity considers the worst potential consequence of a failure, determined by the degree of injury, property damage, or system damage that could ultimately occur. March 11, 2012 32
  33. 33. FMEA March 11, 2012 33
  34. 34. Example FMEA Worksheet FMEA Respon Potenti RPN Potenti S Potenti O D CRIT sibility Item / al Current (risk al (severit al (occurr (detecti (critical Recommend and Action New New New New Functio Effects control priority Failure y Cause( ence on charact ed actions target taken S O D RPN n of s number mode rating) s) rating) rating) eristic complet Failure ) ion date Perform cost Fill level analysis of timeout High sensor adding Liquid based Jane level failed additional spills on on time Doe Fill tub sensor 8 level 2 5 N 80 sensor custom to fill to 10-June- never sensor halfway er floor low 2011 trips disconn between low level ected and high level sensor sensors March 11, 2012 34
  35. 35. Example FMEA Worksheet FMEA Step 1: Occurrence In this step it is necessary to look at the cause of a failure mode and the number of times it occurs Rating Meaning No known occurrences on 1 similar products or processes 2/3 Low (relatively few failures) Moderate (occasional 4/5/6 failures) 7/8 High (repeated failures) Very high (failure is almost 9/10 inevitable) March 11, 2012 35
  36. 36. Example FMEA Worksheet FMEA Step 2: Severity failure modes are: Electrical short-circuiting, corrosion or deformation. A failure mode in one component can lead to a failure mode in another component, therefore each failure mode should be listed in technical terms and for function. Hereafter the ultimate effect of each failure mode needs to be considered. A failure effect is defined as the result of a failure mode on the function of the system as perceived by the user. Rating Meaning 1 No effect 2 Very minor (only noticed by discriminating customers) 3 Minor (affects very little of the system, noticed by average customer) 4/5/6 Moderate (most customers are annoyed) 7/8 High (causes a loss of primary function; customers are dissatisfied) Very high and hazardous (product becomes inoperative; customers angered; the failure may result 9/10 unsafe operation and possible injury) March 11, 2012 36
  37. 37. Example FMEA Worksheet FMEA Step 3: Detection The assigned detection number measures the risk that the failure will escape detection. A high detection number indicates that the chances are high that the failure will escape detection, or in other words, that the chances of detection are low. Rating Meaning 1 Certain - fault will be caught on test 2 Almost Certain 3 High 4/5/6 Moderate 7/8 Low 9/10 Fault will be passed to customer undetected March 11, 2012 37
  38. 38. Example FMEA Worksheet FMEA Risk priority number (RPN) After ranking the severity, occurrence and detectability the RPN can be easily calculated by multiplying these three numbers: RPN = S × O × D March 11, 2012 38
  39. 39. Process Definition and Improvement March 11, 2012 39
  40. 40. Process Definition and Improvement March 11, 2012 40
  41. 41. Defect opportunity and DPO March 11, 2012 41
  42. 42. Defect opportunity and DPO March 11, 2012 42
  43. 43. Six Sigma Math Variance Mode Deviation Range Standard Median Deviation Mean Range March 11, 2012 43
  44. 44. Calculation of Std. March 11, 2012 44
  45. 45. Calculation of Std. March 11, 2012 45
  46. 46. Calculation of Std. March 11, 2012 46
  47. 47. Calculation of Std. March 11, 2012 47
  48. 48. Calculation of Std. March 11, 2012 48
  49. 49. Probability Distribution March 11, 2012 49
  50. 50. Limits Under Normal Distribution 99.7 % outcome will fall under 3 Std Deviation March 11, 2012 50
  51. 51. Limits March 11, 2012 51
  52. 52. Six Sigma Process March 11, 2012 52
  53. 53. Process Shift March 11, 2012 53
  54. 54. Sigma Vs DPMO March 11, 2012 54
  55. 55. Six Sigma Approach March 11, 2012 55
  56. 56. Implement Six sigma Strategic planning helps us “focus” on key projects to reach our Vision.Process Management helps us maintain good results as we perform our Strategic Process Improvement Mission. Planning using the DMAIC process helps us fix work problems and improve our Six Sigma Performance. Process Process Management ImprovementTo be successful as an organization, we must learn how to effectively apply ALL three (3) areas. March 11, 2012 56
  57. 57. Application Area Service Design Management PurchaseAdministration Six Sigma Methods Production IT Quality Depart. HRM M&S March 11, 2012 57
  58. 58. Trainings March 11, 2012 58
  59. 59. Q&A March 11, 2012 59

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